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Study on the decision process of basic specification in development of general purpose engine

Honda R&D Co., Ltd.-Takayuki Aoki, Takahiro Tsuchiyama
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-32-0580
To be published on 2020-01-24 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
Social interest in global environmental issues has remained in the forefront during recent years, and as a result, internal combustion engines are expected to have further improved fuel efficiency and reduced exhaust emissions. General purpose engines are demanded for reduced cost in addition to various types of displacement developments. If optimum specifications are examined for each engine displacement and incorporated in the parts shapes, the number of dedicated parts for each engine displacement would increase, which is not desirable from a development/production cost-wise standpoint. It is considered important during the development of engines to efficiently and economically cope with market needs including improved specific power and fuel consumption. Therefore, it was considered necessary to improve combustion performance by enhanced in-cylinder flow and to commonize parts. Then, this study was designed to establish an approach for decision of engine specifications with the perspective of multiple displacement development after satisfying the target performance by combustion improvement. The long stroke and valve angle were adjusted so as to examine specifications that enable enhanced in-cylinder flow with multiple displacements.…

Study of OBD stageII Misfire Detection System for Small Motorcycles

Aisan Industry Co., Ltd.-Satoshi MIWA, Yuki IIBOSHI, Hirotaka FUKUTA
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-32-0511
To be published on 2020-01-24 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
In recent years, the shift to Fuel Injection (FI) system for motorcycles has been accelerated in response to the enhancement of exhaust emission regulations and the improvement of fuel efficiency for global environmental protection. In addition, On Board Diagnostics (OBD) was introduced to inform users of vehicle abnormalities and failures and prevent from emission failure in the market. OBD stageII requires enlargement of requirements and threshold detection. Seven items are presented in the EU5, Bharat Stage 6 (BS6). The misfire detection in small motorcycles has several problems.First, for the small motorcycle, a single-cylinder engine is the main and its combustion behavior cannot be compared with other cylinders. Consequently, it is difficult to detect misfire. For misfire detection, we focused on the difference in crank angular velocity during combustion stroke between normal combustion and misfire. The greatest gap was in crank angular velocity occurs at 0-180° crank angle [°CA]. With that, misfire detection control is established.We confirmed from the above control that misfire could be detected in the whole engine speed or load within the regulation.…
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Heavy Duty Diesel Emission Standards Regulation Evolution Review - Current Outcomes and Future Perspectives

FCB Research and Consulting-Fábio Coelho Barbosa
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0174
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
Heavy duty vehicle (HDV) segment, as an important source of emissions that strongly impact air quality and human health - especially in urban centers - has been continuously challenged by the increasingly stringent emission limits. The adoption of emission standards for the heavy duty industry was initially launched by the United States, followed by the European Union and Japan, and, subsequently, by other countries, like Australia, Brazil, China and India, among others, generally with a time lag. This continuous “cleaning” effort has led to the current rigorous emission limits - materialized by the so called U.S. EPA 2010 and Euro VI and their foreign variants - which have provided huge emissions reductions (HC, CO, NOx, PM and smoke and, more recently, CO2). Nevertheless, due to air quality and global climate change concerns (basically derived from the air quality non compliance, associated with cities' pollution hotspots, as well as greenhouse gas emissions) there is still a regulatory demand for further emissions control improvement. In this scenario, the heavy duty vehicle industry has pursued not only increasingly…
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A Modeling Study of an Advanced Ultra-low NOx Aftertreatment System

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Michigan Technological University, USA-Venkata Rajesh Chundru, John H. Johnson, Gordon G. Parker
  • Journal Article
  • 04-13-01-0003
Published 2020-01-09 by SAE International in United States
The 2010 Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Emission Standard for heavy-duty engines required 0.2 g/bhp-hr over certification cycles (cold and hot Federal Test Procedure [FTP]), and the California Air Resources Board (CARB) standards require 0.02 g/bhp-hr for the same cycles leading to a 90% reduction of overall oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions. Similar reductions may be considered by the EPA through its Cleaner Trucks Initiative program. In this article, aftertreatment system components consisting of a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC); a selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst on a diesel particulate filter (DPF), or SCR-F; a second DOC (DOC2); and a SCR along with two urea injectors have been analyzed, which could be part of an aftertreatment system that can achieve the 0.02 g/bhp-hr standard. The system performance was evaluated using validated one-dimensional (1D) DOC, two-dimensional (2D) SCR-F, and 1D SCR models at various combinations of inlet ammonia (NH3)-to-NOx ratio (ANR) values for the SCR-F and the SCR to determine the injection rates required to achieve an optimum nitrogen dioxide (NO2)/NOx ratio at the inlets of both the…
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Impact of Viscosity Index Improvers (VII) on the formation of piston deposits in fuel economy engine oils

Evonik Oil Additives Asia Pacific Pte. Ltd., 2019-Kien-Wee Tan,
Evonik Resource Efficiency GmbH-Boris Eisenberg, Philip A. Hutchinson, Frank Lauterwasser
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2202
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
In the recent years, the achievement of fuel economy through lower viscosity engine oil has been a topic of wide discussions among experts in the industry. Along this journey of engine oil evolution, new classes of Viscosity Index Improver (VIIs) have been developed in order to meet the challenges arising from either hardware re-engineering, environmental protection or both. In relation to this, the continuous tightening of the CO2 emission level from the authorities has made the situation even tougher for many OEMs and formulators worldwide. While the fuel economy performance in an engine has been intensively investigated, little has been published on the durability aspects of these VIIs nor other aspects such as cleanliness and piston deposits. In this paper, we will present no-harm test results for deposit formation comparing novel comb polymers and conventional hydrocarbon VIIs such as OCPs. The formation of coke like deposits has been studied on low viscosity engine oils in both engine and bench tests. The results from the TDI engine test are compared with test results on the same…
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Design & Development of Advanced 48 V Electrified Powertrain for Meeting Future CO2 Emission Requirements

Mercedes-Benz R&D India Pvt Ltd.-Chandrakant Palve, Pushkaraj Tilak
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2487
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) study indicates that a typical passenger vehicle emits about 4.6 metric tons of carbon dioxide per year. ICCT (International Council on Clean Transportation) establishing fleet-average emissions targets of 95 g & 175 g CO2 per kilometer for passenger cars & light commercial vehicles respectively. In view of the same, extensive work has been executed for implementation of 48 V electrified drivetrain technology, which plays an important role to meet stringent CO2 emission norms. A 3-phase permeant magnet Electric Motor and associated inverter, including the Packaging of the battery, for a P3 hybrid rear drive vehicle was developed. The requirements, relating to design of 48 V drivetrain technology, power and duty cycle has been extensively addressed in the paper. The Objective of paper to propose low cost, lightweight & compact solution to Global Automotive industry, which will play an important role to mitigate stringent CO2 emission norms defined by EPA agency. The permanent magnet compact size Electric motor having rated capacity of 28 kW & torque of 74 Nm supplied by a…
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Mold in Color Diamond White ASA Material for Automotive Exterior Application

Mahindra & Mahindra, Ltd.-Karthik Govindaraj, K V Balaji, Murukesan Vimalathithan, Gandhi Samir, Ladhe Rajesh
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2562
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
In this paper, mold in color diamond white ASA material has been explored for front bumper grill, fender arch extension, claddings and hinge cover applications. Other than aesthetic requirements, these parts have precise fitment requirement under sun load condition in real world usage profile. Structural durability of the design was validated by virtual engineering. Part design and material combinations with better tooling design iterations were analyzed by using mold flow analysis. Complete product performances were validated for predefined key test metrics such as structural durability, thermal aging, cold impact, scratch resistance, and weathering criteria. This part met required specification. This mold in color ASA material-based parts has various benefits such as environmentally friendly manufacturing by eliminating environmental issues of coating, easily recycled, and faster part production because intended color achieved in one step during molding. Also, it lowers overall production energy footprint, less scrap with no secondary painting, and lower final part cost by eliminating secondary operations.
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Vacuum Excavation and Sewer Cleaning Equipment Classification and Nomenclature

MTC9, Trenching and Horizontal Earthboring Machines
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J3106_201911
  • Current
Published 2019-11-19 by SAE International in United States
This document lists common terminology for vacuum excavation and sewer cleaning equipment, including component names and specific work completed by these machines. This document also illustrates some common types of equipment.
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Requirements for Accreditation of Testing Laboratories for Organic Coatings

AMS G8 Aerospace Organic Coatings Committee
  • Aerospace Standard
  • AS5505A
  • Current
Published 2019-10-28 by SAE International in United States
This document provides interpretation of ISO/IEC 17025 and establishes additional requirements for accreditation of testing laboratories for evaluating organic coatings.
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Calculation of Drag Torque Losses by Component of a Transfer Case

Magna Powertrain of America, Inc.-Ricardo Rivera Rodriguez, Carlos Martinez
Published 2019-10-22 by SAE International in United States
In recent decades, fuel economy has become a key indicator of an automaker corporate social responsibility and a market differentiation factor, and ultimately it is regulated by government agencies such as EPA through CO2 emissions compliance tests. The light pick-up truck and SUV production share has been increasing in the last few years, being 4-wheel drive capability one of the main features that customers seek. Within the 4-Wheel Drive system, the transfer case has a significant impact to both torque transfer efficiency and parasitic losses. The scope of this paper is to better understand the parasitic losses of a transfer case by the quantification of its individual drag losses by component. At product development phases, one measurement of interest is the system level spin loss which has a target value defined by the automakers, and contribution by component is often neglected if the system has the expected performance. This study summarizes the tests performed on a 2-speed chain driven transfer case, where as a first step, a baseline spin loss measurement was taken, then the…
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