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Mahindra & Mahindra Ltd-Karthik Govindaraj, K V Balaji, Murukesan Vimalathithan, Gandhi Samir, Ladhe Rajesh
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2562
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
In this paper, mold in color diamond white ASA material has been explored for front bumper grill, fender arch extension and hinge cover applications. Other than aesthetic requirements, these parts have precise fitment requirement under sun load condition in real world usage profile. Structural durability of the design was validated by virtual engineering. Part design and material combinations with better tooling design iterations were analysed by using mold flow analysis. Complete product performances were validated for predefined key test metrics such as structural durability, thermal aging, cold impact, scratch resistance, and weathering criteria. This part met required specification. This mold in color ASA material-based parts has various benefits such as environmentally friendly manufacturing by eliminating environmental issues of coating, easily recycled, and faster part production because intended color achieved in one step during molding. Also, it lowers overall production energy footprint, less scrap with no secondary painting, and lower final part cost by eliminating secondary operations.

Approach for standardization of Advanced Driving Assistance System (ADAS) in India

International Centre For Automotive Tech.-Aditi Sethi
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2464
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Authors: Aditi Sethi1, Siddhanta Shrivastava2, Madhusudan Joshi3 Organization: 1,2,3 International Centre for Automotive Technology, Manesar Introduction: With the increasing utilization of electronics in Indian automobile industry, there is an essential requirement for standardizing the functional safety of sub-systems that constitute advanced driving assistance system (ADAS) as it would be the foundation stone for the automated vehicles in future. These systems assist the driver and the driving process, further increasing the car safety and road safety, subsequently reducing human error. Due to interaction of several electronic control units (ECUs) in a vehicle and complexity of the system, electronic stability plays a vital role. Therefore, the standards shall be more performance oriented and technology neutral. They shall also cover validation tests associated with safety, mechanical rigidity, durability, environmental protection and electromagnetic compatibility. Standardization of ADAS would authenticate the quality, regulate and smoothen the uniform implementation of these sub-systems. Interestingly the standardization of ADAS is in progress at the international level. It is therefore pertinent to consider adoption, formulation or both of international standards as a part of…

Development of Systematic Technique for Design of Electric Motor Mounting System in EV/ HEV Application

Automotive Research Association of India-Ravindra Kumar, Mayur Shimpi
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2508
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Last decade has been era of environmental awareness. Various programs have launched for making devices and appliances eco-friendly. This initiative has lead automobile industry toward hybridization and now total electrification of vehicles. Electric motor produce high frequency vibration along with high torque. Hence it needs to be isolated properly & carefully as these vibrations can damage other automobile parts. Dynamic response of electric motor is different from response of IC engines, so use of engine mounting design method is not suitable for designing mounting system for electric motor mounting system. In design of electric motor mounting, position and orientation of elastomeric mounts plays important role. Mounts used in passive vibration isolation are made up of elastomeric material which are stiff and resilient in nature. Ideal positions for elastomeric mounts are found by drawing free body diagrams (FBD) of force distribution on mount due to electric motor at various position in a single plane. Both 4- point and 3- point mounting system are designed and considered for analytical and experimental investigation of force and displacement transmissibility.…

Calculation of Drag Torque Losses by Component of a Transfer Case

Magna Powertrain of America, Inc.-Ricardo Rivera Rodriguez, Carlos Martinez
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2605
To be published on 2019-10-22 by SAE International in United States
In recent decades, fuel economy has become a key indicator of an automaker social responsibility and a market differentiation factor, and ultimately it is regulated by government agencies such as EPA through CO2 emissions compliance tests. The light pick-up truck and SUV production share has been increasing in the last few years, being the 4-wheel drive capability one of the main features that the customers look for. Within the 4-wheel drive system, the transfer case has a significant impact to both torque transfer efficiency and parasitic losses. The scope of this paper is to better understand the parasitic losses of a transfer case by the quantification of its individual drag losses by component. At product development phase, one measurement of interest is the system level spin loss which has a target value defined by the automakers, and contribution by component is often neglected if the system has the expected performance. This study summarizes the tests performed on a 2-speed chain driven transfer case, where as a first step, a baseline spin loss measurement was taken,…

Design Considerations and Analysis of Electric Microcar for Cities

VNR VJIET-Amjad Shaik, Raju Tappa, Prashanth Kannan, Pavan Bharadwaja Bhaskar, Srinivasa Rao Talluri
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-0161
To be published on 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
Increasing concerns about environmental issues, such as global warming and pollutant emissions have made increase in energy efficiency and emission reduction a primary concern for automobiles. In addition, the compounding effects of adding personal vehicles, increasing density of road traffic and intensifying parking difficulties are indirectly promoting proliferation of small-size vehicles in large cities. Hence, there is a need to develop a microcar with zero emission. Thus, electric microcar is probably the simplest, green and energy efficient vehicle that relatively affordable and easily manoeuvrable in cities. However, a careful analysis is required in order to properly evaluate the propulsion system component sizing, vehicle dimension, performance and weight. This paper mainly focuses on design options and modelling of electric microcar using hub motors followed by analysis. A two seater electric microcar analytical model using MATLAB has been carried out for sizing of powertrain elements. CAD modelling of tubular frame chassis using solid works followed by analysis using ANSYS is also carried out. A successful deployment of an electric microcar is need of the hour to meet…

Virtual Investigation of Real Fuels by Means of 3D-CFD Engine Simulations

FKFS-Francesco Cupo, Marco Chiodi
Technical Univ of Munich-Daniel Koch, Georg Wachtmeister
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-24-0090
To be published on 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
The worldwide environmental issues are affecting the development processes in all industrial sectors. Among these, the automotive is probably the one facing the toughest challenges. The reduction of both harmful emissions (CO, HC, NOx, etc.) and gases responsible for greenhouse effects (especially CO2) are mandatory aspects to be considered in the development process of any kind of propulsion concept. A comprehensive well-to-wheel analysis – in comparison with the less inclusive yet very common tank-to-wheel approach – is for sure the most appropriate way in order to effectively measure future progresses. All mobility scenarios until 2050 confirm that internal combustion engines (ICEs) will still play an important role (especially as hybrid-solutions) for passenger cars and even more for trucks and marine applications. Focusing on ICEs, the main development topics are today not only the reduction of harmful emissions, increase of thermodynamic efficiency, etc. but also the decarbonization of the fuels. The last point offers the highest potential for the reduction of CO2 emissions. Following this approach, the development of future ICEs is closely linked to the…

Definition and Measurement of Transfer Case Speed-Dependent Parasitic Loss

Drivetrain Standards Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J2985_201907
  • Current
Published 2019-07-17 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Recommended Practice covers transfer cases used in passenger car and light truck applications. Transfer cases are of the chain, geared, manually and electronically shifted types although other configurations are possible. The operating points (speeds, temperatures, etc.) were chosen to mirror those of the United States Environmental Protection Agency Vehicle Chassis Dynamometer Driving Schedules (DDS).
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The Effect of NO2/NOx Ratio on the Performance of a SCR Downstream of a SCR Catalyst on a DPF

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Michigan Technological University, USA-Venkata Rajesh Chundru, Gordon G. Parker, John H. Johnson
  • Journal Article
  • 04-12-02-0008
Published 2019-06-14 by SAE International in United States
Different aftertreatment systems consisting of a combination of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) and SCR catalyst on a diesel particulate filter (DPF) (SCR-F) are being developed to meet future oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions standards being set by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the California Air Resources Board (CARB). One such system consisting of a SCRF® with a downstream SCR was used in this research to determine the system NOx reduction performance using experimental data from a 2013 Cummins 6.7L ISB (Interact System B) diesel engine and model data. The contribution of the three SCR reactions on NOx reduction performance in the SCR-F and the SCR was determined based on the modeling work. The performance of a SCR was simulated with a one-dimensional (1D) SCR model. A NO2/NOx ratio of 0.5 was found to be optimum for maximizing the NOx reduction and minimizing NH3 slip for the SCR for a given value of ammonia-to-NOx ratio (ANR). The SCRF® + SCR system was simulated using the 2D SCR-F + 1D SCR system model. For all the…
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Synchros, General Specification for

AE-7A Generators and Controls Motors and Magnetic Devices
  • Aerospace Standard
  • AS20708C
  • Current
Published 2019-06-05 by SAE International in United States
This specification relates to Synchros, 60 and 400 Hz. It is not complete in itself, but shall be used in conjunction with MIL-DTL-81963, in which the latter shall be recognized as forming an inherent part of this specification. This standard requires a Qualified Products List (see 6.4).
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Cleaner Trucks Initiative starts NOx-reduction journey

SAE Truck & Off-Highway Engineering: June 2019

Bruce Morey
  • Magazine Article
  • 19TOFHP06_12
Published 2019-06-01 by SAE International in United States

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is in the beginning stages of establishing new NOx regulations for heavy-duty on-highway trucks. The agency is spurred by advances in technology and a desire to streamline the certification process.

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