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Advanced Methods to handle LSPI in TGDI engines

MAHLE Engine Components India, Chennai-Hariprasath ARIVUKKARASU, Rajkumar Mani
Vellore Inst. of Technology, Vellore-Sekarapandian N, Ashok KANNAIYAN, Selvaraji Muthu
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-28-0008
To be published on 2020-04-30 by SAE International in United States
In order to meet the stringent emission norms like EU6 and EU7 together with CAFÉ/CAFC norms, down-sizing of the engine is one of the thrust areas of focus among the OEMs. To this end, keeping the engine size small but to achieve the required power output, advanced Turbo charged Gasoline Direct Injection engine technology (TGDI) has emerged. However, TGDI technology is susceptible to an abnormal combustion phenomenon termed as Low Speed Pre-Ignition (LSPI) event. This event happens prior to the intended combustion, which causes the catastrophic engine damage. Several studies in terms of simulation and experiments to understand this phenomenon are reported in the literature. The main factors influencing this occurrence are found to be engine design and calibration, fuel types and engine oil formulation (in terms of calcium content). In this paper, advanced methods to handle the LSPI occurrence severity and component level advances in design robustness to avoid the engine damage are reported. The developed techniques include robust piston design, advanced pin coating, Piston ring design and coating technologies. In overall, the techniques…
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The Development of JASO GLV-1 Next Generation Low Viscosity Automotive Gasoline Engine Oils Specification

Infineum Japan, Ltd.-Taisuke Miyoshi
JXTG Nippon Oil & Energy Corp.-Satoru Yoshida
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1426
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
It is well understood that using lower viscosity engine oils can greatly improve fuel economy [1, 2, 3, 4]. However, it has been impossible to evaluate ultra-low viscosity engine oils (SAE 0W-12 and below) utilizing existing fuel economy test methods. As such, there is no specification for ultra-low viscosity gasoline engine oils [5]. We therefore developed firing and motored fuel economy test methods for ultra-low viscosity oils using engines from Japanese automakers [6, 7, 8]. This was done under the auspices of the JASO Next Generation Engine Oil Task Force (“TF” below), which consists mainly of Japanese automakers and entities working in the petroleum industry. Moreover, the TF used these test methods to develop the JASO GLV-1 specification for next-generation ultra-low viscosity automotive gasoline engine oils such as SAE 0W-8 and 0W-12. In developing the JASO GLV-1 specification, Japanese fuel economy tests and the ILSAC engine tests for evaluating engine reliability were used. The fuel-saving performance and engine protection performance of four reference oils (two of them SAE 0W-8, the other two SAE 0W-16) and…
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Engineering Applications of Multi-Dimensional CFD Analysis of Lubrication System

Cummins India, Ltd.-Ranjit Tawar, Sandesh Chitnis, Sanjeev Bedekar
Simerics Inc.-Chiranth Srinivasan, ShyamSundar Pasunurthi, Veeranagouda Patil, Raj Ranganathan, Dipak Maiti
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1110
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
This paper reports on a rigorous, transient, three-dimensional CFD analysis of the complete lubrication system of automotive internal combustion engines. The computational domain of such a model is vast and includes scores of bearings as well as components such as the pump, pressure relief valve, oil filter, oil cooler, piston cooling jets etc. Thus far, the only publication on 3D CFD analysis of a complete engine lubrication system was for a 16-cylinder engine in which the feasibility and the potential engineering opportunities of such a model were demonstrated. The timelines for setting up and running such a complex CFD model are comparable to that of a 1D model. In this paper, the following four topics will be addressed: 1. Showcase the capability of the CFD software tool to accurately, robustly and reliably predict the engine lube system performance of a wide variety of automotive engines with same set of input constants i.e. no tuning. Best analysis practices were developed in order to achieve this goal by compensating for the variabilities that arise in a complex…
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Development of a Method to Measure Soft Particles from Diesel Type Fuels

KTH Royal Institute of Technology-Botond Csontos, Shriharsha Swarga, Hanna Bernemyr
Scania CV AB-Mayte Pach, Henrik Hittig
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0344
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Renewable fuels have an important role to create sustainable energy systems. In this paper the focus is on biodiesel, which is produced from vegetable oils or animal fats. Today biodiesel is mostly used as a drop-in fuel, mixed into conventional diesel fuels to reduce their environmental impact. Low quality drop-in fuel can lead to deposits throughout the fuel systems of heavy duty vehicles. In a previous study fuel filters from the field were collected and analyzed with the objective to determine the main components responsible for fuel filter plugging. The identified compounds were constituents of soft particles. In the current study, the focus was on metal carboxylates since these have been found to be one of the components of the soft particles and associated with other engine malfunctions as well. Hence the measurement of metal carboxylates in the fuel is important for future studies regarding the fuel’s effect on engines. The first aim of this study was to create synthetic soft particles from biodiesel. Accelerated aging of fuels with different contaminations such as engine oil…
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Effect of a Cylinder Deactivation Actuator with Electro-Mechanical Switching System on Fuel Economy of an Automotive Engine

Motonic Corporation-Dong Hyeong Lee, Wan Jae Jeon, Yong Seok Hong, Jong Wung Park
University of Ulsan-Dojoong Kim
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1408
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
This paper introduces a two-step CDA mechanism equipped with an electro-mechanical switching system, which can be applied to OHC valve trains with end pivot rocker arms, and can operate two valves simultaneously with a single cam. The electro-mechanical switching system is driven by a dedicated solenoid, so the latching and unlatching processes are not affected by the temperature and pressure of the engine oil. Therefore, not only the dynamic stability can be secured at the time of mode switching but also the operation delay time can be kept short enough. To verify the effect of the CDA system on the fuel economy, a four-cylinder 2.0L gasoline engine with the intake port injection was selected and tested on an engine dynamometer. The effect of the present apparatus was evaluated by measuring the fuel economy of the engine in the two test modes: Federal Test Procedure-75 (FTP-75) and Worldwide Harmonized Light Vehicles Test Procedure (WLTP). The optimal operating conditions were established which minimize the engine vibration, friction loss and the adverse effects on fuel efficiency. According to…
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Development of JASO GLV-1 0W-8 Low Viscosity Engine Oil for Improving Fuel Efficiency considering Oil Consumption and Engine Wear Performance

Aichi Machine Industry Co.,Ltd.-Keisuke Yoshida
Nissan Automotive Technology Co., Ltd.-Satoshi Kawamura
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1423
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Engine oil with viscosity lower than 0W-16 has been needed for improving fuel efficiency in the Japanese market. However, lower viscosity oil generally has negative aspects with regard to oil consumption and anti-wear performance. The technical challenges are to reduce viscosity while keeping anti-wear performance and volatility level the same as 0W-20 oil. They have been solved in developing a new engine oil by focusing on the molybdenum dithiocarbamate friction modifier and base oil properties. This paper describes the new oil that supports good fuel efficiency while reliably maintaining other necessary performance attributes.
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Development of a Novel Test System to Determine the Durability of RTV Gasket Material

FCA US LLC-Wensheng Zhang, Erich Gernand
Oakland University-Bingxu Wang, Gary Barber, Na Lyu
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1069
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
This paper describes a laboratory-based test system and procedure for determining the durability of RTV sealant with fretting movement. A test machine is described in which shear and tensile stress-generating displacements at room temperature and temperature of 100°C are produced to load an RTV seal. The test system utilizes an air pressurized hollow cylinder with a cap sealed by RTV sealant on a reciprocating test rig. An external air leakage monitoring system detects the health of the tested RTV seal. When air leakage occurs, the seal is determined to have failed. RTV sealant used in the test was fully cured at room temperature and then aged with engine oil. In the experiments, a total of 6 displacements were used to generate cycle/amplitude graphs for both shear and tensile modes. Failures were determined to be caused by the loss of adhesion in tensile mode, and by crack nucleation due to the special step design in shear mode. The results have validated the feasibility of the proposed test system and procedure, which can be used for durability…
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Development of Ultra Low Viscosity 0W-8 Engine Oil

JXTG Nippon Oil & Energy Corp.-Shintaro Kusuhara, Yu Misaki
Toyota Motor Corporation-Kazuo Yamamori, Yuta Uematsu, Kazuyoshi Manabe, Itsuki Miyata
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1425
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Further fuel economy improvement of the internal combustion engine is indispensable for CO2 reduction in order to cope with serious global environmental problems. Although lowering the viscosity of engine oil is an effective way to improve fuel economy, it may reduce the wear resistance. Therefore, it is important to achieve both improved fuel economy and reliability. We have developed new 0W- 8 engine oil of ultra-low viscosity and achieved an improvement in fuel economy by 0.8% compared to the commercial 0W-16 engine oil. For this new oil, we reduced the friction coefficient under boundary lubrication regime by applying an oil film former and calcium borate detergent. The film former increased the oil film thickness without increasing the oil viscosity. The calcium borate detergent enhanced the friction reduction effect of molybdenum dithiocarbamate (MoDTC). By applying these technologies, an engine oil was developed which successfully achieved desired fuel efficiency and reliability. The developed oil also met the new JASO GLV-1 specification.
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The Role of NOx in Engine Lubricant Oxidation

Infineum UK, Ltd.-David R. Coultas
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1427
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Fuel economy trends like engine downsizing and reduced piston ring tension have created challenging environments for modern engine oils which are expected to deliver more from less. Downsizing has led to smaller sumps meaning longer contact times of the lubricant with NOx in blow-by gasses. Fuel economy requirements have also demanded greater engine efficiency with increasing sump temperatures and blow-by rates due to reduced ring tension. These trends promote nitro-oxidation driven by the action of NOx and air on the lubricant. Nitro-oxidation has often been overlooked as a mechanism of oil oxidation in real world engines. Indeed, in bench oxidation tests purporting to protect modern engines against lubricant oxidation, the emphasis is almost exclusively on iron catalysed oxidation. This paper will show that a simple bench nitro-oxidation test is capable of reproducing trends in nitrate ester formation and consumption seen in real engines and demonstrate that lubricant oxidation and viscosity increase is accounted for by the action of NOx without the use of iron catalysts. This demonstrates that the initiation of lube oil oxidation in…
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A New Cavitation Algorithm to Support the Interpretation of LIF Measurements of Piston Rings

Technical University of Munich-Georg Wachtmeister
Technical University of Munich / Tenneco-Fabian H. Ruch
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1091
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Laser induced fluorescence (LIF) is used to investigate oil transport mechanisms under real engine conditions. The engine oil is mixed with a dye that can be induced by a laser. The emitted light intensity from the dye correlates with the residual oil at the sensor position and the resulting oil film thicknesses can be precisely determined for each crank angle. However, the general expectation is not always achieved, e.g. an exact representation of piston ring barrel shapes. In order to investigate the responsible lubrication effects of this behavior, a new cavitation algorithm for the Reynolds equation has been developed. The solution retains the mass conservation and does not use any switch function in its mathematical approach. In contrast to common approaches, no vapor-liquid ratio is used, but one or several bigger bubbles are approximated, as have been observed in other experiments already. As a result, not only the known boundary conditions for the Reynolds equation become unnecessary, but the solution also gives a clearer idea as to the shape of the cavitation bubble. The combination…