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How to Improve SI Engine Performances by Means of Supercritical Water Injection

University of Basilicata – Potenza 85100-Antonio Cantiani, Annarita Viggiano, Vinicio Magi
Published 2019-10-07 by SAE International in United States
The efficiency of ICEs is strongly affected by exhaust gases and engine cooling system heat losses, which account for about 50% of the heat released by combustion. A promising approach is to transfer this exhaust heat to a fluid, like water, and inject it into the combustion chamber under supercritical conditions. In such a way, the recovered energy is partially converted into mechanical work, improving both engine efficiency and performance.A quasi-dimensional model has been implemented to simulate an SI engine with supercritical water injection. Specifically, a spark ignition ICE, four-stroke with Port Fuel Injection (PFI) has been considered. The model accounts for gas species properties, includes valves opening/closing, wall heat transfer, a water injection model and a combustion model. The influence of some injection parameters, i.e. Water/Fuel ratio (W/F), Start Of water Injection (SOI) and Water Injection Duration (WID), on engine performances and efficiency is discussed in details.The results show that an increase of W/F ratio has the strongest impact on the performances with respect to SOI and WID, i.e. higher W/F ratio, SOI closer…
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Test Method for Measuring Performance of Engine Cooling Fans

Cooling Systems Standards Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J1339_201909
  • Current
Published 2019-09-30 by SAE International in United States

This SAE Recommended Practice is intended for use in testing and evaluating the approximate performance of engine driven cooling fans. This performance would include flow, pressure, and power. This flow and pressure information is used to estimate the engine cooling performance. This power consumption is used to estimate net engine power per SAE J1349. The procedure also provides a general description of equipment necessary to measure the approximate fan performance.

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Charge Air Cooler Internal Cleanliness, Leakage, and Nomenclature

Cooling Systems Standards Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J1726_201909
  • Current
Published 2019-09-05 by SAE International in United States

This SAE Recommended Practice provides test methods and criteria for evaluating the internal cleanliness and air leakage for engine charge air coolers. This SAE Recommended Practice also provides nomenclature and terminology in common use for engine charge air coolers, related charge air cooling system components, and charge air cooling system operational performance parameters.

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Glossary of Engine Cooling System Terms

Cooling Systems Standards Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J1004_201904
  • Current
Published 2019-04-22 by SAE International in United States
The objective of this glossary is to establish uniform definitions of parts and terminology for engine cooling systems. Components included are all those through which engine coolant is circulated: water pump, engine oil cooler, transmission and other coolant-oil coolers, charge air coolers, core engine, thermostat, radiator, external coolant tanks, and lines connecting them.
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Investigation of the Acoustic Surface Power on a Cooling Fan Using the Mesh Morpher Optimizer

Advanced Safety & Energy Inc.-Mike Kheirallah
Ford Motor Company-Abdallah Hamieh
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
A cooling fan is an essential device of the engine cooling system which is used to remove the heat generated inside the engine from the system. An essential element for successful fan designs is to evaluate the pressure over the fan blade since it can generate annoying noices, which have a negative impact on the fan’s performance and on the environment. Reducing the acoustic surface power will assist in building improved designs that comply with standards and regulations in achieving a more quiet environment. The usage of computational fluid dynamics (CFD), with support of mesh morphing, can provide simulation study for optimizing the shape of a fan blade to reduce the aeroacoustic effects. The investigation process will assist in examining and analyzing the acoustic performance of the prototype, impact of different parameters, and make a solid judgement about the model performance for improvement and optimization.This paper proposes a new strategy in evaluating the pressure distribution over a fan blade. CFD techniques and optimization methodology were applied to improve the acoustic surface power distribution over a…
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Modeling of Engine Aftertreatment System Cooling for Hybrid Vehicles

Linköping University-Olov Holmer, Lars Eriksson
Volvo Group Trucks Technology-Fredrik Blomgren
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Exhaust aftertreatment systems are essential components in modern powertrains, needed to reach the low legislated levels of NOx and soot emissions. A well designed diesel engine exhaust aftertreatment system can have NOx conversion rates above 95%. However, to achieve high conversion the aftertreatment system must be warm. Because of this, large parts of the total NOx emissions come from cold starts where the engine has been turned off long enough for the aftertreatment system to cool down and loose its capacity to reduce NOx. It is therefore important to understand how the aftertreatment cools down when the engine in turned off.Experimental data for a catalyst cool-down process is presented and analyzed. The analysis shows that it is important to capture the spatial distribution of temperatures both in axial and radial directions. The data and analysis are used to design a catalyst thermal model that can be used for model based catalyst temperature monitoring and control.
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Numerical Study of Single Bubble Nucleate Boiling Heat Transfer in Engine Cooling System

Cummins Technologies India Pvt. Limited-Milan Visaria
DESE, IIT Bombay, India-Shyamkumar P I, Suneet Singh
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
In the pursuit of extracting the most performance, engines are being continuously down sized and their power density continuously increased. This significantly increases the heat load on the engine for which the traditional cooling systems may not be sufficient. In the view of this fact; it is worth to explore controlled nucleate boiling to optimize engine cooling system designs. In order to utilize nucleate boiling in cooling systems, a detailed understanding of single bubble dynamics and its associated heat transfer is essential. In this work, a contact line evaporation model is developed which is then coupled to a conjugate surface to understand the individual contribution of micro layer and other sub processes towards overall heat transfer mechanism. The models use volume of fluid (VOF) interface capturing method and incorporates physics like contact line evaporation, transient conduction and bubble growth. For the assessment of the model, two fluids, water and a refrigerant (HFE7100) are studied and results are validated. The results indicate that micro layer heat transfer is significant to the overall heat flow. The contribution…
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Analysis of the Effect of Vehicle Platooning on the Optimal Control of a Heavy Duty Engine Thermal System

Penn State University-Brian Block, Brian Huynh, Stephen Boyle, Stephanie Stockar
Volvo Group Trucks Technology-Stephen Geyer, Jian Li, Jeffrey Huber
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
One promising method for reducing fuel consumption and emissions, particularly in heavy duty trucks, is platooning. As the distance between vehicles decreases, the following vehicles will experience less aerodynamic drag on the front of the vehicle. However, reducing the velocity of the air contacting the front of the vehicle could have adverse effects on the temperature of the engine. To compensate for this effect, the energy consumption of the engine cooling system might increase, ultimately limiting the overall improvements obtained with platooning. Understanding the coupling between drag reduction and engine cooling load requirement is key for successfully implementing platooning strategies. Additionally, in a Connected and Automated Vehicle (CAV) environment, where information of the future engine load becomes available, the operation of the cooling system can be optimized in order to achieve the maximum fuel consumption reduction. In this paper, a control-oriented physics-based model for the engine cooling loop of a Volvo engine is developed and validated against road data. Starting from the validated model, an optimal control problem for the coolant system is formulated considering…
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Development of 4-Cylinder 2.0L Gasoline Engine Cooling System Using 3-D CAE

Hyundai Motor Co.-TaeKyu Chang, Minkyu Park, Kyounghee Kim, Kwangsik Yang
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
To satisfy the global fuel economy restrictions getting stricter, various advanced cooling concepts, like active flow control strategy, cross-flow and fast warm-up, have been applied to the engine. Recently developed Hyundai’s next generation 4-cylinder 2.0L gasoline engine, also adopts several new cooling subsystems. This paper reviews how 3-D CAE analysis has been extensively used to evaluate cooling performance effectively from concept phase to pre-production phase. In the concept stage, the coolant flow in the water jacket of cylinder head and block was investigated to find out the best one among the proposed concepts and the further improvement of flow was also done by optimizing cylinder head gasket holes. Next, 3-D temperature simulation was conducted to satisfy the development criteria in the prototype stage before making initial test engines. A few design changes in water jacket to reduce the engine temperature or to enhance the productivity were considered and implemented on the developing engine. As new subsystems such as cylinder block inserts for fast warm-up, cylinder block embedded EGR cooler, cylinder head with an integrated exhaust…
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Thermal Management Analysis of Engine Compartment Based on 1D and 3D Coupling Simulation

ASCL of Jilin University-Jintao Zhang, Yingchao Zhang
South East (Fu Jian) Motor-Qing Xu, Mingyang Song, Ji Chen
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
At present, there are two main simulation methods for the engine compartment thermal management system, which are called one-dimensional(1D) and three-dimensional(3D) simulation. 1D simulation can reflect the overall performance parameters of the thermal management system. The 3D simulation provides a flow field distribution inside the engine compartment, that provides precise guidance for local temperature field control. In this paper, the 1D and 3D coupling simulation method was used in the development of automobile thermal management, which shortened the simulation cycle under the premise of ensuring the calculation accuracy. Firstly, the cold flow field simulation of the engine compartment was performed, and the relevant results such as air flow and pressure drop coefficient was imported into the 1D simulation model as an input parameter for correction, and the 1D calculation result was used as an input to calculate the 3D temperature field. The 3D simulation results showed that there was reflux around intercooler and condenser, and the surface of oil cooler has a temperature concentrated area. The 1D simulation results showed that all the maximum coolant…
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