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Piston Temperature Measurement during Engine Warm-up and Application for Analysis of Piston Behavior

Digital Engineering Dept., Suzuki Motor Corporation-Shinya Kubota
Environment, Material & Manufacturing Engineering Develo-Akira Ishibashi
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-32-0548
To be published on 2020-01-24 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
In recent years, internal-combustion engines have been required to satisfy various performance standards against emission regulations and fuel-efficiency targets. To this end, accurate measurement of piston temperature under various engine operating conditions is important.Some studies reported the use of wireless methods to confirm the reliability of the measurement system at the highest engine speed and create a piston temperature map under all operating conditions. However, previous case studies only considered relatively large displacement engines, and the advantage of wireless methods—a high degree of freedom for design—was not used. In terms of engine operating conditions, few cases focus on the piston to cylinder wall clearance during engine warm-up conditions. Thus, wireless methods are still space to use their features.In this study, we develop and implement a telemetry-type method for a motorcycle engine, which has smaller displacement and is therefore more restrictive relative to measurement system design than past case studies. The temperature distribution in the entire piston is measured, considering the temperature distribution of a cylinder bore wall surface during the period between a cold start…

Study of OBD stageII Misfire Detection System for Small Motorcycles

Aisan Industry Co., Ltd.-Satoshi MIWA, Yuki IIBOSHI, Hirotaka FUKUTA
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-32-0511
To be published on 2020-01-24 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
In recent years, the shift to Fuel Injection (FI) system for motorcycles has been accelerated in response to the enhancement of exhaust emission regulations and the improvement of fuel efficiency for global environmental protection. In addition, On Board Diagnostics (OBD) was introduced to inform users of vehicle abnormalities and failures and prevent from emission failure in the market. OBD stageII requires enlargement of requirements and threshold detection. Seven items are presented in the EU5, Bharat Stage 6 (BS6). The misfire detection in small motorcycles has several problems.First, for the small motorcycle, a single-cylinder engine is the main and its combustion behavior cannot be compared with other cylinders. Consequently, it is difficult to detect misfire. For misfire detection, we focused on the difference in crank angular velocity during combustion stroke between normal combustion and misfire. The greatest gap was in crank angular velocity occurs at 0-180° crank angle [°CA]. With that, misfire detection control is established.We confirmed from the above control that misfire could be detected in the whole engine speed or load within the regulation.…
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Heavy Duty Diesel Emission Standards Regulation Evolution Review - Current Outcomes and Future Perspectives

FCB Research and Consulting-Fábio Coelho Barbosa
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0174
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
Heavy duty vehicle (HDV) segment, as an important source of emissions that strongly impact air quality and human health - especially in urban centers - has been continuously challenged by the increasingly stringent emission limits. The adoption of emission standards for the heavy duty industry was initially launched by the United States, followed by the European Union and Japan, and, subsequently, by other countries, like Australia, Brazil, China and India, among others, generally with a time lag. This continuous “cleaning” effort has led to the current rigorous emission limits - materialized by the so called U.S. EPA 2010 and Euro VI and their foreign variants - which have provided huge emissions reductions (HC, CO, NOx, PM and smoke and, more recently, CO2). Nevertheless, due to air quality and global climate change concerns (basically derived from the air quality non compliance, associated with cities' pollution hotspots, as well as greenhouse gas emissions) there is still a regulatory demand for further emissions control improvement. In this scenario, the heavy duty vehicle industry has pursued not only increasingly…
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A Modeling Study of an Advanced Ultra-low NOx Aftertreatment System

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Michigan Technological University, USA-Venkata Rajesh Chundru, John H. Johnson, Gordon G. Parker
  • Journal Article
  • 04-13-01-0003
Published 2020-01-09 by SAE International in United States
The 2010 Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Emission Standard for heavy-duty engines required 0.2 g/bhp-hr over certification cycles (cold and hot Federal Test Procedure [FTP]), and the California Air Resources Board (CARB) standards require 0.02 g/bhp-hr for the same cycles leading to a 90% reduction of overall oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions. Similar reductions may be considered by the EPA through its Cleaner Trucks Initiative program. In this article, aftertreatment system components consisting of a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC); a selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst on a diesel particulate filter (DPF), or SCR-F; a second DOC (DOC2); and a SCR along with two urea injectors have been analyzed, which could be part of an aftertreatment system that can achieve the 0.02 g/bhp-hr standard. The system performance was evaluated using validated one-dimensional (1D) DOC, two-dimensional (2D) SCR-F, and 1D SCR models at various combinations of inlet ammonia (NH3)-to-NOx ratio (ANR) values for the SCR-F and the SCR to determine the injection rates required to achieve an optimum nitrogen dioxide (NO2)/NOx ratio at the inlets of both the…
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Driving Dynamics and Rolling Resistance Tire Design Trade-Off

FCA-Mauro Martino
FCA EMEA-Elena Salino
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-5088
Published 2019-12-30 by SAE International in United States
The main challenge facing the automotive passenger car industry for the next decade is CO2 emission reduction. The approach towards achieving conformity with stricter regulations is based on two main enablers: by means of powertrain improvement and energy demand reduction, adopting a low rolling resistance (RR) tire without decreasing driving dynamics.The trade-off between RR and driving dynamics can be managed by means of the trade-off between the tread shore hardness (TSH) and belt angle inclination (BAI) of the tire. Based on current tire production, four submission tires have been produced with different combinations of TSH and BAI, both RR and/or driving dynamics oriented. In total five submission tires have been tested and evaluated in terms of RR, subjective handling and ride, objective handling, and braking.In a multibody environment with the statistical Signal-to-Noise (S/N ratio) method, the correlation between vehicle performance, objective handling, and tire carpet, flat track measurements has been identified. The flat track method has been used to characterize tire carpet for the simulation model and to identify relevant tire-specific synthesis parameters as well.…
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An Efficient, High-Precision Vehicle Testing Procedure to Evaluate the Efficacy of Fuel-Borne Friction Modifier Additives

BASF Corporation (USA)-Robert J. Bacchi
BASF SE (Germany)-Dr. Marc Walter
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2353
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
Improved fuel economy is increasingly a key measure of performance in the automotive industry driven by market demands and tighter emissions regulations. Within this environment, one way to improve fuel economy is via fuel additives that deliver friction- reducing components to the piston-cylinder wall interface. Whilst the use of friction modifiers (FMs) in fuel or lubricant additives to achieve fuel economy improvements is not new, demonstrating the efficacy of these FMs in vehicles is challenging and requires statistical design together with carefully controlled test conditions. This paper describes a bespoke, efficient, high-precision vehicle testing procedure designed to evaluate the fuel economy credentials of fuel-borne FMs. By their nature, FMs persist on engine surfaces and so their effects are not immediately reversible upon changing to a non FM-containing fuel (“carryover” effect), therefore requiring careful design of the test programme. The solution presented here comprises a one-day chassis dynamometer test, internally referencing the fuel economy of an FM- containing test fuel to an FM-free reference fuel. When incorporated into a statistically designed test programme, two or more…
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Effects of Spark Timing with Other Engine Operating Parameters on the Particulate Emissions of a Dualinjection Gasoline Engine During Warm-up Conditions

Shanghai Jiao Tong University-Jie Tao, Chun Xia, Kerang Mao, Wenhao Chen, Junhua Fang, Zhen Huang
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2214
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
Gasoline direct injection (GDI) has been a mainstream technology due to its higher thermal efficiency and better power output. However, with increasingly stringent emission regulations introduced (EURO VI PN limits: 6 x l011#/km), high particulate matter (PM) emission of GDI engine has been a serious problem that limits its further development. Previous studies have found that cold-start and warm-up operation conditions play the dominant role in engine-out particulate emissions. In this paper, emission characteristics during the cold-start were first studied by controlling the coolant temperature. A Cambustion DMS500 fast particle spectrometer was employed to analyze the PM emissions. In order to reduce the engine-out emissions of cold-start, a dual injection system which combines port-fuel-injection (PFI) and direct-injection (DI) was applied in a four-cylinder gasoline engine. After that, this research mainly investigated the influences of spark timing on the engine-out emissions under constant DI injection ratio. The results indicated that with application of dual injection system, total PN emissions had decreased significantly by up to an order of magnitude compared with GDI engine, while the size…
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Study of New HILS Test Method with Combination of the Virtual Hybrid Electric Powertrain Systems and the Engine Test Bench

National Traffic Safety and Environment Laboratory-Nobunori Okui, Masayuki Kobayashi
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2343
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
Fuel consumption rate (fuel economy) and exhaust gas emission regulations are being tightened around the world year by year. In Europe, the real driving emission (RDE) method for evaluating exhaust gas emitted from road-going vehicles was introduced after September 2017 for new types of light/medium-duty vehicles, in addition to the chassis dynamometer test using the worldwide harmonized light vehicles test procedure (WLTP). Further, the worldwide harmonized heavy-duty certification (WHDC) method was introduced after 2016 as an exhaust gas emission test method for heavy-duty vehicles. In each evaluation, the tests of vehicles and engines are initiated from cold states.Heavy-duty hybrid vehicles are evaluated using the vehicle simulation method. For example, the power characteristics of a engine model is obtained during engine warm operation. Therefore, various performances during cold start cannot be precisely evaluated by using simulator.In this study, we simultaneously control a real engine and vehicle simulation in real time, and examine a new evaluation technique for evaluating various performances by considering the engine temperature.
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Development of Low Viscosity 0W-16 Fuel-Saving Engine Oil using a Synergistic Optimization of an Innovative Base Oil and Performant Additives while Maintaining Engine Durability in a ILSAC GF6-B Environment

INFINEUM-CONSIGNY Mathieu, HERRY Camille
TOTAL Marketing & Services-CHAMPAGNE Nicolas, USSA-ALDANA Paula
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2240
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
Lowering fuel consumption whilst maintaining engine life continues to be a challenge for the lubricant industry. Forthcoming ILSAC GF-6 specification and new emission regulations make this challenge even harder to overcome. Knowledge concerning innovative polyalkylene glycol (PAG) chemistry combined with expertise in engine oil formulation (additives and mineral base oils) and a deep understanding of the friction within the engine were used to develop a 0W- 16 engine oil with better fuel economy performance than other 0W-16 oils present in the market.Indeed, to accurately measure the friction on several part of the engine, a 1.2 L supercharged gasoline engine was first dismantled to measure the lubricant friction and wear capabilities of different lubricant formulations (containing group III base oil, additives and OSP HVI) on different engine parts. An initial optimization of the individual formulation components was realized to reduce the friction as much as possible whilst still maintaining wear protection performance. Additives were chosen to interact synergistically with OSP HVI. A second optimization was subsequently carried out using the whole engine in a friction torque…
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Particle and Gaseous Emissions from a Heavy-Duty SI Gas Engine over WHTC Driving Cycles

Istituto Motori, CNR-Pierpaolo Napolitano, Chiara Guido, Carlo Beatrice, Valentina Fraioli, Salvatore Alfuso
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2222
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
The use of gaseous fuels in internal combustion engines is increasing, due to several reasons, first of all their low environmental impact, large availability and low cost. Nevertheless, the need to reduce emissions also from gas engines is an important aspect to be considered in order to comply with future engine emissions regulations.In this scenario, an extensive experimental activity was performed to fully characterize an heavy duty spark ignition engine, under development for Euro VI compliance and designed to run with gaseous fuels. Two separate sets of experiments were carried out, in order to analyze the engine behavior when burning LPG and CNG, respectively. To this aim, the engine was installed on a dynamic test bench, accurately instrumented to characterize the combustion evolution, performance and exhaust pollutant emissions, along the World Harmonized Transient Cycle (WHTC), the new European driving homologation cycle.The main part of the manuscript addresses the analysis of the exhaust particulate emissions, in terms of soot concentration, particle number (PN) and particle size distribution function (PSDF). More in detail, a photo-acoustic sensor and…
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