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Design & analysis of 2 point aluminum upper control arm in modular multi link rear suspension system

ZF India Pvt Ltd.-Mayur Shamkant Kulkarni
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2564
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
In current automobile market, due to the need of meeting future CO2 limits and emission standards, demand for hybrid systems is on the rise. In general, the requirements of modern automobile architecture demands modular chassis structure to develop vehicle variants using minimum platforms. The multi-link modular suspension system provides ideal solution to achieve these targets. To match ideal stiffness characteristics of system with minimum weight, aluminum links are proving a good alternative to conventional steel forged or stamped linkages. Design of current 2-point link (Upper Control Arm) is based on elasto-kinematic model developed using standard load cases from multi body dynamics. CAD system used is CATIA V5 to design upper control arm for rear suspension. This arm connects steering knuckle & rear sub frame. For Finite Element Analysis we used Hyperworks CAE tool to analyze design under all load cased & further optimization is done to resolve highly stressed zones. An optimized solution presented with a balance of ideal stiffness & strength. A CAD model developed with aluminum forged alloy (6082 - T6) is compared…
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Development of low cost closed crankcase ventilation with oil mist separation system on light duty diesel engine.

Tata Technologies, Ltd.-Vishal Kailas Walhekar, Sujit Gavade, Gaurav Soni, Aashish Bhargava
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2578
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Currently automotive industry is facing bi-fold challenge of reduction in Greenhouse gases emissions as well as low operating cost. On one hand Emission regulations are getting more and more stringent on other hand there is major focus no customer value proposition. Engine blow by gases are one of the source of Greenhouse gases emission from engine. Blow by gases not only consist of unburn hydrocarbons but also carry large amount of oil. If oil is not separated from these gases, it will led to major oil consumption and hence increase total operating cost of Vehicle. In this paper, effort has been taken to develop a low cost closed crank case ventilation with oil mist separation system on diesel engine. For cost effective solution, two different design and configuration of oil mist separation system has been developed Further, engine with two different above said configuration has been tested for blow by gasses and oil consumption measurement on Engine test bed and vehicle to understand the behavior in real environment. Further results has been compare for both…
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Modeling and Simulation of Refueling Emissions from Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Jiangsu University, China-Shu Liu, Ren He
  • Journal Article
  • 04-12-03-0014
Published 2019-10-14 by SAE International in United States
Vehicular evaporative emissions are an important source of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Moreover, the engines of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) may not start for a long time, causing the activated carbon canister to not purge well in-use and to become saturated with fuel vapor. Therefore, the problems of evaporative emissions and refueling emissions of PHEVs are still severe. The objectives of this article are to model and simulate the refueling emissions from PHEVs to shorten the design and development cycle. To achieve the goals, the release of refueling emissions is divided into two stages: the depressurization stage and the refueling stage. The mathematical model has been established by means of the ideal gas law and the gas mass transfer and diffusion law. Then, the numerical model is built and the volume of fluid (VOF) model was applied in the simulation. Moreover, the numerical model was validated by experiment on internal pressure increase of the fuel tank. The baseline case is conducted under the condition that the fuel dispensing rate is 50 L/min. Finally, different…
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Turbocharger Thermal Transfer Model Initialization: Quasi-Adiabatic Map Calculation

Ecole Centrale De Nantes-Guillaume Goumy, Pierre Marty, Pascal Chesse, Nicolas Perrot, Rémi Dubouil, Georges Salameh
Published 2019-10-07 by SAE International in United States
To comply with the evermore stringent polluting emission regulation, such as Euro 6c and its new homologation WTLP cycle, the use of turbochargers, already high in Diesel engines, is steeply rising in Gasoline ones. Turbochargers come into a large variety of implementations such as single/two stage(s) or even parallel. In the meantime, car manufacturers intend to decrease development cost and time by using more and more simulation over experimental measurements. However, usual turbocharger models have not followed this trend of modernity.While the heating part of the standard driving test cycle becomes a major topic, turbocharger models are still map based, built from turbocharger manufacturer’s data and measured only in hot conditions. To improve their accuracy, new turbocharger models need to take into account the thermal transfers. The phenomenon has been widely studied, and different models have been proposed to solve this problem but they require specific data for their calibration. This is hardly compatible with the industry habits.Deriving from an initial turbocharger model with thermal transfer, this paper presents a method to evaluate quasi-adiabatic turbine…
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Environmental and Health Impact of Electric and Hydrogen Light Vehicles: The Case of an Italian Small City

University of Roma Tor Vergata-Luca Andreassi, Giacomo Falcucci
University of Tuscia-Andrea Luigi Facci, Stefano Ubertini
Published 2019-10-07 by SAE International in United States
As the emission regulations get more and more stringent in the different fields of energy and environmental systems, the electric and fuel cell electric vehicles have attracted growing attention by automakers, governments, and customers. Research and development efforts have been focused on devising novel concepts, low-cost systems, and reliable electric/fuel cell powertrain. In fact, electric and fuel cell vehicles coupled with low-carbon electricity sources offer the potential for reducing greenhouse gas emissions and exposure to tailpipe emissions from personal transportation.In particular, Pedal Assisted Bicycles popularity is rising in urban areas due to their low energy consumption and environmental impact. In fact, when electrically moved, they are zero emission vehicles with very low noise emissions, as well. These positive characteristics could be even improved by coupling a PAB with a fuel cell based power generation system, thus increasing the vehicle autonomy without influencing their emissions and consumption performances.In this paper, four types of vehicles are compared from an environmental and accessibility point of view: conventional car, bus, electric PAB and hydrogen fuel cell PAB; for such…
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Frankfurt with an ‘E’

Automotive Engineering: October 2019

Bill Visnic
  • Magazine Article
  • 19AUTP10_13
Published 2019-10-01 by SAE International in United States

Early September's Frankfurt Motor Show was all about production-ready or near-production electric vehicles (EVs), as Europe's propulsion transformation gains momentum. With European Union-wide carbon-dioxide (CO2) emissions regulations closing in and societal pressure on the auto sector's contribution to climate change and sustainability, Europe's automakers-particularly those in Germany - are hastening their EV development timelines.

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Development of a Low Friction High Performance Wheel Bearing Seal

ILJIN USA Corporation-Seungpyo Lee
Iljin Bearing GmbH-Reinhold Mahr
Published 2019-09-15 by SAE International in United States
The ever tightening of fuel economy and greenhouse gas emissions standards globally continues to challenge bearing companies toward lower torque, lower mass products. This paper focuses on improving fuel efficiency by considering the torque of automotive wheel bearing seals. This study establishes the level of drag torque reduction achieved through the structural design of the bearing seals. Wheel bearing seals are a critical component that must pass stringent torque, water exclusion, and other critical OEM and supplier performance specifications. They are designed as non-serviceable and must maintain full performance through the life of the vehicle.As a result of the application of specialized structural design, the drag torque, per the study, is reduced by more than 50% compared to existing bearing specifications. Electric vehicle companies are also seeking low friction wheel bearing solutions to further reduce CO2 (indirect or wheel-to-wheel) emissions. This research findings can assist the OEM’s in meeting the rigid emissions and fuel economy standards through drag reduction in the wheel bearings.
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Analysis of Emissions in the European Driving Cycle of Used Light-Duty Vehicles Imported to Europe from North America

State Road Transport Research Institute, Ukraine-Oleksiy Klymenko, Viktor Ustymenko, Kostiantyn Kolobov, Sergiy Rychok, Mykola Hora, Nila Naumenko
  • Journal Article
  • 13-01-01-0001
Published 2019-09-13 by SAE International in United States
This study analyzes the distribution of exhaust mass pollutants emission obtained in 1,157 tests in the European driving cycle of used light-duty vehicles (LDVs). At the time of production, the tested vehicles complied with the Federal environmental requirements of the United States (USA) and were imported to Europe from North America. They included 1,109 passenger cars (PCs) and 48 light-duty trucks (LDTs), equipped with gasoline engines. In general, for measured emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHC), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and particulate matter (PM): 25% of test results for PCs do not exceed the T2B5 limits of the US Federal Standard; 43% of test results for PCs do not exceed the thresholds, designated for on-board diagnostic system (OBD) proper functioning; 45% of test results for PCs do not exceed the European Union (EU)’s former standard “Euro-5” norms. The automotive manufacturers of the PCs group represented various legislative and engineering approaches in Europe (Volkswagen, VW), Japan (Mazda), and North America (Ford) that are reflected in the emissions analysis results. In particular, the stricter CO limits…
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Injection Pattern Investigation for Gasoline Partially Premixed Combustion Analysis

Magneti Marelli SpA - Powertrain-Federico Stola, Matteo De Cesare
University of Bologna-Vittorio Ravaglioli, Giacomo Silvagni, Fabrizio Ponti
Published 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
Nowadays, compression-ignited engines are considered the most efficient and reliable technology for automotive applications. However, mainly due to the current emission regulations, that require increasingly stringent reductions of NOx and particulate matter, the use of diesel-like fuels is becoming a critical issue. For this reason, a large amount of research and experimentation is being carried out to investigate innovative combustion techniques suitable to simultaneously mitigate the production of NOx and soot, while improving engine efficiency.In this scenario, the combined use of compression-ignited engines and gasoline-like fuels proved to be very promising, especially in case the fuel is directly-injected in the combustion chamber at high pressure. The presented study analyzes the combustion process produced by the direct injection of small amounts of gasoline in a compression-ignited light-duty engine. The engine under investigation has been modified to guarantee a stable engine operation over its whole operating range, that is achieved controlling boost pressure and temperature, together with the design of the injection pattern.Experimental tests have been performed to highlight the impact of several control variables on the…
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A Novel 1D Co-Simulation Framework for the Prediction of Tailpipe Emissions under Different IC Engine Operating Conditions

Aristotle University of Thessaloniki-Grigorios Koltsakis, Zissis Samaras
EMPA-Panayotis Dimopoulos Eggenschwiler, Viola Papetti, Jakub Rojewski, Patrik Soltic
Published 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
The accurate prediction of pollutant emissions generated by IC engines is a key aspect to guarantee the respect of the emission regulation legislation. This paper describes the approach followed by the authors to achieve a strict numerical coupling of two different 1D modeling tools in a co-simulation environment, aiming at a reliable calculation of engine-out and tailpipe emissions. The main idea is to allow an accurate 1D simulation of the unsteady flows and wave motion inside the intake and exhaust systems, without resorting to an over-simplified geometrical discretization, and to rely on advanced thermodynamic combustion models and kinetic sub-models for the calculation of cylinder-out emissions. A specific fluid dynamic approach is then used to track the chemical composition along the exhaust duct-system, in order to evaluate the conversion efficiency of after-treatment devices, such as TWC, GPF, DPF, DOC, SCR and so on. This co-simulation environment is validated against a real engine configuration which was instrumented and tested at EMPA labs. A 4-cylinder SI, turbocharged, CNG engine is investigated at different loads and revolution speeds, to…
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