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Study of New HILS Test Method with Combination of the Virtual Hybrid Electric Powertrain Systems and the Engine Test Bench

National Traffic Safety and Environment Laboratory-Nobunori Okui, Masayuki Kobayashi
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2343
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
Fuel consumption rate (fuel economy) and exhaust gas emission regulations are being tightened around the world year by year. In Europe, the real driving emission (RDE) method for evaluating exhaust gas emitted from road-going vehicles was introduced after September 2017 for new types of light/medium-duty vehicles, in addition to the chassis dynamometer test using the worldwide harmonized light vehicles test procedure (WLTP). Further, the worldwide harmonized heavy-duty certification (WHDC) method was introduced after 2016 as an exhaust gas emission test method for heavy-duty vehicles. In each evaluation, the tests of vehicles and engines are initiated from cold states.Heavy-duty hybrid vehicles are evaluated using the vehicle simulation method. For example, the power characteristics of a engine model is obtained during engine warm operation. Therefore, various performances during cold start cannot be precisely evaluated by using simulator.In this study, we simultaneously control a real engine and vehicle simulation in real time, and examine a new evaluation technique for evaluating various performances by considering the engine temperature.
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A Study on the Performance Deterioration of SCR for Heavy-Duty Diesel Vehicles

Department of Automotive Engineering, Kookmin University-Seangwock Lee
Graduate School of Automotive Engineering, Kookmin Universit-Manjae Kwon, Giyoung Park, Hyunjae Lim, Jungjun Kim
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2235
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
In this study, a six litres displacement, commercial vehicle engine that meets the EURO-5 regulation was used to evaluate the durability and performance deterioration of the SCR system mounted on a heavy-duty diesel vehicle. ESC and ETC modes were used for emission test. Characteristics of emissions by SCR catalyst deterioration were investigated using mileage vehicles of 0 km, 120,000 km, and 360,000 km. EDS (Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy) analysis on PM filters and CT scan to catalyst substrate were carried out in order to investigate the status of catalyst by each mileage. As a result, it was found that NOX, slipped NH3 as well as PM due to unreacted ammonia and urea increased as the mileage of the catalyst increased.
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Numerical Optimization of Compression Ratio for a PPC Engine running on Methanol

Lund University-Erik Svensson, Sebastian Verhelst
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2168
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
Partially premixed combustion (PPC) has shown to produce high gross indicated efficiencies while yielding lower pollutant emissions, such as oxides of nitrogen and soot, than conventional diesel combustion. Gasoline fuels with a research octane number (RON) of 60-70 have been proposed as optimal for PPC as they balance the trade-off between ensuring good combustion stability at low engine loads and avoiding excessive peak pressure rise rates at high loads. However, measures have to be taken when optimizing the engine operating parameters to avoid soot emissions. In contrast, methanol has a much lower propensity for soot formation. However, due to a higher RON of methanol the required intake temperature is higher for the same engine compression ratio to ensure auto-ignition at an appropriate timing. Increasing the compression ratio allows a lower intake temperature and improves combustion stability as well as engine brake efficiency. Nevertheless, a higher compression ratio generally increases in-cylinder heat losses and peak pressure. These effects were investigated in a simulation study, which combined 0-D and 1-D models, of a multi-cylinder heavy-duty Scania D13…
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Life Cycle Assessment of a Passenger Vehicle to Analyze the Environmental Impacts Using Cradle to Grave Approach

Mahindra Research Valley-Rahul Lalwani, Saravanan N, Arunmozhi Veeraputhiran, IlavarasIi D
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2581
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Climate change is primary driver in the current discussions on CO2 reduction in the automotive industry. Current Type approval emissions tests (BS III, BS IV) covers only tailpipe emissions, however the emissions produced in upstream and downstream processes (e.g. raw material sourcing, manufacturing, transportation, vehicle usage, recycle phases) are not considered in the evaluation. The objective of this project is to assess the environmental impact of the product considering all stages of the life cycle, understand the real opportunities to reduce environmental impact across the product life cycle. As a part of environmental sustainability journey in business value chain, lifecycle assessment (LCA) technique helps to understand the environmental impact categories. To measure overall impact, a cradle to grave approach helps to assess entire life cycle impact throughout various stages. LCA is a technique to assess environmental impacts associated with all the stages of a product's life from raw material extraction through materials processing, manufacture, distribution, use, repair and maintenance, disposal or recycling. A study was conducted on a passenger vehicle for life cycle assessment as…
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Comparison of Regulated and Unregulated Emissions and Fuel Economy of SI Engines with Three Fuels: RON95, M15, and E10

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Israel Institute of Technology, Israel-Gideon Goldwine, Eran Sher
University of Toronto, Canada-Diana Sher
  • Journal Article
  • 04-12-03-0013
Published 2019-10-04 by SAE International in United States
This article focuses on a comparative research of the emissions discharged from four vehicles equipped with SI engines, which comply with different emission control systems (Euro 6, Euro 5, and Euro 3). The vehicles used for this work were installed with two different fuel injection technologies (direct injection and port fuel injection) and were operated with three different types of fuels (RON 95, M15, and E10). The tests were performed at the Joint Research Center (JRC) in Ispra using a state-of-the-art emissions test facility according to the European emissions legislation. The test bench included a chassis dynamometer and two different driving cycles were used: NEDC and US06. The main conclusions observed by this article are: (1) Emissions levels from vehicles fueled with M15 are similar to or lower than from those fueled with RON95. (2) Using M15 has the potential to decrease carbon dioxide emissions and to save fuel on an energetic basis. (3) PM emissions are lower for gasoline/alcoholic fuels. (4) No statistically significant effects on carbonyl emissions were found with M15.
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General Requirements for Powered Drive Units (PDUs) in Aircraft Cargo Systems

AGE-2 Air Cargo
  • Aerospace Standard
  • AIR4165B
  • Current
Published 2019-10-02 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) is intended to assist the user (aircraft manufacturer/airline) in the following areas: a In the decision of whether or not to plan for the installation of a powered drive system in the cargo loading system (CLS) during the definition of the aircraft on-board cargo loading system. b If a powered drive system is decided upon, to provide general requirements to be considered during the preparation of component specifications for the powered drive units (PDUs) to be used. This provides a selection of criteria in order to obtain an optimum PDU for the application considered.
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Design of Experiments for Effects and Interactions during Brake Emissions Testing Using High-Fidelity Computational Fluid Dynamics

Link Engineering Company-Carlos Agudelo, Ravi Teja Vedula
University of Michigan-Jesse Capecelatro, Qingquan Wang
Published 2019-09-15 by SAE International in United States
The investigation and measurement of particle emissions from foundation brakes require the use of a special adaptation of inertia dynamometer test systems. To have proper measurements for particle mass and particle number, the sampling system needs to minimize transport losses and reduce residence times inside the brake enclosure. Existing models and spreadsheets estimate key transport losses (diffusion, turbophoretic, contractions, gravitational, bends, and sampling isokinetics). A significant limitation of such models is that they cannot assess the turbulent flow and associated particle dynamics inside the brake enclosure; which are anticipated to be important. This paper presents a Design of Experiments (DOE) approach using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) to predict the flow within a dynamometer enclosure under relevant operating conditions. The systematic approach allows the quantification of turbulence intensity, mean velocity profiles, and residence times. The factors of the DOE include: a) airflow level, b) brake size, c) rotor style, d) caliper position, e) brake rotation, f) brake rotational speed, and g) fixture style. Numerical simulations are performed using NGA, a high-order, multi-physics large-eddy simulation code. Particles…
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Diesel Vehicle with Ultra-Low NOx Emissions on the Road

AECC-Joachim Demuynck, Cecile Favre, Dirk Bosteels
IAV-Frank Bunar, Joachim Spitta, Andreas Kuhrt
Published 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
The gap between diesel vehicle emissions in laboratory tests compared to those in use has been addressed by the introduction of the Real Driving Emissions (RDE) requirements. Modern diesel technology now demonstrates low emissions on the road over a wide range of driving conditions. This paper further demonstrates that consistent low nitrogen oxide (NOx) and particle number (PN) emissions can be achieved over a wide range of driving conditions beyond Euro 6d RDE requirements, with emission control technologies combined in an integrated approach.An LNT (Lean NOx Trap) is combined with a dual-dosing SCR (Selective Catalytic Reduction) system. Low-load NOx control is achieved by the LNT in combination with a close-coupled SCR coated on the Diesel Particulate Filter (SDPF). High load conditions, on the other hand, are covered by the underfloor SCR system with a second AdBlue® injector. A P0 48V mild-hybrid system is also available to support the NOx control and to ensure good driving performance and fuel efficiency. An advanced control strategy is implemented to ensure optimal interaction between all emission control functionalities. The…
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Water Spray and High Humidity Endurance Test Methods for AMS1424 and AMS1428 Aircraft Deicing/Anti-Icing Fluids

G-12ADF Aircraft Deicing Fluids
  • Aerospace Standard
  • AS5901D
  • Current
Published 2019-09-04 by SAE International in United States
This document establishes the minimum requirements for an environmental test chamber, and test procedures to carry out anti-icing performance tests according to the current materials specification for aircraft deicing/anti-icing fluids. The primary purpose for such a test method is to determine the anti-icing endurance under controlled laboratory conditions of AMS1424 Type I and AMS1428 Type II, III, and IV fluids.
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Aerospace Fluid Power - FAA Regulatory History - Transport Airplane Hydraulic Systems

A-6A1 Commercial Aircraft Committee
  • Aerospace Standard
  • AIR5696A
  • Current
Published 2019-09-03 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) contains regulatory and guidance information related to transport airplane hydraulic systems. It contains certain Civil Air Regulations (CAR) and Federal Aviation Regulations (formerly referred to as FARs) from Title 14 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) in their current version as well as the historical versions. This gives the reader an ability to assemble certain CAR/CFR parts as they existed at any date in the past (referred to as a Regulatory Basis). A certain amount of preamble explanatory material is included, which led to the regulatory rule changes (Amendments to the CFR).
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