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Design and Sustainability Assessment of Lightweight Concept for an Automotive Car Module

Benteler-Joern Toelle
Toyota Motor Europe-Martin Kerschbaum
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-37-0033
To be published on 2020-06-23 by SAE International in United States
Recently sustainability has become a priority for industry production. This issue is even more valid for the automotive sector, where Original Equipment Manufacturers have to address the environmental protection additionally to traditional design issues. Against this background, many research and industry advancements are concentrated in the development of lightweight car components through the application of new materials and manufacturing technologies. The paper deals with an innovative lightweight design solution for the bumper system module of a B-segment car. The study has been developed within the Affordable LIght-weight Automobiles AlliaNCE (ALLIANCE) project, funded by the Horizon 2020 framework programme of the European Commission. A bumper demonstrator, that is currently in series production and mainly consists of conventional aluminum materials, is re-engineered making use of 7000 series aluminum alloys. The design alternatives are described and assessed regarding the achieved weight saving. The study is complemented by a sustainability assessment of the different modules performed through the Life Cycle Assessment methodology. The analysis takes into account production, use and End-of-Life stages and the results are expressed in terms…
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How well can mPEMS measure gas phase motor vehicle exhaust emissions?

Ford Motor Company-Diep Vu, Joseph Szente, Michael Loos, Matti Maricq
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0369
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
“Real world emissions” is an emerging area of focus in motor vehicle related air quality. These emissions are commonly recorded using portable emissions measurement systems (PEMS) designed for regulatory application, which are large, complex and costly. Miniature PEMS (mPEMS) is a developing technology that can significantly simplify on-board emissions measurement and potentially promote widespread use. Whereas full PEMS use analyzers to record NOx, CO, and HCs similar to those in emissions laboratories, mPEMS tend to use electrochemical sensors and compact spectroscopic detectors for their small size and low cost. The present work evaluates this approach by comparing measurements of NOx, CO, CO2 and HC emissions from five commercial mPEMS to both laboratory and full regulatory PEMS measurements. It further examines the use of vehicle on-board diagnostics data to calculate exhaust flow, as an alternative to on-vehicle exhaust flow measurement. The evaluations include two vehicle types, gasoline direct injection and diesel, and employ the US EPA and Worldwide Harmonized Light duty drive cycles. The results show that two classes of electrochemical NOx sensors are capable of…
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Using Transmission Data to Isolate Individual Losses in Coastdown Road Load Coefficients

US Environmental Protection Agency-Andrew Moskalik
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1064
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
As part of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s continuing assessment of advanced light-duty automotive technologies in support of regulatory and compliance programs, multiple transmissions have been benchmarked to determine their efficiency during operation. The benchmarking included a modified “coastdown test,” with the transmission on an engine dynamometer, to measure the transmission output drag as a function of speed while in neutral. The transmission drag data can be represented in quadratic form, similar to that used for vehicle coastdown test results, as F0 + F1V + F2V2, where V is the vehicle velocity. When evaluating the transmission test data, the relationships among the three coefficients found to be highly predictable, and in some cases the magnitude of the coefficients were quite large. Additionally, for some tested transmissions the deviation between the quadratic regression and the measured drag at individual velocities can be significant. To evaluate the effect of transmission losses in vehicle coastdown tests, the coastdown and dynamometer coefficients were pulled from the EPA’s published “Data on Cars used for Testing Fuel Economy” for an entire…
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Analysis of Drivability Influence on Tailpipe Emissions in Early Stages of a Vehicle Development Program by Means of Engine-in-the-Loop Test Benches

FEV Europe GmbH-Stefan Tegelkamp, Michael Görgen, Martin Nijs, Johannes Scharf
RWTH Aachen University-Christian Heusch, Daniel Guse, Frank Dorscheidt, Johannes Claßen, Timm Fahrbach, Stefan Pischinger
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0373
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Due to increasing environmental awareness, standards for pollutant and CO2 emissions are getting stricter in most markets around the world. In important markets such as Europe, also the emissions during real road driving, so called “Real Driving Emissions” (RDE), are now part of the type approval process for passenger cars. In addition to the proceeding hybridization and electrification of vehicles, the complexity and degrees of freedom of conventional powertrains with internal combustion engines (ICE) are also continuing to increase in order to comply with stricter exhaust emission standards. Besides the different requirements placed on vehicle emissions, the drivability capabilities of passenger vehicles desired by customers, are essentially important and vary between markets. As the interactions between different hardware and software parts of the powertrain strongly influence the drivability characteristics of a vehicle, a high degree of maturity of test vehicles is required to execute drivability calibration tasks with a reliable evidence. Hence, these calibration and evaluation tasks are generally conducted in late phases of the vehicle development process where the engines base calibration is already…
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Benchmarking a 2018 Toyota Camry UB80E Eight-Speed Automatic Transmission

US Environmental Protection Agency-Andrew Moskalik, Mark Stuhldreher, John Kargul
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1286
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
As part of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA’s) continuing assessment of advanced light-duty automotive technologies in support of regulatory and compliance programs, a 2018 Toyota Camry front wheel drive eight-speed automatic transmission was benchmarked. The benchmarking data were used as inputs to EPA’s Advanced Light-duty Powertrain and Hybrid Analysis (ALPHA) vehicle simulation model to estimate GHG emissions from light-duty vehicles.ALPHA requires both detailed engine fuel consumption maps and transmission torque loss maps. EPA’s National Vehicle and Fuels Emissions Laboratory has developed a streamlined, cost-effective in-house method of transmission testing, capable of gathering a dataset sufficient to characterize transmissions within ALPHA. This testing methodology targets the range of transmission operation observed during vehicle testing over EPA’s city and highway drive cycles.With this method, the transmission is tested as a complete system, as opposed to disassembling the transmission components and testing each separately. This paper describes the benchmarking process used to gather transmission data and the test results obtained. A UB80E eight-speed automatic transmission from a 2018 Toyota Camry was installed in an engine dynamometer test…
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Sensitivity Analysis of Aerodynamic Drag Coefficient to EPA Coastdown Ambient Condition Variation

FCA US LLC-Todd Lounsberry, John Tripp, Gregory Fadler
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0666
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The test cycle average drag coefficient is examined for the variation of allowable EPA coastdown ambient conditions. Coastdown tests are ideally performed with zero wind and at SAE standard conditions. However, often there is some variability in actual ambient weather conditions during testing, and the range of acceptable conditions is further examined in detail as it pertains to the effect on aerodynamic drag derived from the coastdown data. In order to “box” the conditions acceptable during a coastdown test, a sensitivity analysis was performed for wind averaged drag ((CDW ) ̅) as well as test cycle averaged drag coefficients (CDWC) for the fuel economy test cycles. Test cycle average drag for average wind speeds up to 16 km/h and temperatures ranging from 5C to 35C, along with variation of barometric pressure and relative humidity are calculated. The significant effect of ambient cross winds on coastdown determined drag coefficient is demonstrated.
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Impact of multi-mode range and location on fuel economy on a light-duty spark-ignition based powertrain using vehicle system simulations

Oak Ridge National Laboratory-Scott Curran, Robert Wagner
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1018
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Advanced compression ignition (ACI) modes have been shown to offer higher brake thermal efficiency than conventional spark ignition combustion with gasoline range fuels. The goal of a full-time ACI in which an ACI mode can be operated in over the entire speed and load map in a conventional passenger vehicle have been limited to date. The benefits of running ACI modes in a portion of the engine operating map have been shown in a number of studies to have potential benefits on improving fuel economy and reducing emissions. An engine that runs in two different combustion modes is known as a multi-mode strategy. Different multi-mode strategies have been proposed and demonstrated in laboratory and in demo vehicle settings. Multi-mode combustion strategies for vehicle applications offer the ability to maintain functionality expected for the real-world and certification driving cycles but offer part-time higher-efficiency/ lower emissions operation during a sufficient portion of the expected drive/duty cycle to offer significant fuel economy benefits as well as potential emissions controls benefits. There are challenges as well in both combustion…
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Motor Vehicle Emission Control Quality Monitoring for On-Road Driving: Dynamic Signature Recognition of NOx & NH3 Emissions

US Environmental Protection Agency-Xiaoguo Tang, John Kargul, Dan McBryde
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0372
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Motor vehicle emission testing during on-road driving is important to assess a vehicle’s exhaust emission control design, its compliance with Federal regulations and its impact on air quality. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has been developing new approaches to screen the characteristics of vehicle dynamic emission control behaviors (its operating signature) while driving both on-road and on-dynamometer. The so-called “signature device” used for this testing is equipped with an O2/NOx sensor, thermocouple and GPS to record dynamic exhaust NOx concentration, air fuel ratio-controlled tailpipe lambda (λ), tailpipe temperature and vehicle speed (acceleration).In the early EPA research, signature screening was used to characterize a vehicle’s PCM control behaviors (cause/effect bijectivity), which help distinguish operation in normal control state-space and abnormal state-space. Currently, signature devices are being used to recognize when ammonia (NH3) has been emitted and to estimate the presence of NOx and NH3 within on-road and on-dyno driving. The presence of NH3 is observed by the signature device’s NOx sensor at times when tailpipe lambda readings are biased rich, after the engine three-way-catalyst (TWC)…
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Statistical Model for the Prediction of Shift Points for Manual Motorcycles

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency-Peter James Caffrey
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1046
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Emissions from manual transmission motorcycles have been shown to be dependent upon transmission shift patterns. Presently, when undergoing an emission test for EPA certification a manufacturer can designate their own shift points during the cycle or utilize an Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) prescribed shift pattern which uses basic up or down shifts at specific speeds regardless of the type of motorcycle. In order to predict the real-life emissions from motorcycles, a comparative real-life shift pattern has been developed which can then be used to evaluate the suitability of the manufacturer’s shift schedule. To that end, a model that predicts shift points for motorcycles has been created. This model is based on the actual operation of different motorcycles by real life operators in a combined city and highway operational setting. Recognizing that no model is sufficient to adequately predict user operation in all situations, this model maintains a degree of flexibility in allowing the user to designate various limits to the shift probability, thus representing various rider scenarios. This would include a broad range of probability…
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Review of Nitrous Oxide (N2O) Emissions from Motor Vehicles

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Desert Research Institute, USA-S. Kent Hoekman
  • Journal Article
  • 04-13-01-0005
Published 2020-02-27 by SAE International in United States
Nitrous oxide (N2O) is both an ozone depleting gas and a potent greenhouse gas (GHG), having a global warming potential (GWP) value nearly 300 times that of carbon dioxide (CO2). While long known to be a trace by-product of combustion, N2O was not considered a pollutant of concern until the introduction of the three-way catalyst (TWC) on light-duty gasoline vehicles in the 1980s. These precious metal-containing catalysts were found to increase N2O emissions substantially. Through extensive research efforts, the effects of catalyst type, temperature, air/fuel ratio, space velocity, and other factors upon N2O emissions became better understood. Although not well documented, N2O emissions from non-catalyst vehicles probably averaged 5-10 mg/mi (on the standard FTP test), while early generation TWC-equipped vehicles exceeded 100 mg/mi. As emissions control systems evolved to meet increasingly stringent criteria pollutant standards, N2O emissions also decreased. Today’s Tier 3 vehicles are required to meet a U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) N2O tailpipe standard of 10 mg/mi. N2O emissions from diesel engines and vehicles became of concern in the 2000s, when catalytic control…
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