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Improving robotic accuracy through iterative teaching

The University of Sheffield - AMRC-Daniela Sawyer, Lloyd Tinkler, Nathan Roberts, Ryan Diver
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0014
To be published on 2020-03-10 by SAE International in United States
Industrial robots have been around since the 1960s and their introduction into the manufacturing industry has helped in automating otherwise repetitive and unsafe tasks, while also increasing the performance and productivity for the companies that adopted the technology. As the majority of industrial robotic arms are deployed in repetitive tasks, the pose accuracy is much less of a key driver for the majority of consumers (e.g. the automotive industry) than speed, payload, energy efficiency and unit cost. Consequently, manufacturers of industrial robots often quote repeatability as an indication of performance whilst the pose accuracy remains comparatively poor. Due to their lack in accuracy, robotic arms have seen slower adoption in the aerospace industry where high accuracy is of utmost importance. However if their accuracy could be improved, robots offer significant advantages, being comparatively inexpensive and more flexible than bespoke automation. Extensive research has been conducted in the area of improving robotic accuracy through re-calibration of the kinematic model. This approach is often highly complex, and seeks to optimise performance over the whole working volume or…
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Development of High Productivity and Low Cost Card-Edge Type ECU for Motorcycles

Honda Motor Co., Ltd.-Yuichi TAKEDA, Daisuke SUGIO, Koji INOSE
Keihin Corporation-Syuichi TAKIOKA
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-32-0516
To be published on 2020-01-24 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
To reduce global warming, Honda has been worked on emission reduction and fuel efficiency enhancement by applying fuel injection systems. The productivity enhancement and cost reduction are strongly demanded in developing countries as the market is expanding. To enhance productivity and reduce cost of ECU, application of the semiconductor production method has been started for printed circuits with edge connectors. However, products that fully meet the requirements of us have not been realized so far. The ECU developed this time has a structure shielding the whole PCB package except the edge connector terminals. Thus, the waterproofness required for an ECU has realized, as a standalone component, as the first in the world (by Honda survey). To achieve that, we developed transfer molding dies equipped with a unique mechanism never been applied. Moreover, we developed an epoxy resin that eliminates the after cure process. Thus, productivity of 5 times over conventional was realized with a multi-cavity molding capable of moldings more than 10 pieces at a time. Furthermore, a new waterproof card-edge connector was developed, in…
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Experimental Study of Aerodynamic Drag Control on Bluff Body using Synthetic Jets

Utsunomiya University-Naoto Kato, Shunsuke Watanabe, Hiroaki Hasegawa
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-32-0538
To be published on 2020-01-24 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
Since flow separation causes increase of the drag on bluff bodies, its control method has been studied for many years. Active control methods are currently focused as an alternative to passive ones because they impose a larger drag penalty under certain conditions. Although the effectiveness of a steady jet using suction, blowing or pulsed jets has been demonstrated, it is difficult to obtain an effect commensurate with weight increase because the mechanism is complicated.One method of solving this problem is a synthetic jet. Synthetic jets are produced by periodic ejection and suction of fluid from an orifice induced by oscillation of a diaphragm inside a cavity. Small engine powered vehicles demand less drag, a compact package and light weight because the drivers expect fuel efficiency, load capacity and economy. Synthetic jets can supply them because they contribute drag reduction and require only simple components.In this study, the influence of synthetic jets on the drag of a simple bluff body representing a road vehicle is measured. Drag measurement was performed by varying synthetic jet parameters: jet…

Study of OBD stageII Misfire Detection System for Small Motorcycles

Aisan Industry Co., Ltd.-Satoshi MIWA, Yuki IIBOSHI, Hirotaka FUKUTA
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-32-0511
To be published on 2020-01-24 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
In recent years, the shift to Fuel Injection (FI) system for motorcycles has been accelerated in response to the enhancement of exhaust emission regulations and the improvement of fuel efficiency for global environmental protection. In addition, On Board Diagnostics (OBD) was introduced to inform users of vehicle abnormalities and failures and prevent from emission failure in the market. OBD stageII requires enlargement of requirements and threshold detection. Seven items are presented in the EU5, Bharat Stage 6 (BS6). The misfire detection in small motorcycles has several problems.First, for the small motorcycle, a single-cylinder engine is the main and its combustion behavior cannot be compared with other cylinders. Consequently, it is difficult to detect misfire. For misfire detection, we focused on the difference in crank angular velocity during combustion stroke between normal combustion and misfire. The greatest gap was in crank angular velocity occurs at 0-180° crank angle [°CA]. With that, misfire detection control is established.We confirmed from the above control that misfire could be detected in the whole engine speed or load within the regulation.…
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Temperature Calculation Methodology of Pre Chamber With Homogeneous Charge

Centro Federal de Educação Tecnológica de Minas Gerais-F. A. RODRIGUES FILHO
Instituto Federal de Minas Gerais-L.F.G MACHADO, TIAGO S. FERREIRA, T. A. A. MOREIRA
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0203
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
The methodology for temperature calculations of homogeneous prechamber must be analyzed from a one-dimensional analytical model so that it is possible to determine the temperature profiles during the filling and emptying of the gases, so that it can avoid abnormalities such as increase of Forces, deformation / breaking, performance limitations, increased probability of detonation, increase of NOX and increase in the probability of pre-ignition. The equations of conservation of energy and of the state of gases are used to base the calculations, following the hypothesis that the flow is transient, comprehensible and one-dimensional; The fluid in the control volume is in the gaseous state and the fuel is already injected into the gas phase following the ideal gas equation. A homogeneous mixture is considered to generate a poor mixture in the pre-chamber.
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Feasibility Study of the Fuel Magnetizer in Flex-Fuel Cars

Centro Universitário FAESA and SENAI-ES-Pablo A. Amorim, Luiz F. De N. Mattos, Everton L. P. Almeida, Gustavo C. Pellacani, Luiz A. M. M. Marques
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0238
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
The topic of energy efficiency is currently a subject widely debated in industrial sectors because of its high relevance due to the finite life time of fossil fuels and the need for reduction in consumption and consequently the emissions of gases and the environmental impact. The objective of this work was to evaluate the performance of fuel magnetizers, a product marketed that, according to suppliers, guarantees an improvement in combustion efficiency, representing a saving of 10% to 22% of fuel. For the analysis of the efficiency of the magnetizer, consumption tests were carried out on engine test bench with and without the use of the product in idling speed, 2000 rpm and 2700 rpm. The conclusions obtained showed that the use of magnetizers did not achieve a satisfactory result in the efficiency of internal combustion engines, a possible factor responsible is the high content of ethanol in Brazilian gasoline.
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Effects of Engine Speed on the Performance at Extreme Vehicle Driving Conditions

FCA LATAM, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais-Fabrício Thomaz, José Guilherme Coelho Baeta
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0297
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
Nowadays, improvements in engine fuel economy and reduction in pollutant emissions have been much discussed. Downsizing and downspeeding are methods widely used in the automotive market, used to increase internal combustion engine efficiency. Fuel consumption is commonly measured through a specific cycle that could differ between countries. Federal Test Procedure (FTP-75) for Latin America and New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) for Europe are some examples. These cycles include normal driving conditions, low vehicle load and mild environmental conditions. The style of gear shifting is one of the main factors affecting fuel efficiency and performance of motor vehicles. At extreme diving conditions, parameters like coolant and air charge temperature could reach limit durability values of the system. In order to avoid knocking and maintain structural reliability, it becomes mandatory to control the engine speed. An increase in engine speed reduces engine load requirements and thus, turbocharger loads. Lower turbocharger requirements reduce ACT and, consequently, reduce knocking. This process allows an advanced ignition timing, enabling more chamber pressure and improving fuel conversion efficiency. However, a higher engine…
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ALL-WHEEL DRIVE ELECTRIC VEHICLE MODELING AND PERFORMANCE OPTIMIZATION

Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Politecn-H. de Carvalho Pinheiro, E. Galanzino, A. Messana, L. Sisca, A. Ferraris, A. G. Airale, M. Carello
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0197
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
Electrification of the powertrain is one of the most promising trends in the automotive industry. Among the novel architectures, this paper aims to study the latent advantages provided by in-wheel motors, particularly an All-Wheel-Drive powertrain composed by four electric machines directly connected to each wheel-hub of a high performance vehicle. Beyond the well-known packaging advantage allowed by the in-wheel motor, the presence of four independent torque sources allows more flexible and complex control strategies of torque allocation. The study explores three different control modules working simultaneously: torque vectoring, regenerative braking and energy efficiency optimization protocol. The main objectives of the project are: improving handling, measured through the lap time of the virtual driver in a simulated track, and enhance energy efficiency, assessed by the battery state of charge variation during standard events. The torque vectoring strategy is based on a feedback PID controller working in parallel to a feedforward logic that predict the desired behavior based on the driver demands (such as steering angle) and vehicle states (chassis accelerations and velocities). The regenerative braking manages…
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Introduction to Technology of Vehicle Mobility Level 3 of Self-Driving Cars

FATEC Santo André-Edson Caoru Kitani
Universidade Federal do ABC-Bruno Bueno Furquim, Luiz Antonio Celiberto Junior
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0089
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
When discussing disruptive technology in the field of mobility, it is necessary to extrapolate technological resources by seeking greater connectivity and energy efficiency, the key systems for the future of society in smart cities. Therefore, the effort of companies that act in the automotive sector in terms of attendance and restrictions of the technology becomes, at present, notorious. There is a long path until the consolidation of autonomous mobility and remains the need to overcome all the adversities present in the big cities and roads. For that reason, the development of new technological resources is extremely needed to accomplish a new kind of mobility. In view of these reasons, this paper proposes to present resources for the development of this complex technology to a level of abstraction sufficient for undergraduate students to begin their studies, and later serve as support for the improvement of applied knowledge. Therefore, it is sought to make the efforts of researchers and companies from the mobility sector to be developed by disseminating most of the knowledge and interest for autonomy.
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Study of the Variable Valve Timing Effects on Combustion Quality and Fuel Consumption of an Internal Combustion Engine

Mobility Technology Center – Federal University of Minas Ger-Augusto César Teixeira Malaquias, Nilton Antonio Diniz Netto, José Guilherme Coelho Baêta, Alysson Fernandes Teixeira, Sérgio Augusto Passos Costa
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0117
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
The need for a constant evolution of internal combustion engines has encouraged the emergence of new alternatives for the minimization of pollutant emissions, fuel consumption and an increase of the overall performance. The coming years will be marked by the launch of increasingly efficient engines, given the current importance of sustainability in the means of transport. Despite the growing electrification of global mobility, research indicates that the ICE will continue to be the main source of automotive energy in the coming years and, therefore, the study of strategies aimed at optimizing its performance is and will continue to be relevant. In this sense, the purpose of this work is to study the effects of variable valve timing on the experimental calibration of an internal combustion engine intended for research. Different moments of opening and closing of both the intake and exhaust valves were analyzed so that the possible reductions in the specific fuel consumption and the combustion quality improvements could be studied in tests always aimed at maximizing the fuel conversion efficiency. The purpose was…
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