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Further Experiments on the Effect of Bulk In-Cylinder Temperature in the Pressurized Motoring Setup Using Argon Mixtures

Jaguar & Land Rover-Gilbert Sammut
University of Malta-Carl Caruana, Mario Farrugia
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1063
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Mechanical friction and heat transfer in internal combustion engines have long been studied through both experimental and numerical simulation. This publication presents a continuation study on a Pressurized Motoring setup, which was presented in SAE paper 2018-01-0121 and found to offer robust measurements at relatively low investment and running cost. Apart from the limitation that the peak in-cylinder pressure occurs around 1 DegCA BTDC, the pressurized motoring method is often criticized on the fact that the gas temperatures in motoring are much lower than that in fired engines, hence might reflect in a different FMEP measurement. In the work presented in SAE paper 2019-01-0930, Argon was used as the pressurization gas due to its high ratio of specific heats. This allowed to achieve higher peak in-cylinder temperatures which close further the gap between fired and motored mechanical friction tests. In 2019-24-0141, Argon was mixed in different proportions with Air to synthesize gases with different ratios of specific heats in the aim of observing any abrupt transitions in the FMEP with different peak in-cylinder temperatures. In…
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Predictive Breakdown Modelling for Spark Plug Design

Caterpillar Inc-Jay Cress
Esgee Technologies-Ashish Sharma, Douglas Breden
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0781
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The lifetime of a spark plug is often limited by the ability of a spark plug to generate spark as the plug erodes and deforms. Many parameters including the spark plug gap distance, geometric features such as corners, and the gas itself influence the breakdown event. In order to asses the viability of a spark plug design, the most ideal solution is to perform full fidelity plasma simulations for each design configuration. However, these simulations are extremely expensive and take a long time to give meaningful results. Thus, there is a need for a fast spark plug breakdown model which can predict the breakdown effectiveness for a large number of spark plug design configurations over a much shorter period of time, narrowing the range of spark plug design which can then be studied using a higher fidelity plasma simulation tool. The objective of this work is to describe a fast, predictive breakdown model to simulate the effectiveness of different spark plug configurations. A spark discharge is preceded by a transient filamentary plasma called a streamer…

Thermal behavior of aircraft gas turbine blades under different internal cooling conditions

Federal Institute of Espírito Santo - IFES-L. P. Borlini, T. V. Caniçali, L. N. Santos, J. A. Coelho, I. M. Minchio, F. A. F. Monhol
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0212
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
Gas turbines are high value-added equipment due to their compact construction, lower weight and high power compared to traditional internal combustion engines. This equipment is subject to high mechanical demands, high temperatures, corrosive and erosive environments, which certainly have a direct influence on its performance. Thus, with the increasing demands of the aerospace industry, it became necessary to use devices to improve their efficiency, such as internal cooling systems and insulation layers. However, a detailed knowledge of the operational variables is necessary in order to define the appropriate internal cooling conditions of the equipment. Thus, the present work aims to analyze, through computational simulations using the finite difference method in its two-dimensional form, the temperature distribution and the heat transfer rate of gas turbine blades under different thermal conditions. The temperature of the hot gas flowing through the blades, as well as the flow and temperature of the cooling air that passes through their internal channels, were varied in order to obtain the influence of each of these factors on the thermal behavior of the…
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Prediction of Cavitation Erosion Intensity Using Large-Scale Diesel Nozzles

SAE International Journal of Advances and Current Practices in Mobility

DENSO CORPORATION-Toshiaki Hijima, Kazufumi Serizawa
SOKEN, INC.-Motoya Kambara, Takanobu Aochi, Fumiaki Arikawa
  • Journal Article
  • 2019-01-2278
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
In the field of heavy-duty diesel engines, which require lifetime durability and high fuel efficiency, there is a growing demand for increased injection pressure and increased flow rate inside injection holes. This trend makes it important to prevent cavitation erosion of injector nozzles. This paper aims to clarify the relation between cavitation behavior and erosion damage experimentally by visualizing the flow inside diesel nozzles and to establish a new method for predicting cavitation erosion. To visualize internal flow, authors used the large-scale transparent nozzle whose Reynolds number and Cavitation number were matched with those of the actual real-size nozzle. Direct observation showed that the form of the cavitation changed from string-type cavitation to film-type cavitation with increasing needle lift. In addition, comparison between the locations where cavitation bubbles collapse and the locations where erosion occurs suggested that collapse of the film-type cavitation at high needle lift contributed significantly to the erosion damage. Furthermore, it is found that the location and intensity of erosion can be predicted by calculating the local quantity of film-type cavitation collapse.
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Prediction of Hydraulic Cavitation Using 1D Simulation

John Deere India Pvt. Ltd.-Vinit Jawale, Ameya Bandekar
VJTI-Pritam Shinde, Addanki Rao
Published 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
Hydraulic Cavitation is, in many cases, an undesirable occurrence. It is the formation and collapse of air cavities in liquid. In hydraulic devices such as pumps, motors, etc. cavitation causes a great deal of noise, local erosion, damage to components, vibrations, increases oil contamination and a loss of efficiency. There is already established process of predicting cavitation using 3D simulation software. However, the model development is the time-consuming process as well as prediction process is component /subsystem level and cannot be done for various duty cycle operations at architecture level. That requires exploring our research in 1D simulation technique for prediction of cavitation. In this research, we have developed and implemented a methodology/mathematical model for the prediction of hydraulic cavitation in hydraulic system using a 1D simulation technique. For simulation purpose, we have taken an example of simple hydraulic system and predicted the cavitation in one of the component/subsystem of hydraulic system for ambient conditions. The mathematical model proposed based on mass transport equations of vapor, liquid and gas, Rayleigh-Plesset equations, Singhal model and bubble…
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Hybrid Ultra-Low VOC and Non-HAP Rain Erosion Coatings

Aerospace & Defense Technology: August 2019

  • Magazine Article
  • 19AERP08_12
Published 2019-08-01 by SAE International in United States

Developing a rapid-curing rain erosion coating based on a unique glycidyl carbamate (GC) hybrid resin chemistry that offers rapid reactivity and adhesion combined with the erosion, flexibility, weathering and mechanical properties of polyurethane systems.

Numerous military aircraft and shipboard surfaces, such as radomes, antennas, gun shields, wing leading edges, and helicopter blade leading edges, are coated with a specialized erosion-resistant protective coating possessing strict performance requirements. These protective coatings must provide excellent rain erosion resistance, superior mechanical properties, good adhesion to the substrate and meet a host of other metrics outlined in MIL-PRF-32239 and SAE AMS-C- 83231A.

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Semi-Empirical Modelling of Erosion Phenomena for Ice Crystal Icing Numerical Simulation

SAE International Journal of Advances and Current Practices in Mobility

ONERA-Virgile Charton, Pierre Trontin, Philippe Villedieu
SAFRAN Aircraft Engines-Gilles Aouizerate
  • Journal Article
  • 2019-01-1967
Published 2019-06-10 by SAE International in United States
The aim of this work is to develop a semi-empirical model for erosion phenomena under ice crystal condition, which is one of the major phenomena for ice crystal accretion. Such a model would be able to calculate the erosion rate caused by impinging ice crystals on accreted ice layer.This model is based on Finnie [1] and Bitter [2] [3] solid/solid collision theory which assumes that metal erosion due to sand impingement is driven by two phenomena: cutting wear and deformation wear. These two phenomena are strongly dependent on the particle density, velocity and shape, as well as on the surface physical properties such as Young modulus, Poisson ratio, surface yield strength and hardness. Moreover, cutting wear is mostly driven by tangential velocity and is more effective for ductile eroded body, whereas deformation wear is driven by normal velocity and is more effective for brittle eroded body. Several researchers based their erosion modelling on these two phenomena such as Hutchings et al. [4] for deformation erosion, or Huang et al. [5] and Arabnejad et al. [6]…
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Event-Driven Simulation of Particle-Particle and Particle-Surface Collisions in Ice Crystal Icing

ICI Physics-Thomas Charles Currie
Published 2019-06-10 by SAE International in United States
This paper describes an event-driven simulation tool for predicting particle-particle and particle-surface interactions in ice crystal icing (ICI). A new accretion model which is much less empirical than existing models for predicting ICI accretion is also described. Unlike previous models, the new “gouge/bounce model” (GBM) differentiates between (erosion) losses resulting from particle bounce and those resulting from particle gouging. A bounce threshold based on the tangential Stokes number is used to calculate most of the bounce loss. The GBM also predicts ejecta velocities and directions, at least approximately, which is important because most of the mixed-phase mass flux impacting a surface actually bounces off or erodes existing material in ICI, thereby increasing the mass flux downstream. The event-driven simulation tool, denoted COLLIDE, has been applied to two test cases in which accretion growth appeared to be affected by TWC in a manner beyond that which would be expected from the accumulation parameters. An existing correlation-based accretion model (CBM), modified to predict erosion dependence on particle diameter, is also implemented and applied to the test cases.…
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An Experimental Study to Evaluate the Droplet Impinging Erosion Characteristics of an Icephobic, Elastic Soft Surface

Iowa State University-Liqun Ma, Zichen Zhang, Yang Liu, Hui Hu
Published 2019-06-10 by SAE International in United States
Elastic soft material/surface, such as Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), is a perspective, useful and low-cost hydrophobic and icephobic coating. While it has been reported to have good mechanical durability, its erosion durability under the high impacting of water droplets pertinent to aircraft inflight icing phenomena has not been explored. In this study, the droplet imping erosion characteristics of an icephobic PDMS surface/material is evaluated systematically upon the dynamic impinging of water droplets at different impact velocities (~ up to 75m/s), in comparison with other state-of-the-art icephobic materials/surfaces, such as superhydrophobic surface (SHS) and slippery liquid-infused porous surface (SLIPS). Surprisingly, the contact angle (CA) of the elastic PDMS is shown to have an over 20° increase (from 105° to 128°), which represents better hydrophobicity, after the erosion test which is mainly contributed to the higher roughness of the eroded PDMS surface. As for the icephobicity evaluation, intact PDMS was found to has ultra-low ice adhesion (~8 kPa), in comparison with SHS (i.e., ~100kPa) and SLIPS (i.e., ~35kPa). PDMS also shows outstandingly stable ice adhesion during the erosion test…
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High-Fidelity Numerical Modeling of Spark Plug Erosion

Esgee Technologies-Douglas Breden, Anand Karpatne, Kenta Suzuki
University of Texas-Laxminarayan Raja
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Spark plug erosion is critical in determining the overall efficiency of a spark ignition engine. Over its lifetime, a spark plug is subject to millions of firings. Each spark event results in material erosion due to several mechanisms such as melting, vaporization, sputtering and oxidation. With electrode wear, the inter-electrode spacing increases and a larger voltage difference is required to initiate the spark. The probability of engine misfires also increases with electrode erosion. Once a critical gap is reached, the energy in the ignition coil is not enough to cause a spark breakdown, and the spark plug must be replaced. Due to the long relevant time scales over which erosion occurs, and the difficulty of analyzing the spark plug environment during operation, determining spark plug lifetime typically requires extensive field testing. A high fidelity commercial thermal plasma solver, VizSpark is used simulate electrode erosion due to spark events. The model preserves key arc physics such as current conservation, conjugate heat transfer, fluid flow and electrode ablation. The solution framework includes the capability of coupling high…
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