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MOLD IN COLOR DIAMOND WHITE ASA MATERIAL FOR AUTOMOTIVE EXTERIOR APPLICATION

Mahindra & Mahindra, Ltd.-Karthik Govindaraj, K V Balaji, Murukesan Vimalathithan, Gandhi Samir, Ladhe Rajesh
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2562
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
In this paper, mold in color diamond white ASA material has been explored for front bumper grill, fender arch extension and hinge cover applications. Other than aesthetic requirements, these parts have precise fitment requirement under sun load condition in real world usage profile. Structural durability of the design was validated by virtual engineering. Part design and material combinations with better tooling design iterations were analysed by using mold flow analysis. Complete product performances were validated for predefined key test metrics such as structural durability, thermal aging, cold impact, scratch resistance, and weathering criteria. This part met required specification. This mold in color ASA material-based parts has various benefits such as environmentally friendly manufacturing by eliminating environmental issues of coating, easily recycled, and faster part production because intended color achieved in one step during molding. Also, it lowers overall production energy footprint, less scrap with no secondary painting, and lower final part cost by eliminating secondary operations.
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Approach for standardization of Advanced Driving Assistance System (ADAS) in India

International Centre for Automotive Technology-Aditi Sethi
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2464
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Authors: Aditi Sethi1, Siddhanta Shrivastava2, Madhusudan Joshi3 Organization: 1,2,3 International Centre for Automotive Technology, Manesar Introduction: With the increasing utilization of electronics in Indian automobile industry, there is an essential requirement for standardizing the functional safety of sub-systems that constitute advanced driving assistance system (ADAS) as it would be the foundation stone for the automated vehicles in future. These systems assist the driver and the driving process, further increasing the car safety and road safety, subsequently reducing human error. Due to interaction of several electronic control units (ECUs) in a vehicle and complexity of the system, electronic stability plays a vital role. Therefore, the standards shall be more performance oriented and technology neutral. They shall also cover validation tests associated with safety, mechanical rigidity, durability, environmental protection and electromagnetic compatibility. Standardization of ADAS would authenticate the quality, regulate and smoothen the uniform implementation of these sub-systems. Interestingly the standardization of ADAS is in progress at the international level. It is therefore pertinent to consider adoption, formulation or both of international standards as a part of…
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Calculation of Drag Torque Losses by Component of a Transfer Case

Magna Powertrain of America, Inc.-Ricardo Rivera Rodriguez, Carlos Martinez
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2605
Published 2019-10-22 by SAE International in United States
In recent decades, fuel economy has become a key indicator of an automaker corporate social responsibility and a market differentiation factor, and ultimately it is regulated by government agencies such as EPA through CO2 emissions compliance tests. The light pick-up truck and SUV production share has been increasing in the last few years, being 4-wheel drive capability one of the main features that customers seek. Within the 4-Wheel Drive system, the transfer case has a significant impact to both torque transfer efficiency and parasitic losses. The scope of this paper is to better understand the parasitic losses of a transfer case by the quantification of its individual drag losses by component. At product development phases, one measurement of interest is the system level spin loss which has a target value defined by the automakers, and contribution by component is often neglected if the system has the expected performance. This study summarizes the tests performed on a 2-speed chain driven transfer case, where as a first step, a baseline spin loss measurement was taken, then the…
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Design Considerations and Analysis of Electric Microcar for Cities

VNR VJIET-Amjad Shaik, Raju Tappa, Prashanth Kannan, Pavan Bharadwaja Bhaskar, Srinivasa Rao Talluri
Published 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
Increasing concerns about environmental issues, such as global warming and pollutant emissions have made increase in energy efficiency and emission reduction a primary concern for automobiles. In addition, the compounding effects of adding personal vehicles, increasing density of road traffic and intensifying parking difficulties are indirectly promoting proliferation of small-size vehicles in large cities. Hence, there is a need to develop a microcar with zero emission. Thus, electric microcar is probably the simplest, green and energy efficient vehicle that relatively affordable and easily maneuverable in cities. However, a careful analysis is required in order to properly evaluate the propulsion system component sizing, vehicle dimension, performance and weight. This paper mainly focuses on design options and modeling of electric microcar using hub motors followed by analysis. A two seater electric microcar analytical model using MATLAB has been carried out for sizing of powertrain elements. CAD modeling of tubular frame chassis using solid works followed by analysis using ANSYS is also carried out. A successful deployment of an electric microcar is need of the hour to meet…
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Method for Predicting Lateral Attenuation of Airplane Noise

A-21 Aircraft Noise Measurement Aviation Emission Modeling
  • Aerospace Standard
  • AIR5662
  • Current
Published 2019-10-04 by SAE International in United States
This document describes analytical methods for calculating the attenuation of the level of the sound propagating from an airplane to locations on the ground and to the side of the flight path of an airplane during ground roll, climbout after liftoff, and landing operations. Both level and non-level ground scenarios may be modeled using these methods, however application is only directly applicable to terrain without significant undulations, which may cause multiple reflections and/or multiple shielding effects. This attenuation is termed lateral attenuation and is in excess of the attenuation from wave divergence and atmospheric absorption. The methods for calculating the lateral attenuation of the sound apply to: turbofan-powered transport-category airplanes with engines mounted at the rear of the fuselage (on the sides of the fuselage or in the center of the fuselage as well as on the sides) or under the wings propeller-driven transport-category or general-aviation airplanes propagation over ground surfaces that may be considered to be “acoustically soft” such as lawn or field grass situations where the terrain to the sides of the flight…
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Test Procedure to Determine the Hydrocarbon Losses from Fuel Tubes, Hoses, Fittings, and Fuel Line Assemblies by Recirculation

Fuel Systems Standards Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J1737_201908
  • Current
Published 2019-08-26 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Recommended Practice is intended for the determination of the losses of hydrocarbon fluids, by permeation through component walls, as well as through "microleaks" at interfaces of assembled components while controlling temperature and pressure independently of each other. This is achieved in a recirculating system in which elements of a test fuel that permeate through the walls of a test specimen and migrate through the interfaces are transported by a controlled flow of dry nitrogen to a point where they are measured. That measurement point is a device, such as a canister containing activated charcoal or other means of collection or accumulation where the hydrocarbon losses are then measured by weight change or analyzed by some other suitable means.
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Aerospace Fluid Power - Waste Reduction Practices for Used Phosphate Ester Aviation Hydraulic Fluid

A-6C3 Fluids Committee
  • Aerospace Standard
  • AIR5277B
  • Current
Published 2019-08-22 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) covers the generation of used phosphate ester aviation hydraulic fluid (AS1241) that is deemed waste because it does not meet in-service limits for use in aircraft. This document also lists the relevant United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) regulations on used hydraulic fluid that are in force at the time of this report's publication. Regulations of other countries as well as those for states and municipalities should be consulted prior to initiating any of the waste disposal recommendations listed here.
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Air Cycle Air Conditioning Systems for Air Vehicles

AC-9 Aircraft Environmental Systems Committee
  • Aerospace Standard
  • AS4073B
  • Current
Published 2019-08-20 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) defines the requirements for air cycle air conditioning systems used on military air vehicles for cooling, heating, ventilation, and moisture and contamination control. General recommendations for an air conditioning system, which may include an air cycle system as a cooling source, are included in MIL-E-18927E and JSSG-2009. Air cycle air conditioning systems include those components which condition high temperature and high pressure air for delivery to occupied and equipment compartments and to electrical and electronic equipment. This document is applicable to open and closed loop air cycle systems. Definitions are contained in Section 5 of this document.
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Recommended Practice for Pass-Thru Vehicle Programming

Vehicle E E System Diagnostic Standards Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J2534_201907
  • Current
Published 2019-07-29 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Recommended Practice provides the framework to allow reprogramming software applications from all vehicle manufacturers the flexibility to work with multiple vehicle data link interface tools from multiple tool suppliers. This system enables each vehicle manufacturer to control the programming sequence for electronic control units (ECU’s) in their vehicles, but allows a single set of programming hardware and vehicle interface to be used to program modules for all vehicle manufacturers. This document does not limit the hardware possibilities for the connection between the PC used for the software application and the tool (e.g., RS-232, RS-485, USB, Ethernet…). Tool suppliers are free to choose the hardware interface appropriate for their tool. The goal of this document is to ensure that reprogramming software from any vehicle manufacturer is compatible with hardware supplied by any tool manufacturer. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the California Air Resources Board (ARB) have proposed requirements for reprogramming vehicles for all manufacturers by the aftermarket repair industry. This document is intended to meet those proposed requirements for 2004 model year…
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Definition and Measurement of Transfer Case Speed-Dependent Parasitic Loss

Drivetrain Standards Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J2985_201907
  • Current
Published 2019-07-17 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Recommended Practice covers transfer cases used in passenger car and light truck applications. Transfer cases are of the chain, geared, manually and electronically shifted types although other configurations are possible. The operating points (speeds, temperatures, etc.) were chosen to mirror those of the United States Environmental Protection Agency Vehicle Chassis Dynamometer Driving Schedules (DDS).
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