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LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT OF A PASSENGER VEHICLE TO ANALYSE THE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS USING CRADLE TO GRAVE APPROACH

Mahindra Research Valley-Rahul Lalwani, Saravanan N, Arunmozhi Veeraputhiran, IlavarasIi D
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2581
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
OBJECTIVE: Climate change is primary driver in the current discussions on CO2 reduction in the automotive industry. Current Type approval emissions tests (BS III, BS IV) covers only tailpipe emissions, however the emissions produced in upstream and downstream processes (e.g. Raw material sourcing, manufacturing, transportation, vehicle usage, recycle phases) are not considered in the evaluation. The objective of this project is to assess the environmental impact of the product considering all stages of the life cycle, understand the real opportunities to reduce environmental impact across the product life cycle. METHODOLOGY: As a part of environmental sustainability journey in business value chain, Life-cycle assessment (LCA) technique helps to understand the environmental impact categories. To measure overall impact, a cradle to grave approach helps to assess entire life cycle impact throughout various stages. LCA is a technique to assess environmental impacts associated with all the stages of a product's life from raw material extraction through materials processing, manufacture, distribution, use, repair & maintenance, disposal or recycling. A study was conducted on a passenger vehicle for life cycle…
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Comparison of Regulated and Unregulated Emissions and Fuel Economy of SI Engines with Three Fuels: RON95, M15, and E10

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Israel Institute of Technology, Israel-Gideon Goldwine, Eran Sher
University of Toronto, Canada-Diana Sher
  • Journal Article
  • 04-12-03-0013
Published 2019-10-04 by SAE International in United States
This article focuses on a comparative research of the emissions discharged from four vehicles equipped with SI engines, which comply with different emission control systems (Euro 6, Euro 5, and Euro 3). The vehicles used for this work were installed with two different fuel injection technologies (direct injection and port fuel injection) and were operated with three different types of fuels (RON 95, M15, and E10). The tests were performed at the Joint Research Center (JRC) in Ispra using a state-of-the-art emissions test facility according to the European emissions legislation. The test bench included a chassis dynamometer and two different driving cycles were used: NEDC and US06. The main conclusions observed by this article are: (1) Emissions levels from vehicles fueled with M15 are similar to or lower than from those fueled with RON95. (2) Using M15 has the potential to decrease carbon dioxide emissions and to save fuel on an energetic basis. (3) PM emissions are lower for gasoline/alcoholic fuels. (4) No statistically significant effects on carbonyl emissions were found with M15.
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Design of Experiments for Effects and Interactions during Brake Emissions Testing Using High-Fidelity Computational Fluid Dynamics

Link Engineering Company-Carlos Agudelo, Ravi Teja Vedula
University of Michigan-Jesse Capecelatro, Qingquan Wang
Published 2019-09-15 by SAE International in United States
The investigation and measurement of particle emissions from foundation brakes require the use of a special adaptation of inertia dynamometer test systems. To have proper measurements for particle mass and particle number, the sampling system needs to minimize transport losses and reduce residence times inside the brake enclosure. Existing models and spreadsheets estimate key transport losses (diffusion, turbophoretic, contractions, gravitational, bends, and sampling isokinetics). A significant limitation of such models is that they cannot assess the turbulent flow and associated particle dynamics inside the brake enclosure; which are anticipated to be important. This paper presents a Design of Experiments (DOE) approach using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) to predict the flow within a dynamometer enclosure under relevant operating conditions. The systematic approach allows the quantification of turbulence intensity, mean velocity profiles, and residence times. The factors of the DOE include: a) airflow level, b) brake size, c) rotor style, d) caliper position, e) brake rotation, f) brake rotational speed, and g) fixture style. Numerical simulations are performed using NGA, a high-order, multi-physics large-eddy simulation code. Particles…
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Diesel Vehicle with Ultra-Low NOx Emissions on the Road

AECC-Joachim Demuynck, Cecile Favre, Dirk Bosteels
IAV-Frank Bunar, Joachim Spitta, Andreas Kuhrt
Published 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
The gap between diesel vehicle emissions in laboratory tests compared to those in use has been addressed by the introduction of the Real Driving Emissions (RDE) requirements. Modern diesel technology now demonstrates low emissions on the road over a wide range of driving conditions. This paper further demonstrates that consistent low nitrogen oxide (NOx) and particle number (PN) emissions can be achieved over a wide range of driving conditions beyond Euro 6d RDE requirements, with emission control technologies combined in an integrated approach.An LNT (Lean NOx Trap) is combined with a dual-dosing SCR (Selective Catalytic Reduction) system. Low-load NOx control is achieved by the LNT in combination with a close-coupled SCR coated on the Diesel Particulate Filter (SDPF). High load conditions, on the other hand, are covered by the underfloor SCR system with a second AdBlue® injector. A P0 48V mild-hybrid system is also available to support the NOx control and to ensure good driving performance and fuel efficiency. An advanced control strategy is implemented to ensure optimal interaction between all emission control functionalities. The…
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Investigation of a Model-Based Approach to Estimating Soot Loading Amount in Catalyzed Diesel Particulate Filters

SAE International Journal of Engines

Chengdu WIT Electronic Fuel System Co. Ltd, China-Yuanxian Zhu
Southwest Jiaotong University, China-Tiexiong Huang, Guangdi Hu, Feng Guo
  • Journal Article
  • 03-12-05-0036
Published 2019-08-26 by SAE International in United States
In order to meet the worldwide increasingly stringent particulate matter (PM) and particulate number (PN) emission limits, the diesel particulate filter (DPF) is widely used today and has been considered to be an indispensable feature of modern diesel engines. To estimate the soot loading amount in the DPF accurately and in real-time is a key function of realizing systematic and efficient applications of diesel engines, as starting the thermal regeneration of DPF too early or too late will lead to either fuel economy penalty or system reliability issues. In this work, an open-loop and on-line approach to estimating the DPF soot loading on the basis of soot mass balance is developed and experimentally investigated, through establishing and combining prediction models of the NOx and soot emissions out of the engine and a model of the catalytic soot oxidation characteristics of passive regeneration in the DPF. The emission testing results under the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) show that the prediction errors of the engine-out NOx and soot emission models are 5.1% and 3.9%, respectively. Tests…
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Auxiliary Two-Conductor Electrical Power Connector for Truck-Trailer High-Power Jumper Cable

Truck and Bus Electrical Systems Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J3082_201908
  • Current
Published 2019-08-20 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Standard provides the minimum requirements for high-power, two-conductor jumper cable plug and receptacle for truck-trailer jumper cable systems. It includes the test procedures, design, and performance requirements. This document covers receptacles rated 12 VDC nominal and at more than 30 A (amperes) up to and including 150 A, and is intended for a single circuit with one power conductor and one common return conductor. Single-conductor high-current connectors are not recommended for future designs because of inadequate ground return through fifth wheel/king pin. Cable size selection is to be made by the vehicle OEM for specific applications and the specific voltage drop requirements of those applications. This SAE Standard covers two variants of high-power two-conductor connections: a heavy duty version, with horizontally aligned pins, typically for lift-gate battery charging; and a medium duty version, with vertically aligned pins, typically for loads such as power tarpaulins.
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Air Cycle Air Conditioning Systems for Air Vehicles

AC-9 Aircraft Environmental Systems Committee
  • Aerospace Standard
  • AS4073B
  • Current
Published 2019-08-20 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) defines the requirements for air cycle air conditioning systems used on military air vehicles for cooling, heating, ventilation, and moisture and contamination control. General recommendations for an air conditioning system, which may include an air cycle system as a cooling source, are included in MIL-E-18927E and JSSG-2009. Air cycle air conditioning systems include those components which condition high temperature and high pressure air for delivery to occupied and equipment compartments and to electrical and electronic equipment. This document is applicable to open and closed loop air cycle systems. Definitions are contained in Section 5 of this document.
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Communication Transceivers Qualification Requirements - CAN

Vehicle Architecture For Data Communications Standards
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J2962/2_201907
  • Current
Published 2019-07-18 by SAE International in United States
This document covers the requirements for transceiver qualification. Requirements stated in this document will provide a minimum standard level of performance for the CAN transceiver in the IC to which all compatible transceivers shall be designed. No other features in the IC are tested or qualified as part of this recommended practice. This will assure robust serial data communication among all connected devices, regardless of supplier. The goal of SAE J2962-2 is to commonize approval processes of CAN transceivers across OEMs. The intended audience includes, but is not limited to, CAN transceiver suppliers, component release engineers, and vehicle system engineers.
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CRIMPING TOOLS, TYPE 1, TERMINAL, HAND, WIRE TERMINATION FOR WIRE BARREL SIZES 20 THROUGH 28

AE-8C2 Terminating Devices and Tooling Committee
  • Aerospace Standard
  • AS22520/2A
  • Current
Published 2019-07-08 by SAE International in United States
No Abstract Available.
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Design of Catalyzed Gasoline Particulate Filter (cGPF) and Investigation of Its Durability Performance Using Accelerated Engine Aging

Afton Chemical (Suzhou) Co. Ltd.-Danhua Yin, Yinhui Wang, Ke Jian Liang
Afton Chemical Corp.-Huifang Shao, Guillaume Carpentier, Joesph Remias, Joseph Roos
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Catalyzed gasoline particulate filters (cGPF) are one of the most effective emission control technologies for reducing gaseous and particulate emissions simultaneously. Successful adoption of this advanced technology relies on several important performance properties including low back pressure, high filtration efficiency and specially durability compliance. In this work using an underfloor cGPF, the backpressure control was achieved through optimizing catalyst coating technology and modifying the deposition profile of catalyst coating along GPF channels. Durability performance was demonstrated by using an accelerated engine aging method with selective blending of lubricating oils in fuel, which incorporates the aging mechanisms of thermal aging, ash loading, and soot accumulation/regeneration. The target durability demonstration represents 200,000 km real world operation. The durability performance was evaluated by a series of vehicle emission tests, and comparison with traditional thermal aging methods, such as GMAC-875°C. Additional characterization methods, such as Scanning Electron Microscopy/Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (SEM-EDS), X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) and backpressure measurement were applied to investigate the ash deposition profile inside cGPF and interaction with cGPF, and the properties of ash obtained from…
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