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Aluminium for Curbing GHG Emissions in Indian Public Transport Buses

Automotive Research Association of India-Mahesh Anand Patwardhan, Pradeep Jawale, Pankaj Nirmal
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1050
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Major cause of air pollution in the world is due to burning of fossil fuels for transport application; around 23% Green House Gas (GHG) emissions are produced due to transport sector. Likewise, the major cause of air pollution in Indian cities is also due to transport sector. Marginal improvement in the fuel economy and emissions per kilometer travelled significantly impacts surrounding environment. Reduction in the vehicle mass gives substantial benefit in improving fuel economy. The quantum of benefit due to lightweighting increases where there are several start and stop conditions like city buses. In view above, study has been made for Indian city buses to understand weight optimization parameters. It was found that the major weight of the bus is of it's super structure which is made of steel and has a great potential for weight reduction. Considering this aspect, work has been carried out to develop lightweight aluminium superstrutured city bus comprising of design, development and prototype manufacturing of 12m Low Entry and 12m Semi Low Floor (SLF) buses. Aluminium lightweight Bus prototypes conforms…
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Life Cycle Assessment of a Passenger Vehicle to Analyze the Environmental Impacts Using Cradle to Grave Approach

Mahindra Research Valley-Rahul Lalwani, Saravanan N, Arunmozhi Veeraputhiran, IlavarasIi D
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2581
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Climate change is primary driver in the current discussions on CO2 reduction in the automotive industry. Current Type approval emissions tests (BS III, BS IV) covers only tailpipe emissions, however the emissions produced in upstream and downstream processes (e.g. raw material sourcing, manufacturing, transportation, vehicle usage, recycle phases) are not considered in the evaluation. The objective of this project is to assess the environmental impact of the product considering all stages of the life cycle, understand the real opportunities to reduce environmental impact across the product life cycle. As a part of environmental sustainability journey in business value chain, lifecycle assessment (LCA) technique helps to understand the environmental impact categories. To measure overall impact, a cradle to grave approach helps to assess entire life cycle impact throughout various stages. LCA is a technique to assess environmental impacts associated with all the stages of a product's life from raw material extraction through materials processing, manufacture, distribution, use, repair and maintenance, disposal or recycling. A study was conducted on a passenger vehicle for life cycle assessment as…
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End-of-Life Vehicles in India-Regulatory Perspectives

International Centre for Automotive Technology-Vijayanta Ahuja, Shakti N Khanna
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2580
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
This paper discusses the areas affected during and beyond the recycling of the End-of-Life Vehicle (ELV). While the scrap of the vehicle shall be crushed and re-utilised from scrap metal (ferrous and non-ferrous), this paper also discusses potential usage of the components for remanufacturing by the respective OEMs. It further discusses how non-metallic parts such as plastics may be recycled. A complete framework committed to such a comprehensive approach shall not only reduce the impact on the environment but will also provide a more affordable and responsible alternative to the industry. While doing that, the economic and environmental impact on the industry and the un-organised sector has to be considered whilst also ensuring that a model with shared responsibility is established to dispose/ recycle any such ELV responsibly. The paper in its true spirit aims at effectively implementing the 3 Rs - Reduce, Reuse and Recycle - Reduction of waste and virgin natural elements, Reuse of working and efficient spares for remanufacturing purposes and Recycling of the scrap material. Older vehicles, conforming to lenient emission…
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Life Cycle Analysis to Estimate the CO2-Equivalent Emissions from MAC Operation

Interior Climate Control Vehicle OEM Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J2766_201908
  • Current
Published 2019-08-06 by SAE International in United States
This recommended best practice outlines a method for estimating CO2-equivalent emissions using life cycle analysis.
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Development of a Tool for Estimating the Life Cycle Climate Performance of MAC Systems

Macrae LLC-William Hill
Optimized Thermal Systems Inc.-Adam Rhoads
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Climate change is a global issue affecting every industry. Automotive companies have been working to address this issue by reducing the greenhouse gas emissions of their vehicles. EPA has encouraged this by providing incentives in the Greenhouse Gas Emissions Rule of 2009. Improving the efficiency of MACs (mobile air conditioning systems) is part of this effort. Life-cycle climate performance (LCCP) is a comprehensive metric for estimating the greenhouse gases emissions produced by the construction, operation, and end-of-life recycling of a vehicle MAC (Mobile Air Conditioning) system. Many companies and organizations have conducted LCCP for their vehicles using various software tools. The IMAC-GHG-LCCP (Improved Mobile Air Conditioning related to Green-House-Gas LCCP) model is a new comprehensive software tool that follows a similar approach as the current automotive LCCP modeling standard, GREEN-MAC-LCCP ([Global Refrigerants Energy & Environmental Mobile Air Condition LCCP), but with a focus on simplicity and ease-of-use. The tool has added support for water plumbing, multiple evaporators and chillers, electric compressors and user-defined refrigerants. Vehicle usage data for each city including vehicle lifetime, driving distance,…
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Environmental Assessment of the End-of-Life Phase of Alternative and Conventional Propulsion Systems in the Context of Life Cycle Assessment

Audi AG-Stefan Dreyer, Ulrich Baretzky, Wolfgang Kotauschek, Florian Bach
TU Muenchen-Benedikt Stumper
Published 2019-02-18 by SAE International in United States
The number of vehicles being sold is steadily increasing, as well as the amount of processed resources. Moreover, alternative powertrain concepts open up a new field of materials such as rare-earth metals, lithium, and cobalt. This results in a growing importance and complexity of the vehicle end-of-life phase and thus demands for a more detailed environmental evaluation and an integration into life cycle assessment. Due to high recycling rates, established recycling routes, and a low environmental impact regarding the materials used for conventional propulsion systems, by now the recycling is mostly neglected within the life cycle assessment of vehicles. The introduced materials for alternative concepts challenge this method with new and complex processes, the lack of available recycling routes, selective recovery of only few materials, as well as the threat of landfill, an increased share of incineration, resource shortfalls, and resource exploitation. This study investigates the state of the art of recycling processes for drive components used within conventional and alternative concepts. Furthermore, a new methodical framework to evaluate the environmental impact of the end-of-life…
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Technical Information Report on Automotive Battery Recycling

Battery Standards Recycling Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J2974_201902
  • Current
Published 2019-02-11 by SAE International in United States
This document will focus on the language used to describe batteries at the end of battery or vehicle life as batteries are transitioned to the recycler, dismantler, or other third party. This document also provides a compilation of current recycling technologies and flow sheets, and their application to different battery chemistries at the end of battery life. At the time of document authorship, the technical information cited is most applicable to Li-ion battery type rechargeable energy storage systems (RESS), but the language used is not to be limited by chemistry of the battery systems and is generally applicable to other RESS.
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Toward Material Efficient Vehicles: Ecodesign Recommendations Based on Metal Sustainability Assessments

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

Fundación CIRCE-Abel Ortego, Alicia Valero
SEAT S.A.-Marta Iglesias
  • Journal Article
  • 05-11-03-0021
Published 2018-09-17 by SAE International in United States
Current End-of-Life Vehicle (ELV) recycling processes are mainly based on mechanical separation techniques. These methods are designed to recycle those metals with the highest contribution in the vehicle weight such as steel, aluminum, and copper. However, a conventional vehicle uses around 50 different types of metals, some of them considered critical by the European Commission. The lack of specific recycling processes makes that these metals become downcycled in steel or aluminum or, in the worst case, end in landfills. With the aim to define several ecodesign recommendations from a raw material point of view, it is proposed to apply a thermodynamic methodology based on exergy analysis. This methodology uses an indicator called thermodynamic rarity to assess metal sustainability. It takes into account the quality of mineral commodities used in a vehicle as a function of their relative abundance in Nature and the energy intensity required to extract and process them. This method is proposed as a tool to identify the most critical components in a vehicle so as to define specific ecodesign recommendations for them.…
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Recycling of the platinum of vehicle catalysts at end of life

Pontifical Catholic University of Minas Gerais-Lucas Gonçalves da Silva, Rodolpho Faria Dias de Almeida, Vinícius Marinho Silva Faustino, Pedro Américo Almeida Magalhãe Júnior
Published 2018-09-03 by SAE International in United States
Due to the large number of end of life vehicles in our country, our work is aimed at recycling a very important material present in all cars, which is the platinum found in automotive catalysts. Platinum is a rare metal and high value-added, recovery from secondary sources is crucial to ensure its supply for various applications in the market, especially in regions with scarce resources. For this reason, the recycling of platinum, particularly of automotive catalysts becomes very important for the market. The methodology to be applied along the development of the work approaches from the characterization of the catalyst (by technical analysis of microscopy), recycling of platinum (by hydro-metallurgical processes), finally the tests and analysis of the recycled platinum, through physical tests, chemicals. Through the platinum recycling process, it is expected that an economically feasible form has been determined as well as the process method for platinum recycling, in addition to achieving a sample of recycled platinum with physical and chemical characteristics that provide for its reuse. However, the process of recycling platinum comes…
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Life cycle assessment of aluminum in recycling end of life vehicles

Federal Center of Technological Education of Minas Gerais (C-Thiago Marandola Lemos, Daniel Enrique Castro
Published 2018-09-03 by SAE International in United States
The survival of humanity in the upcoming decades will depend on the sustainability of the consumed products. There is a global effort to develop solutions to reduce environmental and energy impacts with the production of these products. This paper presents a careful analysis of automotive recycling and the role of aluminum in the life cycle of these vehicles. It is known that the number of vehicles is getting close to 1 billion units while the number of end-of-life vehicles (ELVs) has also been increasing dramatically throughout the entire planet. The average car has between 30 to 150 kg of aluminum, there is an increasing trend in this amount in exchange of a reduced final weight of the vehicle. Aluminum can be recycled repeatedly without losing its physical-chemical properties. There are two ways of obtaining the metal; one is by the direct extraction of natural resources through the mining of bauxite and the second through its recycling. The two processes are analyzed through existing Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) in the literature. In an unprecedented way, the…
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