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LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT OF A PASSENGER VEHICLE TO ANALYSE THE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS USING CRADLE TO GRAVE APPROACH

Mahindra Research Valley-Rahul Lalwani, Saravanan N, Arunmozhi veeraputhiran, ILAVARASI D
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2581
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
OBJECTIVE: Climate change is primary driver in the current discussions on CO2 reduction in the automotive industry. Current Type approval emissions tests (BS III, BS IV) covers only tailpipe emissions, however the emissions produced in upstream and downstream processes (e.g. Raw material sourcing, manufacturing, transportation, vehicle usage, recycle phases) are not considered in the evaluation. The objective of this project is to assess the environmental impact of the product considering all stages of the life cycle, understand the real opportunities to reduce environmental impact across the product life cycle. METHODOLOGY: As a part of environmental sustainability journey in business value chain, Life-cycle assessment (LCA) technique helps to understand the environmental impact categories. To measure overall impact, a cradle to grave approach helps to assess entire life cycle impact throughout various stages. LCA is a technique to assess environmental impacts associated with all the stages of a product's life from raw material extraction through materials processing, manufacture, distribution, use, repair & maintenance, disposal or recycling. A study was conducted on a passenger vehicle for life cycle…
 

Design of Experiments for Effects and Interactions during Brake Emissions Testing Using High-Fidelity Computational Fluid Dynamics

Link Engineering Company-Carlos Agudelo, Ravi Teja Vedula
University of Michigan-Jesse Capecelatro, Qingquan Wang
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2139
To be published on 2019-09-15 by SAE International in United States
The investigation and measurement of particle emissions from foundation brakes require the use of a special adaptation of inertia dynamometer test systems. To have proper measurements for particle mass and particle number, the sampling system needs to minimize transport losses and reduce residence times inside the brake enclosure. Existing models and spreadsheets estimate key transport losses (diffusion, turbophoretic, contractions, gravitational, bends, and sampling isokinetics). A significant limitation of such models is that they cannot assess the turbulent flow and associated particle dynamics inside the brake enclosure; which are anticipated to be important. This paper presents a Design of Experiments (DOE) approach using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) to predict the flow within a dynamometer enclosure under relevant operating conditions. The systematic approach allows the quantification of turbulence intensity, mean velocity profiles, and residence times. The factors of the DOE include: a) airflow level, b) brake size, c) rotor style, d) caliper position, e) brake rotation, f) brake rotational speed, and g) fixture style. Numerical simulations are performed using NGA, a high-order, multi-physics large-eddy simulation code. Particles…
 

Analysis of the Emission Conversion Performance of Gasoline Particulate Filters Over Lifetime

Corning GmbH-Dominik Rose, Thorsten Boger
FEV Europe GmbH-Christof Schernus, Michael Görgen, Jim Cox, Martin Nijs, Johannes Scharf
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-24-0156
To be published on 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
Gasoline particulate filters (GPF) recently entered the market, and are already regarded a state-of-the-art solution for gasoline exhaust aftertreatment systems to enable EU6d-TEMP fulfilment and beyond. Due to their rapid market introduction, extensive field experience with GPFs is not yet available. Especially for four-way catalytic converters, the prognosis of the emission conversion performance over lifetime poses an ambitious challenge, which significantly influences future catalyst diagnosis calibrations. In the first part of the paper, experimental GPF ash loading results are presented. Since most of the ash accumulated in the filter results from the combustion of lubricating oil additives, a burner test bench with a purpose-designed oil injection system was chosen for the investigations. The analysis of the backpressure results show that, contrary to high soot loadings, the ash load has a relatively low impact on engine performance and fuel consumption. Regarding the filtration efficiency over time, there is discrepancy between the results obtained during a “COP” (conformity of production) test and the measured values after a run-in mileage of 3,000 km that is required for the…
 
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CRIMPING TOOLS, TYPE 1, TERMINAL, HAND, WIRE TERMINATION FOR WIRE BARREL SIZES 20 THROUGH 28

AE-8C2 Terminating Devices and Tooling Committee
  • Aerospace Standard
  • AS22520/2A
  • Current
Published 2019-07-08 by SAE International in United States
No Abstract Available.
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Design of Catalyzed Gasoline Particulate Filter (cGPF) and Investigation of Its Durability Performance Using Accelerated Engine Aging

Afton Chemical (Suzhou) Co. Ltd.-Danhua Yin, Yinhui Wang, Ke Jian Liang
Afton Chemical Corp.-Huifang Shao, Guillaume Carpentier, Joesph Remias, Joseph Roos
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Catalyzed gasoline particulate filters (cGPF) are one of the most effective emission control technologies for reducing gaseous and particulate emissions simultaneously. Successful adoption of this advanced technology relies on several important performance properties including low back pressure, high filtration efficiency and specially durability compliance. In this work using an underfloor cGPF, the backpressure control was achieved through optimizing catalyst coating technology and modifying the deposition profile of catalyst coating along GPF channels. Durability performance was demonstrated by using an accelerated engine aging method with selective blending of lubricating oils in fuel, which incorporates the aging mechanisms of thermal aging, ash loading, and soot accumulation/regeneration. The target durability demonstration represents 200,000 km real world operation. The durability performance was evaluated by a series of vehicle emission tests, and comparison with traditional thermal aging methods, such as GMAC-875°C. Additional characterization methods, such as Scanning Electron Microscopy/Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (SEM-EDS), X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) and backpressure measurement were applied to investigate the ash deposition profile inside cGPF and interaction with cGPF, and the properties of ash obtained from…
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System Level 1-D Analysis of an Air-System for a Heavy-Duty Gasoline Compression Ignition Engine

Aramco Research Center-Praveen Kumar, Yuanjiang Pei, Michael Traver
BorgWarner Turbo Systems-John Watson
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
A detailed study of various air system configurations has been conducted for a prototype gasoline compression ignition (GCI) engine using a Cummins MY2013 ISX15 heavy-duty diesel engine as the base platform. The study evaluated the configurations with the assumption that RON80 gasoline would be used as the fuel and the combustion chamber would have a geometric compression ratio (CR) of 16.5.Using 3-D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations, a high efficiency & low engine-out NOx GCI combustion recipe was developed across the five engine operating points from the heavy-duty Supplemental Emissions Test (SET) cycle: A100, B25, B50, B75, and C100. The CFD generated air-thermal boundary conditions and the combustion burn-rate & injector rate-of-injection profiles were imported into a calibrated 1-D engine model for the air-handling systems analysis. For the RON80 GCI concept, an engine-out NOx range 1-1.5 g/kWh was targeted and this drove a need for higher boost pressure and EGR rates with intake temperatures in the 65°C-70°C range. The production air system comprising a single stage turbocharger and a high-pressure exhaust gas recirculation (HPEGR) system…
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RDE Plus - The Development of a Road, Rig and Engine-in-the-Loop Test Methodology for Real Driving Emissions Compliance

HORIBA MIRA Ltd.-Philip John Roberts, Richard Mumby, Alex Mason, Lewis Redford-Knight, Prabhjot Kaur
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
The introduction of the Worldwide Harmonised Light Vehicles Test Procedure (WLTP) and Real Driving Emissions (RDE) test requirements have put increased strain on vehicle and engine performance as well as the development of advanced engine technologies and emissions mitigation strategies. This requirement for increased development is a direct result of the need for new vehicles to comply with present and emerging emissions standards across an extended range of boundary conditions that include ambient temperature, altitude and driving style.To reduce the significant number of on-road test permutations that would ordinarily be required to validate a given vehicle across the defined RDE boundary conditions, a Road to Rig (R2R) development approach known as RDE Plus (RDE+) is being evolved at HORIBA MIRA. This will enable real world driving scenarios to be developed and deployed much further upstream during the development lifecycle of the vehicle and engine using aspects of virtual calibration; the aim being to significantly reduce vehicle and engine development costs and associated timescales.On-road RDE data is presented in this paper from vehicles of different powertrain…
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Determination of Climatic Boundary Conditions for Vehicular Real Driving Emission Tests

Ashok Leyland Ltd.-Yoganandam Sriramulu, Senthil Kanagaraj, Manikandan R, Karthikeyan KJ
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Vehicular Emission testing is gaining importance over the past years in the wake of requirements for real driving emissions with implementation of RDE packages across Europe / USA and various developing countries.Extending the same concept for other countries poses slight challenges in terms of geographical and climatic conditions prevailing in the country, where the climatic conditions are differing from Europe / USA. It is a challenge to accept the same boundary conditions as in Europe, at the same time the challenge is to find a threshold number in a more scientific manner.This study concentrates on determination and recommendation of thresholds for ambient temperature and altitude. The basis for temperature threshold would be to determine the percentage of time the temperature exceeded beyond the threshold over year in the country. The basis for Altitude is considered based on the percentage of total length of roads beyond the threshold altitude limit. For both threshold limits, the base data are obtained from open source publicly available and the processing of the data to suit our requirements is the…
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Performance Requirements for SAE J844 Nonmetallic Air Brake Tubing and Push to Connect Fitting Assemblies Used in Vehicular Air Brake Systems

Air Brake Tubing and Tube Ftg Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J2494/3_201902
  • Current
Published 2019-02-21 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Standard is intended to establish uniform performance criteria and methods of testing push-to-connect tube fittings, with SAE J844 air brake tubing as used in vehicular air brake systems. The specific tests and performance criteria applicable to the tubing are set forth in SAE J844. The test values contained in this performance standard are for test purposes only. For environmental and usage limitations, refer to SAE J844.
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Optical Warning Devices for Authorized Emergency, Maintenance, and Service Vehicles

Emergency Warning Lights and Devices Standards Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J845_201902
  • Current
Published 2019-02-04 by SAE International in United States
This document provides design guidelines, test procedure references, and performance requirements for omnidirectional and selective coverage optical warning devices used on authorized emergency, maintenance, and service vehicles. It is intended to apply to, but is not limited to, surface land vehicles.
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