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An alternate cost effective material for rocker arm used in heavy commercial vehicles

VE Commercial Vehicles Ltd-Kaarthic Kaundabalaraman, Suresh Kumar Kandreegula, Hemantkumar Rathi
VE Commercial Vehicles, Ltd.-Sonu Paroche
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2550
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Rocker arm in internal combustion engine is very important part which transfer the cam motion and force to the valve. In heavy commercial vehicles, the engine components are design for an infinite life (considerable higher than other components). Recently industries are working for light weight and optimized cost material. Hence it is required to have an optimized cost effective design of rocker arm without affecting its performance. A rocker arm should meet the stiffness and strength requirement. The objective of this study is to find out the alternate material for rocker arm which can provide the similar strength & stiffness as conventional rocker arm material. To achieve the performance and cost target, alternate material cast iron has been evaluated for rocker arm. Cast iron is lighter than the forged steel rocker arm, also it has a good frictional characteristic. Further bush is eliminated from the rocker arm assembly due to self-lubricant property of the cast iron rocker arm. This is significant reduce in cost of material and assembly procedure. A 2-d simulation and finite element…

Effect of Gasoline-Ethanol blends on GDI engine to reduce cost of vehicle ownership

Mahindra & Mahindra-Karthikeyan N Krishnan
Mahindra & Mahindra Ltd-Kartick Ramakrishnan, Padmavathi Ramadandi
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2379
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
A major challenge for combustion development is to optimize the engine for improved fuel economy, reduce greenhouse gases. Stringent CAFÉ and emission norms require the customer to pay higher capital on vehicles. To offset the cost of ownership- cheaper and alternative energy sources are being explored. Ethanol blend with regular Gasoline and CNG are such alternative fuels. The study was carried on turbo-charged gasoline direct injection engine. The effect of ethanol on engine and vehicle performance is estimated and simulated numerically. The work is split into three stages: first the base 1D engine performance model was calibrated to match the experimental data. In parallel, vehicle level Simulink model was built and calibrated to match the NEDC cycle performance. Second, the thermal efficiency of the ethanol blend is calculated as a linear function of theoretical Otto cycle efficiency. The engine performance for varying compression ratio & ethanol gasoline blend is studied for vehicle level using a MATLAB code. Third, 1D code was run to simulate the high-speed exhaust temperature & low speed knock intensity, this is…

Study on Effect of Laser Peening on Inconel 718 produced by DMLS technique

Vellore Institute of Technology-Nattudurai Navin Kumar, Aditya Chandrakant Yadav, Kumar Raja, Subramanian Prabhakaran, Chooriyaparambil Damodaran Naiju, Sivaperuman Kalainathan
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-0146
To be published on 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
In Additive manufacturing, Direct Metal Laser Sintering is a rapid manufacturing technique used for manufacturing of functional components. Finely pulverized metal is melted using a high-energy fibre laser, by Island principle strategy produces mechanically and thermally stable metallic components with reduced thermal gradients, stresses & at high precision. Inconel is an austenitic chromium nickel based super alloy often used in the applications which require high strength & temperature resistant. It can retain its properties at high temperature, e.g. Engine components in aerospace, exhaust system in automobile applications etc. Here we attempts to analyze the effect of laser shock peening on DMLS Inconel 718 sample. Microstructure shows elliptical shaped structure and formation of new grain boundaries. Surface roughness of the material has been increased due to effect of laser shock pulse & ablative nature. 13 % Increase in macro hardness on the surface. Depth wise micro hardness was investigated, found to be 17% increase on the sub layer of the material due to the effect of hardened matrix formed by precipitation hardening and grain size refinement…

Effect of Injector cone angle and NTP on performance and emissions of CRDe engine for BS6 compliance

Mahindra Research Valley-Anbarasu Muthusamy, Vagesh Shangar Ramani, Pranav Kumar Sinha
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-0108
To be published on 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
The quality of combustion is affected by factors like engine components design, combustion chamber design, EGR, after treatments systems, engine operating parameters etc. The role of fuel injector is crucial on achieving the desired engine performance and emissions. Efficient combustion depends on the quantity of fuel injected, penetration, atomization and optimum injection timing. The nozzle through flow, cone angle, no of sprays and nozzle tip penetration are the factors which decide the selection of perfect injector for an engine. This paper focuses on the selection of the best fit injector suiting the BS6 application on evaluating the performance and emission characteristics. Injectors used were with varying cone angles and NTP which was varied by changing the sealing washer thickness. With all the above injector configuration, the performance and emission were thoroughly analysed at each level. Final configuration was selected based on the Power & Torque, Fuel consumption, smoke, exhaust temperatures.

Compensating the Effects of Ice Crystal Icing on the Engine Performance by Control Methods

Central Institute of Aviation Motors-Oskar Gurevich, Sergei Smetanin, Mikhail Trifonov
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1862
To be published on 2019-09-16 by SAE International in United States
Aircraft equipment is operated in a wide range of external conditions, which, with a certain combination of environmental parameters, can lead to icing of the engine internal elements. Due to icing, the engine components performance change what leads to decrease in thrust, gas dynamic stability, durability, etc. Safe aircraft operation and its desired performance may be lost as a result of such external influence. Therefore, it is relevant to study the possibilities of reducing the icing effect with the help of a special engine control. The focus of this paper is to determine control methods of an aircraft gas turbine engine addressing this problem. The object of the study is a modern commercial turbofan with a bypass ratio of about 9. In this paper analysis of the effect of ice crystal icing on the engine components performance is conducted. To perform simulation of the engine performance under such impact, degraded components characteristics was introduced into physics-based turbofan model. Control algorithms for this model were developed applied to various regulated variables used in the setpoint controllers…

A Simplified Methodology for the Analysis of the Cylinder Liner Bore Distortion: Finite Element Analyses and Experimental Validations

Ferrari SpA-Luca Nicolò Mastrandrea
University of Modena and Reggio Emilia-Saverio Giulio Barbieri, Matteo Giacopini, Valerio Mangeruga, Luigi Bianco
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-24-0164
To be published on 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
Advances in modern engines are becoming more and more challenging. The intense increase of thermal and mechanical loads, as a consequence of a higher power density, requires the improvement of the main couplings encountered between moving engine components. In this scenario, the cylinder liner/piston coupling plays a crucial role in terms of engine performance and durability, especially with regards to pollution emission and friction reduction. In this paper a numerical methodology is proposed, which aims at simplifying the Finite Element evaluation of the cylinder liner bore distortion in an eight-cylinder V-type four stroke turbocharged engine. Finite Element simulations are performed to obtain a virtual approval of the component geometry, in advance with respect to the component manufacturing. In particular, preliminary Finite Element analyses are developed which accurately follow the experimental procedure, where a single engine bank is coupled with a simplified test engine head. The Finite Element model is properly tuned in order to obtain the same cylinder liner distortion registered by experimental measurements. Further Finite Element analyses, both thermal and thermo-mechanical, are then performed…

Intake Manifold Primary Trumpet Tuning Options for Fuel Flow Limited High Performance I.C.E.

Ferrari Gestione Sportiva-Angelo Rosetti, Corrado Iotti
University of Modena e Reggio Emilia-Giuseppe Cantore
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-24-0005
To be published on 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
The 2014 change in Formula One regulations, from naturally aspirated to highly-downsized and heavily-boosted hybridized power units, led to a relevant increase of the internal combustion engine brake specific power output in comparison with former V-8 units. The newly designed “down-sized” engines are characterized by a fuel flow limitation and a relevant increase in the thermal loads acting on the engine components, in particular on those facing the combustion chamber. Furthermore, efficiency becomes an equivalent paradigm as performance. In the power unit layout, the air path is defined by the compressor, the intercooler and the piping from the intake plenum to the cylinder. Intake duct length is defined from intake plenum to valve seat and it is a key parameter for engine performance. In order to find the optimum length different design criteria can be applied: the so called “tuning”, the “un-tuning” or the “anti-tuning” are all valid possibilities, showing pros and cons. The scope of the paper is to study and present the possible different tuning options for the internal combustion engine (ICE) part…

Temperature Measurements of the Piston surface in a Research Compression Ignition Engine in Transient Conditions for 1d Model of Heat Transfer

Istituto Motori CNR-Ezio Mancaruso, Luigi Sequino, Bianca Maria Vaglieco
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-24-0182
To be published on 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
Analysis of heat losses in internal combustion engines (ICEs) is fundamental to evaluate and improve the engine efficiency. Detailed and reliable heat transfer models are required for more complex 1d-3d combustion models. At the same time, the thermal status of engine components, as pistons, is needed for an efficient design. Measurements of piston temperature during ICEs operation represent a precious and challenging result to get for the aforementioned purposes. In previous works, the authors, first, evaluated and, then, measured the temperature of the optical window in a research compression ignition engine via thermal imaging and thermocouple installation, respectively. The tests concerned steady state and transient conditions. Because of the difficulty in performing the measurements and the need for information in various engine conditions, in the present work, temperature measurements collected at different engine speeds and loads, both in motored and fired mode, have been used to set-up a theoretical correlation and 1d model of heat transfer through the optical window of the piston. The in-cylinder gas and external ambient temperature, together with the material and…

Test Cell Analytical Thrust Correction

EG-1E Gas Turbine Test Facilities and Equipment
  • Aerospace Standard
  • AIR5436A
  • Current
Published 2019-07-02 by SAE International in United States
This document describes a method to correct engine thrust, measured in an indoor test cell, for the aerodynamic effects caused by the secondary airflow induced in the test cell by the engine operating in an enclosed environment in close proximity to an exhaust duct. While it is not recommended to be used to replace test cell correlation, it does provide a means to verify an existing thrust correlation factor.
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SAE 17.6 Cubic Inch Spark Plug Rating Engine

Ignition Standards Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J2203_201906
  • Current
Published 2019-06-11 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Standard defines the standard engine to be used in determining spark plug preignition ratings. The engine is known as the SAE 17.6 Cubic Inch Spark Plug Rating Engine.
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