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The study on the influence of factors on vehicle refueling emission test

China Automotive Technology and Research-Chunbei Dai, Taiyu Zhang, Chongzhi Zhong, Qiang Chen, Jiaxing Sun, Xiaoliang Wu, Tiefei Yu
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1070
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Two vehicles with ORVR system which are met with the US standard are studied. A comparative of refueling emissions test under different refueling rate and different refueling temperature are studied. The HC chemical analysis was carried out for the fuel gas emission from a sample car. The results show that with the increase of the refueling rates, the refueling emissions decline at first, and then gradually stabilize; with the increase of the refueling temperature, the results of refueling emissions show a gradual increase. Under the condition of 37 L / min refueling flow rate and 20 ℃ fuel temperature, 14 kinds of alkanes were emitted from the fuel, in which isobutane, isopentane and n-pentane were the highest emissive components, accounting for 57.66% of the total amount of VOCs.
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RDE-Compliant PEMS Testing of a Gasoline Euro 6d-TEMP Passenger Car at Two Ambient Temperatures with a Focus on the Cold Start Effect

BOSMAL / Poznan University of Technology-Jerzy Merkisz
BOSMAL Automotive R&D Institute, Ltd.-Piotr Bielaczyc, Joseph Woodburn
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0379
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
European Union RDE (real driving emissions) legislation requires that new vehicles be subjected to emissions tests on public roads. Performing emissions testing outside a laboratory setting immediately raises the question of the impact of ambient conditions - especially temperature - on the results. In the spirit of RDE legislation, a wide range of ambient temperatures are permissible, with mathematical moderation (correction) of the results only permissible for ambient temperatures <0°C and >+30°C. Within the standard range of temperatures (0°C to +30°C), no correction for temperature is applied to emissions results and the applicable emissions limits have to be met. Given the well-known link between the thermal state of an engine and its emissions following cold start, ambient temperature can be of great importance in determining whether a vehicle meets emissions requirements during an RDE test. This paper reports the results of full RDE-compliant on-road emissions tests performed on a Euro 6d-TEMP passenger car with a direct injection spark ignition engine and a gasoline particle filter. Testing was performed at two temperatures, both lying within the…
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Effect of Driving Cycles on Emissions from On-Road Motorcycles

Environment and Climate Change Canada-Debbie Rosenblatt, Jonathan Stokes
Evoke Management Consulting-Kevin F. Brown
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0377
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The effects of driving cycles and fuel composition on emissions from on-road motorcycles were studied with the objectives of understanding the effects of established drive cycles, quantifying the emissions from a more rigorous drive cycle, and determining the emission differences between various certification test fuels. Chassis dynamometer emissions testing was conducted on three motorcycles with engine displacements of 300 cc, 750 cc and 1200 cc. All of the motorcycles were Class II North American certified motorcycles with fuel injection and three-way catalysts. The motorcycles were tested using the North American certification cycle, also known as the Federal Test Procedure (FTP); the World Motorcycle Transit Cycle (WMTC); and a trial cycle based on real-world motorcycle driving, informally named the ‘Real World Driving Cycle’ (RWDC). Per cycle exhaust emissions characterization included the following: carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen, hydrocarbons, carbon dioxide, total particulate matter, and a calculated determination of fuel economy. Along with an analysis of test cycle phase contributions and cumulative emissions over the test cycles. Engine torque was plotted against engine speed for each motorcycle…
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Motor Vehicle Emission Control Quality Monitoring for On-Road Driving: Dynamic Signature Recognition of NOx & NH3 Emissions

US Environmental Protection Agency-Xiaoguo Tang, John Kargul, Dan McBryde
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0372
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Motor vehicle emission testing during on-road driving is important to assess a vehicle’s exhaust emission control design, its compliance with Federal regulations and its impact on air quality. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has been developing new approaches to screen the characteristics of vehicle dynamic emission control behaviors (its operating signature) while driving both on-road and on-dynamometer. The so-called “signature device” used for this testing is equipped with an O2/NOx sensor, thermocouple and GPS to record dynamic exhaust NOx concentration, air fuel ratio-controlled tailpipe lambda (λ), tailpipe temperature and vehicle speed (acceleration).In the early EPA research, signature screening was used to characterize a vehicle’s PCM control behaviors (cause/effect bijectivity), which help distinguish operation in normal control state-space and abnormal state-space. Currently, signature devices are being used to recognize when ammonia (NH3) has been emitted and to estimate the presence of NOx and NH3 within on-road and on-dyno driving. The presence of NH3 is observed by the signature device’s NOx sensor at times when tailpipe lambda readings are biased rich, after the engine three-way-catalyst (TWC)…
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Improving Heavy Duty Natural Gas Engine Efficiency: A Systematic Approach to Application of Dedicated EGR

Southwest Research Institute-Michael C. Kocsis, Robert Mitchell, Ahmed Abdul Moiz, Vickey Kalaskar, D. Ryan Williams, Scott Sjovall
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0818
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The worldwide trend of tightening CO2 emissions standards and desire for near zero emissions is driving development of high efficiency natural gas engines for a low CO2 replacement of traditional diesel engines. A Cummins Westport ISX12 G was previously converted to a Dedicated EGR® (D-EGR®) configuration with two out of the six cylinders acting as the EGR producing cylinders. Using a systems approach, the combustion and turbocharging systems were optimized for improved efficiency while maintaining the potential for achieving 0.02 g/bhp-hr NOX standards. A prototype variable nozzle turbocharger was selected to maintain the stock torque curve. The EGR delivery method enabled a reduction in pre-turbine pressure as the turbine was not required to be undersized to drive EGR. A high energy Dual Coil Offset (DCO®) ignition system was utilized to maintain stable combustion with increased EGR rates. High compression ratio, reduced squish pistons were designed to maintain MBT combustion phasing and fast burn rates along the torque curve. The final engine configuration was tested on the Heavy-Duty Supplemental Emissions Test (SET), a 13-mode steady-state engine…
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Characteristics of Transient NOx Emissions of HEV under Real Road Driving

Anhui Jianghuai Automobile Group Corp.-Bo He, Shi Bo
Cambustion, Ltd.-Qiang Li
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0380
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
To meet the request of China National 6b emission regulations which will be officially implemented in China, firstly including the RDE emission test limits, the transient emissions on real road condition are paid more attention. A non-plug-in hybrid light-duty gasoline vehicles (HEV) sold in the Chinese market was selected to study real road emissions employed fast response NOx analyzer from Cambustion Ltd. with a sampling frequency of 100Hz, which can measure the missing NO peaks by standard RDE gas analyzer now. Emissions from PEMS were also recorded and compared with the results from fast response NOx analyzer. The concentration of NOx emissions before and after the Three Way Catalyst (TWC) of the hybrid vehicle were also sampled and analyzed, and the working efficiency of the TWC in real road driving process was investigated. It is found that when the engine is at high-speed and heavy-load conditions, especially when fuel is injected after fuel cut, instantaneous spikes in tailpipe NO emissions could be observed, which means that traffic positions such as crosswalks, speed bumps, expressway entrances,…
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Statistical Model for the Prediction of Shift Points for Manual Motorcycles

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency-Peter James Caffrey
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1046
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Emissions from manual transmission motorcycles have been shown to be dependent upon transmission shift patterns. Presently, when undergoing an emission test for EPA certification a manufacturer can designate their own shift points during the cycle or utilize an Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) prescribed shift pattern which uses basic up or down shifts at specific speeds regardless of the type of motorcycle. In order to predict the real-life emissions from motorcycles, a comparative real-life shift pattern has been developed which can then be used to evaluate the suitability of the manufacturer’s shift schedule. To that end, a model that predicts shift points for motorcycles has been created. This model is based on the actual operation of different motorcycles by real life operators in a combined city and highway operational setting. Recognizing that no model is sufficient to adequately predict user operation in all situations, this model maintains a degree of flexibility in allowing the user to designate various limits to the shift probability, thus representing various rider scenarios. This would include a broad range of probability…
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Axle Efficiency Comparison Method and Spin Loss Benefit of Front Axle Disconnect Systems

FCA US LLC-Siqin Wei, Timothy Schumaier, Jasbir Singh
Ford Motor Company-William Guarino, Joe Torres, Steven Zhou
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1412
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
There are a variety of test protocols associated with vehicle fuel economy and emissions testing. As a result, a number of test protocols currently exist to measure axle efficiency and spin loss. The intent of this technical paper is to describe a methodology that uses a singular axle efficiency and spin loss procedure. The data can then be used to predict the effects on vehicle FE and GHG for a specific class of vehicles via simulation. An accelerated pre-conditioning method using a comparable energy approach has been developed, and can be used to meet the pre-conditioning requirements of different vehicle emission test protocols. A “float to equilibrium” sump temperature approach has been used to produce instantaneous efficiency data, which can be used to more accurately predict vehicle FE and GHG, inclusive of Cold CO2. The “float to equilibrium” approach and “fixed sump temperature” approach has been compared and discussed. Independent Front Suspension (IFS) axles were used for this project as an enabler to determine the spin loss benefits of Front Axle Disconnect (FAD) systems. The…
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A Guide for the Selection of Quick-Disconnect Couplings for Aerospace Fluid Systems

G-3, Aerospace Couplings, Fittings, Hose, Tubing Assemblies
  • Aerospace Standard
  • AIR1047E
  • Current
Published 2020-03-10 by SAE International in United States
The factors involved in the selection of a quick-disconnect are grouped into the following classifications for the purpose of discussion: a Functional considerations. b Weight considerations. c Environmental performance factors. d End fitting types. e Additional considerations. A quick-disconnect coupling as used in this AIR is one that can be rapidly and repetitively connected and disconnected without excessive fluid loss. The relative importance of the design factors depends upon the fluid medium of the particular system in which quick-disconnect is to be used. The effect of the fluid media on each factor is discussed in this report where applicable.
This content contains downloadable datasets
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Ice and Rain Minimum Qualification Standards for Pitot and Pitot-static Probes

AC-9C Aircraft Icing Technology Committee
  • Aerospace Standard
  • AS5562
  • Current
Published 2020-02-11 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) establishes minimum ice and rain performance criteria for electrically-heated pitot and pitot-static probes intended for use on the following classes of fixed-wing aircraft and rotorcraft. The classes of fixed-wing aircraft are defined by aircraft flight envelopes and are shown in Figure 1. The flight envelopes generally fall into the classes as shown below: The user of this standard must evaluate the aircraft level installation requirements for the probe against the class definition criteria to ensure adequate coverage for the application. It may be necessary to step up in class or modify the test conditions in order to meet the applicable installation requirements. NOTE: Class 2 is divided into two subgroups identified as either Class 2a or Class 2b. Class 2a probe applications typically include aircraft that operate within the mid to lower end of the Class 2 altitude range and that only use probe output to display basic airspeed and/or altitude. As such, Class 2a probes do not have to test ice crystals at an altitude-capable icing tunnel. Class 2b…
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Annotation ability available