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How Should Innovative Combustion Engines be Developed, Operated and Built in Order to Turn From Climate Sinners Into Climate Savers?

Hamburg University of Applied Sciences-Victor Gheorghiu
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-37-0009
To be published on 2020-06-23 by SAE International in United States
KEYWORDS – Strict Atkinson Cycle implementation, Extended Expansion Cycle, VCR, Enhanced Thermal Conversion Efficiency, High Pressure Turbocharging, Hydrogen DI, stoichiometric mixture, new load control ABSTRACT The Ultra-Downsizing is introduced as an even higher stage of downsizing of ICE. Ultra-downsizing will be implemented here by means of real Atkinson cycles using an asymmetrical crank mechanisms with continuous VCR capabilities, combined with two-stage high-pressure turbocharging and very intensive intercooling. This will allow an increase of ICE performance while keeping the thermal and mechanical strain strength of engine components within the current usual limits. Research Objective The principal purpose of this investigation is to analyze and evaluate a strict implementations of Atkinson cycles on Internal Combustion Engines (ICE) by means of the VCSR asymmetrical crank mechanisms (VCSR means Variable Compression and Strokes Ratios) for DI-Hydrogen-fueled (or with H2-CNG blends) case. The VCSR will be presented in two constructive variants. The mechanical loads as torque and forces within the VCSR crank mechanism will be presented and analyzed in some engine operation points. Methodology A small size SI NA MPI…
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IC engine internal cooling system modelling using 1D-CFD methodology

FCA Engineering India Pvt., Ltd.-Dhananjay Sampat Autade, Amit Kumar, Tharunnarayanan Arthanari, Vaibhav Patil, Kamalakannan J
FCA US LLC-Fu-Long Chang
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1168
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Internal combustion engine gets heated up due to continuous combustion of fuel. To keep engine working efficiently and prevent components damage due to very high temperature, the engine needs to be cooled down. Based on power output requirement and provision for cooling system, every engine has it’s unique cooling system. Liquid based cooling systems are majorly implemented in automobile. It’s important to keep in mind that during design phase that, cooling the engine will lower the power to fuel consumption ratio. Therefore, during lower ambient conditions, the cooling system should be able to uniformly increase the temperature of the engine components, engine oil and transmission oil. This is achieved by circulating the coolant through cooling jacket, engine oil heater and transmission oil heater, which will be heated by the combustion heat. The objective of this study is to build a steady state 1D-model of cooling system; comprising of water pump, cooling jacket, engine head, thermostat, radiator, cabin heater, engine and transmission oil heaters with plumbing system. This 1D model is used to simulate vehicle drive…
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Functionality Analysis of Thermoplastic Composite Material to Design Engine Components

Politecnico di Torino-Abbas Razavykia, Cristiana Delprete, Carlo Rosso, Paolo Baldissera
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0774
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Developing of innovative technologies and materials to meet the requirements of environmental legislation on vehicle emissions has paramount importance for researchers and industries. Therefore, improvement of engine efficiency and fuel saving of modern internal combustion engines (ICEs) is one of the key factors, together with the weight reduction. Thermoplastic composite materials might be one of the alternative materials to be employed to produce engine components to achieve these goals as their properties can be engineered to meet application requirements. Unidirectional carbon fiber reinforced PolyEtherImide (CF/PEI) thermoplastic composite is used to design engine connecting rod and wrist pin, applying commercial engine data and geometries. The current study is focused on some elements of the crank mechanism as the weight reduction of these elements affects not only the curb weight of the engine but the overall structure. As a matter of fact, by reducing the reciprocating mass, alternate forces will be reduced and hence the size of the structural elements. Also, other elements of the engine can be designed for lightweighting, but the crank mechanism elements maximize…
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Impact of High Performance Combustion Chamber Alloys on Fuel Efficiency

BREDDA Engineering, Ltd.-Scott Bredda
Cosworth, Ltd.-Andrew Egger
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1338
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The reduction of carbon emissions while maintaining power and performance in internal combustion engines (ICE) is critical for reductions of global emissions of greenhouse gases. While current engines have gone some way towards achieving lower emissions, savings are limited due to the materials construction of engine components. To further improve on emissions, materials which make up the critical components (piston, ring, connecting rod, etc.) need to improve to enable re-designing of components for significant emissions savings. This paper will outline some of the potential material alterations which enable a significant emission saving while maintaining or increasing power by enabling re-designing of critical components. Results of engine testing on a commonly available IC engine will be presented showing significant reductions in emissions and power improvements over the standard baseline model by changing materials allowing re-designing of components.
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Fretting Damage Analysis and Predicting of Engine Head and Block

Great Wall Motor Co., Ltd.-Rong Ye, Yuwei Han, Xiaowei Sun, Jianxiang Shi, Ying Guan, Guodong Zhao
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1167
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Today engine downsizing, weight reduction, boosting, etc. are widely used in modern combustion engine designs in order to increase power output, improve fuel economy, and reduce emission. However utilizing of these advanced technologies is making the engine less rigidity and resulting in potential fretting damages on any contact surfaces of engine components due to higher cyclic relative motions. The leakage failure of the cylinder-head sealing system induced by fretting damage on engine head and block deck surfaces is the one of major failure modes in the modern combustion engine. In this paper, the characteristics and failure modes of the MLS head gasket sealing system is introduced first. The fretting mechanism between MLS head gasket and engine head and block is then investigated and a fretting damage parameter and a damage criterion as well are defined and established to evaluate the crack nucleation or wear initiation. Also it is important to identify two types of loads during engine operation in the fretting damage calculation. The developed methodology is successfully verified through a good correlation between CAE…
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Tool Wear Analysis on Drilling Process of Inconel 718 Superalloy

Federal University of Sao Carlos-Pedro Cabegi Barros, Gustavo Franco Barbosa, Carlos Eiji Hirata Ventura
OSG Sulamericana-Gustavo Roberto Santos
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0034
Published 2020-03-10 by SAE International in United States
The Inconel 718 is an alloy based on nickel of high thermal and mechanical resistance, which allows its wide application in the aerospace industry, being generally implemented in aircraft tail cone and engine components. On the other hand, these features become a recurring problem when the machining of this material is performed. For example, in the drilling process of this superalloy, the cutting tools used exhibit excessive wear due to the high temperature and pressure at the cutting edge. However, there are numerous parameters that can influence the cutting tool life, and when analyzed and well defined, determine the types of modifications needed to enable less wear, and consequently an increase of its useful life in service. Given this context and knowing that the study of tool life in the Inconel 718 drilling process is extremely relevant in the aerospace sector, this paper presents a wear study in order to evaluate the behavior of different types of cutting tools used to drill the Inconel 718. It was accomplished by the combination of different cutting parameters…
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Electronic Engine Control Design Guide for Electromagnetic Environmental Effects

E-36 Electronic Engine Controls Committee
  • Aerospace Standard
  • AIR5060B
  • Current
Published 2020-02-26 by SAE International in United States
The purpose of this document is to provide reference material for establishing compatibility of electronic gas turbine engine control systems and associated components with the electromagnetic environment and achieving compliance with associated airworthiness requirements.
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HELICOPTER ENGINE MOUNTING

S-12 Powered Lift Propulsion Committee
  • Aerospace Standard
  • AIR4172
  • Current
Published 2020-01-31 by SAE International in United States
This Aerospace Information Report (AIR) reviews the requirements to be satisfied by the engine mount systems and provides an outline of some suitable methods. Factors such as drive shaft alignment, engine expansion, mount crashworthiness, vibration isolation, and other effects on the installation are discussed.
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COOLING DATA FOR TURBINE ENGINES IN HELICOPTERS

S-12 Powered Lift Propulsion Committee
  • Aerospace Standard
  • ARP996A
  • Current
Published 2020-01-31 by SAE International in United States
A tested method of data presentation and use is described herein. The method shown is a useful guide, to be used with care and to be improved with use.
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HELICOPTER TURBINE ENGINE WASH

S-12 Powered Lift Propulsion Committee
  • Aerospace Standard
  • AIR4416
  • Current
Published 2020-01-31 by SAE International in United States
Engines subject to dust, industrial pollution, saltwater contamination or other chemically laden atmosphere (including pesticides and herbicides) lose performance due to deposits of contaminants on surfaces in the aidgas flow path. Engine wash and engine rinse procedures are utilized to restore turbine engine performance. These procedures are generated by the engine manufacturer and are included in the Engine Maintenance/Service Manuals. For most turbine engines these procedures are similar in concept and practice; however, application details, choice of solvents and many other service features can vary from engine manufacturer to engine manufacturer and may even vary within the range of engine models produced by any manufacturer. The intent of this SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) is to outline the general nature, considerations, and background of engine wash and engine rinse and is directed towards the needs of the entry level engineer, service engineer, and those involved in the general maintenance of installed turbine engines.
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