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Multidisciplinary Investigation of Truck Platooning

Altair-Bastian Schnepf, Christian Kehrer, Christoph Maeurer
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-37-0028
To be published on 2020-06-23 by SAE International in United States
In the age of environmental challenges and with it, the demand for increasing energy efficiency of commercial vehicles, truck platooning is discussed as a promising approach. The idea is several trucks forming an automated convoy – with the lead truck sending out acceleration, braking and steering signals for the following trucks to react accordingly. The benefits address fuel savings, traffic capacity, safety requirements and convenience. In our study, we will motivate why platooning requires a multidisciplinary approach in the sense of connecting different modeling and simulation methods. The simulation topics covered are aerodynamic analysis, vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) communication, radar antenna placement and virtual drive cycle test for the energetic evaluation of a truck platoon in comparison to a single truck. Aerodynamic analyses are conducted using a transient Lattice Boltzmann approach on GPUs capturing the complex vehicle wake interactions for different platooning distances with acceptable computational effort. Thereby, a generic truck convoy, consisting of three vehicles, is considered for distance intervals between 7 and 40 meters. From these computations for each vehicle look-up-tables are derived for interpolation…
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Identification of Automotive Cabin Design Parameters to Increase Electric Vehicles Range, Coupling CFD-Thermal Analyses with Design for Six Sigma Approach

FCA ITALY S.p.A.-Andrea Alessandro Piovano, Giuseppe Scantamburlo, Massimo Quaglino, Matteo Gautero
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-37-0032
To be published on 2020-06-23 by SAE International in United States
The ongoing global demand for greater energy efficiency plays an essential role in the vehicle development, especially in case of electric vehicles (EVs). The thermal management of the full vehicle is becoming increasingly important, since the Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning (HVAC) system has a significant impact on the EV range. Therefore the EV design requires new guidelines for thermal management optimization. In this paper, an advanced method is proposed to identify the most influential cabin design factors which affect the cabin thermal behavior during a cool down drive cycle in hot environmental conditions. These parameters could be optimized to reduce the energy consumption and to increase the robustness of the vehicle thermal response. The structured Taguchi’s Design for Six Sigma (DFSS) approach was coupled with CFD-Thermal FE simulations, thanks to increased availability of HPC. The first control factors selected were related to the thermal capacity of panel duct, dashboard, interior door panels and seats. Surface IR emissivity and solar radiation absorptivity of these components were then added to the study. Car glass with absorptive…
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Heat Pumps for BEVs: Architectures and Performance Analysis

Centro Ricerche Fiat SCpA-Walter Ferraris, Federica Bettoja, Mauro Casella, Matteo Rostagno, Angela Tancredi
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-37-0030
To be published on 2020-06-23 by SAE International in United States
Electric vehicles have never been more popular, yet fears around being left stranded by an exhausted battery remain a key reason why some car buyers resist making a purchase. Bigger batteries are not always the solution because of the direct link with higher costs and high impact on weight. A re-engineering of the most energy-consuming auxiliaries is mandatory and the thermal management function is on top of the redesign request list. Heat Pump solution is considered one of the best way to save energy and reduce the impact on vehicle range of heating and cooling function, but the automotive application requires a careful definition of the system features to avoid unjustified growing up of complexity as well as an unneeded system over-sizing. The paper aims to give an overview on the heat pump design best practices through a virtual performance comparison of different lay-out configurations, which have been selected starting from a benchmark analysis crossed with a detailed vehicle segment-oriented functions selection. Control strategies role, costs, and target requirements have been used as drivers for…
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Impact of Thermal Management of the Three-Way Catalyst on the Energy Efficiency of a P2 Gasoline FHEV

Università del Salento-Marco Benegiamo, Andrea Valletta, Antonio Carlucci
Università di Roma Tor Vergata-Vincenzo Mulone
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-37-0019
To be published on 2020-06-23 by SAE International in United States
Gasoline Full Hybrid Electric Vehicles (FHEVs) are recognized as a cost-effective solution to comply with upcoming emissions legislation. However, several studies have highlighted that frequent start-and-stops worsen the HC tail-pipe emissions, especially when the light-off temperature of the three-way catalyst (TWC) has not been reached. In fact, strategies only addressing the minimization of fuel consumption tend to delay engine activation and hence TWC warming, especially during urban driving. Goal of the present research is therefore to develop an on-line powertrain management strategy accounting also for TWC temperature, in order to reduce the time needed to reach TWC light-off temperature. A catalyst model is incorporated into the model of the powertrain where torque-split is performed by an adaptive equivalent consumption minimization strategy (A-ECMS). The developed A-ECMS operates on a domain of power-split combinations between electric machine and internal combustion engine, which, aside from satisfying the torque demand, also ensure a controlled ICE torque derivative as well as a controlled ICE start-and-stop frequency. Hence, the algorithm which is extended for TWC thermal management, incorporates a penalty on…
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Next-Generation Refrigerant and Air Conditioner System Choice for Internal Combustion, Hybrid and Electric Vehicles (Presentation Only) by Stephen O. Andersen, Jiangping Chen, Sourav Chowdhury, Tim Craig, Walter Ferraris, Jianxin Hu, Sangeet Kapoor, Carloandrea Malvicino, Prasanna Nagarhalli, Nancy J. Sherman, and Kristen N. Taddonio

Centro Ricerche Fiat SCpA-Walter Ferraris
FCA ITALY S.p.A.-Carloandrea Malvicino
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-37-0029
To be published on 2020-06-23 by SAE International in United States
With the passage of Kigali Amendment to the Montreal Protocol in 2016, HFC-134a will need to be phased down in all markets worldwide due to its high global warming potential (GWP=1300). Meanwhile, global adoption of electric vehicles is accelerating. Improved MAC and heat pump efficiency is critically important to extend vehicle range. Engineers must design MAC and heat pump systems using low-GWP refrigerants that are simultaneously cost-effective, energy efficient, safe, reliable, affordable for consumers, and able to provide both cooling and heating of the cabin and thermal management of vehicle components like power electronics and batteries. This is a challenging and complex task. Fortunately, solutions are available, but they may diverge from traditional direct expansion systems of the past. This paper: 1) documents the global history and market status of the development of alternatives to HFC-134a, including secondary-loop (SL-MAC) systems; 2) outlines the existing and expected regulations demanding low-GWP MAC refrigerant and high fuel efficiency; 3) explains the importance of comprehensive LCCP analysis when evaluating MAC climate impacts instead of focusing on only one component…
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NVH Comfort of Range Extenders for Electric Vehicles

FEV Europe GmbH-Christoph Steffens, Georg Eisele, Frank Wolter
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1551
To be published on 2020-06-03 by SAE International in United States
The most appreciated driving characteristics of electric vehicles are the quietness and spontaneous torque rise of the powertrain. The application of range extenders (REX) with internal combustion engines (ICEs) to increase the driving range is a favourable solution regarding costs and weight, especially in comparison with larger battery capacities. However, the NVH integration of a REX is challenging, if the generally silent driving characteristics of electric vehicles shall remain preserved. This paper analyses key NVH aspects for a REX design and integration to fulfil the high expectations regarding noise and vibration comfort in an electric vehicle environment. The ICE for a REX is typically dimensioned for lower power outputs, incorporating a low number of cylinder units, which is even more challenging concerning the NVH integration. The basic REX concept is evaluated by considering power and fuel efficiency demands in combination with an interior noise forecast. It will be explained that sophisticated, innovative technologies are required on component and vehicle side to ensure best possible NVH comfort. On component side, essential excitations must be addressed. In…
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Innovative Rear Air Blower Design Application for Improving Cabin Thermal Comfort with improved Air Distribution and Air Quality.

Subros Ltd-Ravi Garg, Suraj maske, Yogendra Singh Kushwah
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-28-0034
To be published on 2020-04-30 by SAE International in United States
In recent times, overall thermal comfort and air quality requirement have increased for vehicle cabin by multifold. To achieve increased thermal comfort requirements, multiple design innovation has happened to improve HVAC performance. Most of the advance and add on features like Multizone HVAC, dedicated rear HVAC, Automatic climate control, Advance Air filters, and Ionizers etc lead to increase in cost, power consumption, weight, and integration issues. Besides this in the vehicle with only front HVAC, airflow is not enough to meet rear side comfort for many cars in the B/C/SUV segment. This study aims to analyze the various parameters responsible for human thermal comfort inside a car with the focus on lightweight, low power consumption, compact Rear Blower to make passengers more comfortable by providing optimum airflow inline of mean radiant temperatures and cabin air temperature. The new design of Rear blower external surfaces has a set of air modifier surfaces in the direction of flow outlet. The second set of air modifier surfaces & an air deflator portion provided just upstream of outlet portion.…
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Effect of Variable Geometry Fin in Automotive Condenser using Analytical and CFD Approach

Mahindra & Mahindra, Ltd.-Ram Anandan
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-28-0028
To be published on 2020-04-30 by SAE International in United States
Due to stiff competition among the Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM's), the Comfort, Fuel efficiency & Safety are the key factors that drive the vehicle business, from that context Air Conditioning for a car plays a pivotal role in the area of comfort of the passengers and fuel efficiency point of view. In addition, condenser plays a pivotal role in Power train cooling system & air conditioning system. Therefore, it is a big challenge for the automotive engineer to propose an innovative design that can improve the thermal performance of Condenser without not compromise the package size. Also, it's a challenge for the OEM's to select the optimal heat exchanger from the supplier basket during the design phase of product development cycle. The objective of this paper to focus on analytical calculation or frame work was developed using excel tool considering the variable geometry of fin which includes louver pitch, louver angle and louver length in a multi-pass condenser. Further this theoretical calculation was validated using experimental data and CFD simulation. This theoretical excel tool can…
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Development of New Hybrid Transaxle for Mid-Size Sports Utility Vehicles

Toyota Motor Corporation-Seitaro Nobuyasu, Shigetsugu Iwata, Masabumi Nishigaya, Yoshiteru Hagino, Masatoshi Ito, Hiroshi Aihara
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0850
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Toyota has developed a new Hybrid (HV) transaxle P810 for Mid-Size SUVs to improve fuel efficiency and power performance. The transaxle was developed based on Toyota's new development strategy - Toyota New Global Architecture (TNGA). By adopting technologies to shorten overall length of the transaxle, installation into the same engine compartment of Mid-Size sedans have been realized while also improving the motor output. This paper will introduce technologies regarding the new mount structure for shortening overall length, and furthermore, noise reduction related to this mount structure.
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Evaluating the Performance of a Conventional and Hybrid Bus Operating on Diesel and B20 Fuel for Emissions and Fuel Economy

US Environmental Protection Agency-Matthew Brusstar, Scott Ludlam
University of Michigan-Rinav Pillai, Andre Boehman
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1351
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
With ongoing concerns about the elevated levels of ambient air pollution in urban areas and the contribution from heavy-duty diesel vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles are considered as a potential solution as they are perceived to be more fuel efficient and less polluting than their conventional engine counterparts. However, recent studies have shown that real-world emissions may be substantially higher than those measured in the laboratory, mainly due to operating conditions that are not fully accounted for in dynamometer test cycles. At the U.S. EPA National Fuel and Vehicle Emissions Laboratory (NVFEL) the in-use criteria emissions and energy efficiency of heavy-duty class 8 vehicles (up to 36280 kg) can be evaluated under controlled conditions in the heavy-duty chassis dynamometer test. The present study evaluated the performance of a conventional bus and a hybrid bus for emissions and fuel economy under representative test cycles (including cold start and hot start conditions) with Diesel (#2) and Biodiesel (B20) fuel. The conventional bus was equipped with a Cummins ISL 8.3L engine and a Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) and Diesel…