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Simulation of Driving Cycles by Means of a Co-Simulation Framework for the Prediction of IC Engine Tailpipe Emissions

Exothermia SA-Vasileios Tziolas, Nikolaos Zingopis
Politecnico di Milano-Gianluca Montenegro, Angelo Onorati, Gianluca D'Errico, Tarcisio Cerri, Andrea Marinoni
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-37-0011
To be published on 2020-06-23 by SAE International in United States
The current European legislation concerning pollutant emissions from IC engine vehicles is very stringent and demanding. In addition, the CO2 fleet emission must obey to a significant reduction path during the next decade, to cope with the prescribed targets recently agreed. The prediction of pollutant emissions from IC engines has been a challenge since the introduction of the emission regulation legislation. During the last decade, along with the more tightening limits and increased public concern about air quality, the capability of simulating different operating conditions and driving cycles with an acceptable computational effort has become a key feature for modern simulation codes. The role of 1D thermo-fluid dynamic simulation models is extremely important to achieve this task, in order to investigate the performances of the next generation of IC engines working over a wide range of operating conditions, under steady-state and transient conditions. This work is based on the idea of integrating two different 1D simulation tools in a co-simulation environment, realizing a strict numerical coupling between the two codes. The main goal is to…
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Assessing the Engine-Out Pollutant Emissions of a S.I. Engine for Hybrid Powertrain Applications

Université de Bourgogne Franche-Comté-Jérémy Pelluet, Alan Keromnes, Luis Le Moyne
Université de Lyon - IFSTTAR AME ECO7-Alice Guille des buttes, Bruno Jeanneret
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-37-0016
To be published on 2020-06-23 by SAE International in United States
Car manufacturers are introducing more and more hybrid powertrains in order to reach CO2 emissions targets and answer increasingly stringent pollutant emission regulations such as unburned hydrocarbons (HC), nitrogen oxides (NOx), carbon monoxide (CO) and particulate matter. The addition of an electric engine to a thermal engine introduces an additional degree of freedom in the energy management of the powertrain since two energy sources are available. Thus, the energy management system must also account for regulated pollutant emissions when devising an optimal energy management strategy to avoid a pollutant emission increase due to CO2 only driven optimisation. It is therefore necessary to model the influence of thermal engine operating conditions such as load and speed on these emissions to evaluate their concentration in the exhaust gases. This study presents an empiric modelling approach based on an extensive parametric study using a spark-ignition port-injection four-cylinder engine. Such a model intend to be used in the context of hybrid powertrain optimization. In order to reduce the computing costs required by ECU (Engine Control Unit), the number of…
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Application of Low-Mass Corning® FLORA® Substrate for Cold-Start Emissions Reduction to Meet Upcoming LEV III SULEV30 Regulation Requirement

Corning-Jason Warkins, Tinghong Tao, Min Shen, Song Lyu
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0652
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
With upcoming US Tier 3 / LEV III emissions regulation set for full implementation in 2025, significant efforts are being made within the industry to meet the fleet average SULEV30 requirement. With the current vehicle technology, cold-start emissions generated in the first sixty seconds can make up to 70% of total tailpipe emission over the FTP-75 certification cycle. Therefore, the improvement in the performance of catalyzed substrates during cold-start becomes essential for total tailpipe emissions reduction. Low-mass substrate technology offers a significant reduction in time to light-off enabling a reduction in cold-start emissions while meeting customer mechanical durability and thermo-mechanical requirements. The ability of this lower-mass substrate to improve light-off time compared to conventional higher-mass substrates has been measured through fundamental modeling and vehicle dyno testing and verified to deliver up to 20% improvement in total tailpipe emissions over the entire emissions cycle and across a wide array of vehicle platforms with various engine cold-start calibration technologies. Alternatively, low-mass substrate technology can be applied with reductions in platinum group metals (PGM) to maintain equivalent emissions…
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Vehicle Emission Solutions for China 6b and Euro 7

Umicore AutoCat (China) Co., Ltd.-Gu Weiwei
Umicore Autocat (China) Co., Ltd.-Xiangwei Meng
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0654
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Combinations of CC1 TWC and CC2 coated gasoline particulate filters (cGPF) were aged by 4-mode and fuel cut aging to simulate 200K kilometers of in-use aging in China and Europe, respectively. Separate combinations of catalysts were then evaluated on two low emission engines using the WLTC driving cycle. Catalyst volume and PGM mass were varied in the CC1. OSC/washcoat amounts were varied at constant PGM loading in the GPF. For the Chinese application, after the four-mode aging, it was found that the CC1 TWC catalyst volume should be greater than 1.0 L. High levels of OSC were needed in the GPF to meet CO and NOx emission targets. For the European application, after fuel cut aging, Euro 6d emissions were met with any combination of TWC and GPF catalysts. If the gaseous regulations for Euro 7 are similar to China 6b, the CC1 TWC catalyst should also be great than 1.0 L in order to meet CO and NOx emissions. Over all, results imply that CC1 TWC design is most critical for gaseous emissions. More…
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Combustion Characterization of Neat n-Butanol in an SI Engine

Shanghai Jiao Tong University-Tie Li
University of Windsor-Navjot Singh Sandhu, Xiao Yu, Simon Leblanc, Ming Zheng, David Ting
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0334
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Increasingly stringent emission standards have promoted the interest in alternate fuel sources. Because of the comparable energy density to the existing fossil fuels and renewable production, alcohol fuels may be a suitable replacement, or an additive to the gasoline/diesel fuels to meet the future emission standards with minimal modification to current engine geometry. In this research, the combustion characteristics of neat n-butanol are analyzed under spark ignition operation using a single cylinder SI engine. The fuel is injected into the intake manifold using a port-fuel injector. Two modes of charge dilution were used in this investigation to test the limits of stable engine operation, namely lean burn using excess fresh air and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). The in-cylinder pressure measurement and subsequently, heat release analysis are used to investigate the combustion characteristics of the fuel under low load SI engine operation. Additionally, a comprehensive emission analysis is performed to study the combustion by-products. Furthermore, the combustion and emission characteristics of n-butanol fuel are compared to those of the gasoline fuel. Preliminary results highlight the effect…
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Light Duty Truck Rear Axle Thermal Modeling

FCA-Mohammad Nahid
FCA US LLC-Joydip Saha, Sadek Rahman
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1388
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
More stringent Federal emission regulations and fuel economy requirements have driven the automotive industry toward more sophisticated vehicle thermal management systems to best utilize the waste heat and improve driveline efficiency. The final drive unit in light and heavy duty trucks usually consists of geared transmission and differential housed in a lubricated axle. The automotive rear axles is one of the major sources of power loss in the driveline due to gear friction, churning and bearing loss and have a significant effect on overall vehicle fuel economy. These losses vary significantly with the viscosity of the lubricant. Also the temperatures of the lubricant are critical to the overall axle performance in terms of power losses, fatigue life and wear. In this paper, a methodology for modeling thermal behavior of automotive rear axle with heat exchanger is presented to predict the axle lubricant temperature rise and study the effect of coolant temperature on the axle warm-up and efficiency for a typical EPA fuel economy driving cycle. Thermal axle consists of automotive rear axle with a heat…
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Hybrid phenomenological and mathematical-based modeling approach for diesel engine emission predictio

IAV Automotive Engineering Inc.-Thaddaeus Delebinski
IAV GmbH-Reza Rezaei, Christopher Hayduk, Emre Alkan, Thomas Kemski, Christoph Bertram
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0660
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Due to the negative health effects associated with engine pollutants, environmental problems caused by combustion engine emissions and the current strict emission standards, it is essential to better understand and model the emission formation process in order to reduce them. Further development of emission models, improves the accuracy of the model-based optimization approach, which is used as a decisive tool for combustion system development and engine-out emission reduction. The numerical approaches for emission simulation are closely coupled to the combustion model. Using a detailed emission model, considering the 3D mixture preparation simulation incl. chemical reactions, demands high computational effort. Phenomenological models, used in 1-D approaches for model-based system optimization can deliver heat release rate and using a two-zone approach can estimate the NOx emissions. Due to the lack in modeling of 3D mixture preparation phenomena, such models are not capable to predict soot or HC emissions. However, employing physical-based air-path and combustion modeling, these models can predict the engine behavior outside of the training points. Mathematical models are very fast and accurate enough in the…
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Analysis of Drivability Influence on Tailpipe Emissions by Means of Engine-in-the-Loop Test Benches

FEV Europe GmbH-Stefan Tegelkamp, Michael Görgen, Martin Nijs, Johannes Scharf
RWTH Aachen University-Christian Heusch, Daniel Guse, Frank Dorscheidt, Johannes Claßen, Timm Fahrbach, Stefan Pischinger
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0373
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Due to increasing environmental awareness, standards for pollutant and CO2 emission legislations are getting stricter in most markets around the world. In important markets such as Europe, also the emissions during driving on real roads, the so called “Real Driving Emissions” (RDE), are now a part of the type approval process for passenger cars. In addition to the hybridization and electrification of vehicles, the complexity and degrees of freedom of conventional powertrains with internal combustion engines are continuing to increase in order to comply with stricter exhaust emission standards. Besides the different requirements placed on vehicle emissions, the drivability capabilities of passenger vehicles desired by the costumers, varies within markets. Since the interactions between different hardware and software systems of the powertrain strongly influence the drivability characteristics of a vehicle, a high degree of maturity of prototype vehicles is required to execute drivability calibration tasks. Hence, these tasks are generally conducted in late phases of the vehicle development process. The assessment of the influence of drivability calibration on the vehicle’s tailpipe emissions is complex. Since…
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Gasoline Particulate Filter Applications for Plug-In Hybrid and Traditional Cars

BYD Auto Industry Co., Ltd.-Qinglian Zhang, Yinsheng Liao, Hongzhou Zhang
Corning Co., Ltd.-Lei Zhang, Suhao He
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1430
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) and battery electric vehicles (BEVs) are considered as primary paths in China to meet corporate average fuel consumption (CAFC) credit and new energy vehicle (NEV) credit regulations. Many local original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) develop PHEVs based on their internal combustion engine (ICE) base models without significant modification on engine side. Traditional ICE vehicles are solely driven by engines, while PHEVs can be driven by engine or electric motors, independently or together, depending on powertrain architecture and operating strategy. PHEVs may have more particle number or particulate matter (PN/PM) emissions. To meet CN6 regulation, gasoline particulate filters (GPFs) are widely used for both PHEV and traditional cars. It is important to investigate the impacts of hybrid powertrain on gasoline particulate filter applications.This paper compares GPF application development for a traditional BYD Tang (ICE base model) and a BYD Tang DM (PHEV model). Same aftertreatment design with slightly different layout is used to cover both models to meet PM/PN/gaseous emission standards. GPF soot loading and burning behavior are compared. In general, the…
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Optimization of Diesel Engine and After-treatment systems for a Series Hybrid Forklift Application

IAV Automotive Engineering Inc.-Yinyan Huang, Thaddaeus Delebinski
IAV GmbH-Reza Rezaei, Rico Möllmann
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0658
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
This paper investigates an optimal design of a diesel engine and after-treatment system for a series hybrid electric forklift application. A holistic modeling approach is developed in GT-Suite® to establish a model-based hardware definition for a diesel engine and after-treatment system that accurately predicts engine performance and emissions of a baseline system. The developed engine model performance is validated with the experimental data. Then, the engine design including compression ratio, boost level, air-fuel ratio (AFR), injection timing, and injection pressure is optimized at a single operating point for the series hybrid electric vehicle, while considering the performance of the after-treatment components. The engine and after-treatment models are then coupled with a series hybrid electric powertrain to evaluate the performance of the forklift in the standard VDI 2198 drive cycle. In addition, the thermal management strategies like retarding injection timing and late post-injection of fuel during cold start are analyzed and optimally selected in this work. The results show the reduction of tailpipe-NOx emission is possible by properly retarding the injection timing without significant effect on…