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Application of Low-Mass Corning® FLORA® Substrate for Cold-Start Emissions Reduction to Meet Upcoming LEV III SULEV30 Regulation Requirement

Corning Inc-Tinghong Tao, Min Shen
Corning Inc.-Jason Warkins, Song Lyu
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0652
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
With upcoming US Tier 3 / LEV III emissions regulation set for full implementation in 2025, significant efforts are being made within the industry to meet the fleet average SULEV30 requirement. With the current vehicle technology, cold-start emissions generated in the first sixty seconds can make up to 70% of total tailpipe emission over the FTP-75 certification cycle. Therefore, the improvement in the performance of catalyzed substrates during cold-start becomes essential for total tailpipe emissions reduction. Low-mass substrate technology offers a significant reduction in time to light-off enabling a reduction in cold-start emissions while meeting customer mechanical durability and thermo-mechanical requirements. The ability of this lower-mass substrate to improve light-off time compared to conventional higher-mass substrates has been measured through fundamental modeling and vehicle dyno testing and verified to deliver up to 20% improvement in total tailpipe emissions over the entire emissions cycle and across a wide array of vehicle platforms with various engine cold-start calibration technologies. Alternatively, low-mass substrate technology can be applied with reductions in platinum group metals (PGM) to maintain equivalent emissions…
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How well can mPEMS measure gas phase motor vehicle exhaust emissions?

Ford Motor Company-Diep Vu, Joseph Szente, Michael Loos, Matti Maricq
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0369
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
“Real world emissions” is an emerging area of focus in motor vehicle related air quality. These emissions are commonly recorded using portable emissions measurement systems (PEMS) designed for regulatory application, which are large, complex and costly. Miniature PEMS (mPEMS) is a developing technology that can significantly simplify on-board emissions measurement and potentially promote widespread use. Whereas full PEMS use analyzers to record NOx, CO, and HCs similar to those in emissions laboratories, mPEMS tend to use electrochemical sensors and compact spectroscopic detectors for their small size and low cost. The present work evaluates this approach by comparing measurements of NOx, CO, CO2 and HC emissions from five commercial mPEMS to both laboratory and full regulatory PEMS measurements. It further examines the use of vehicle on-board diagnostics data to calculate exhaust flow, as an alternative to on-vehicle exhaust flow measurement. The evaluations include two vehicle types, gasoline direct injection and diesel, and employ the US EPA and Worldwide Harmonized Light duty drive cycles. The results show that two classes of electrochemical NOx sensors are capable of…
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Real-Time Embedded Models for Simulation and Control of Clean and Fuel-Efficient Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines

Daimler Trucks North America-Marc Allain, Siddharth Mahesh
University of Michigan-Saravanan Duraiarasan, Rasoul Salehi, Fucong Wang, Anna Stefanopoulou
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0257
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The ever increasing demand for fuel economy and stringent emission norms drives researchers to continuously innovate and improve engine modes to implement adaptive algorithms, where the engine states are continuously monitored and the control variables are manipulated to operate the engine at the most efficient regime. This paper presents a virtual engine developed by modeling a modern diesel engine and aftertreatment which can be used in real-time on a control unit to predict critical diesel engine variables such as fuel consumption and feed gas conditions including emissions, flow and temperature. A physics-based approach is followed in order to capture vital transient airpath and emission dynamics encountered during real driving condition. A minimal realization of the airpath model is coupled with a cycle averaged NOx emissions predictor to estimate transient feed gas NOx during steady state and transient conditions. The complete airpath and NOx emission model was implemented on a rapid prototyping controller and experimentally validated over steady state and transient emission cycles. The overall performance of the reduced order model was comparable to that of…
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The study on the influence of factors on vehicle refueling emission test

China Automotive Technology and Research-Chunbei Dai, Taiyu Zhang, Chongzhi Zhong, Qiang Chen, Jiaxing Sun, Xiaoliang Wu, Tiefei Yu
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1070
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Two vehicles with ORVR system which are met with the US standard are studied. A comparative of refueling emissions test under different refueling rate and different refueling temperature are studied. The HC chemical analysis was carried out for the fuel gas emission from a sample car. The results show that with the increase of the refueling rates, the refueling emissions decline at first, and then gradually stabilize; with the increase of the refueling temperature, the results of refueling emissions show a gradual increase. Under the condition of 37 L / min refueling flow rate and 20 ℃ fuel temperature, 14 kinds of alkanes were emitted from the fuel, in which isobutane, isopentane and n-pentane were the highest emissive components, accounting for 57.66% of the total amount of VOCs.
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Analytical approach to characterize the effect of engine control parameters and fuel properties on ACI operation in a GDI engine

Argonne National Laboratory-Johannes Rohwer, Ashish Shah, Toby Rockstroh
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1141
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Advanced compression ignition (ACI) operation in gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines is a promising concept to reduce fuel consumption and emissions at part load conditions. However, combustion phasing control and the limited operating range in ACI mode are a perennial challenge. In this study the combined impact of fuel properties and engine control strategies are investigated. A design of experiments method was implemented using a three level orthogonal array to determine the sensitivity of five engine control parameters on four engine response variables under low load ACI operation for three 98 RON gasoline fuels, exhibiting disparate chemical composition. Furthermore, the thermodynamic state of the compression histories was studied with the aid of the pressure-temperature framework and correlations were drawn to analogous HCCI experiments conducted in an instrumented CFR engine. Due to the compression ratio constraints imposed by knock limited SI operation, considerable intake temperature heating was required resulting in advanced compression ignition mode resulting in the intermediate to high temperature autoignition regime. The olefin containing fuel was found to require the least amount of intake…
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Analysis of Drivability Influence on Tailpipe Emissions by Means of Engine-in-the-Loop Test Benches

FEV Europe GmbH-Stefan Tegelkamp, Michael Görgen, Martin Nijs, Johannes Scharf
RWTH Aachen University-Christian Heusch, Daniel Guse, Frank Dorscheidt, Johannes Claßen, Timm Fahrbach, Stefan Pischinger
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0373
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Due to increasing environmental awareness, standards for pollutant and CO2 emission legislations are getting stricter in most markets around the world. In important markets such as Europe, also the emissions during driving on real roads, the so called “Real Driving Emissions” (RDE), are now a part of the type approval process for passenger cars. In addition to the hybridization and electrification of vehicles, the complexity and degrees of freedom of conventional powertrains with internal combustion engines are continuing to increase in order to comply with stricter exhaust emission standards. Besides the different requirements placed on vehicle emissions, the drivability capabilities of passenger vehicles desired by the costumers, varies within markets. Since the interactions between different hardware and software systems of the powertrain strongly influence the drivability characteristics of a vehicle, a high degree of maturity of prototype vehicles is required to execute drivability calibration tasks. Hence, these tasks are generally conducted in late phases of the vehicle development process. The assessment of the influence of drivability calibration on the vehicle’s tailpipe emissions is complex. Since…
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Cost-efficient Cathode Air Path for PEM Fuel Cell systems

MANN+HUMMEL GmbH-Michael Harenbrock, Alexander Korn, Andreas Weber
MANN+HUMMEL Innenraumfilter GmbH & Co.KG-Eva Hallbauer
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1176
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Fuel cell technology will play a major role in reducing transportation-related emissions, especially in sectors where battery-electric powertrains will face severe challenges, e.g. in heavy-duty, long-haul applications, as it decouples system weight from electric driving range. To achieve the required fuel cell stack lifetime, the supply of clean air is essential, especially with low Platinum catalyst loads required to achieve the DOE cost targets. As gases as NOx, SO2 and NH3 can poison the catalyst, leading to - often irreversible - loss in power supply from the stack, these must be captured by use of tailor-made activated carbons. Research on real-life concentrations of these contaminants under different driving patterns and road profiles leads to the knowledge-based design of Cathode Air Filter elements. Cost-efficient Balance-of-Plant components are required to integrate the filter into the full Cathode Air path. To prevent flooding of components like air filter, humidifier, or the stack itself, water separators are integrated at different position inside the system. Air ducts are designed in a way to operate under the different temperature and pressure…
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Neat Oxymethylene Ethers: Combustion Performance and Emissions of OME2, OME3, OME4 and OME5 in a Single-Cylinder Diesel Engine

Technical University of Munich, Germany-Patrick Dworschak, Vinicius Berger, Martin Härtl, Georg Wachtmeister
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0805
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Diesel engines are arguably the superior device in the ground transportation sector in terms of efficiency and reliability, but suffer from inferior emission performance due to the diffusive nature of diesel combustion. Great research efforts gradually reduced nitrogen oxide (NOX) and particulate matter (PM) emissions, but the PM-NOX trade-off remained to be a problem of major concern and was believed to be inevitable for a long time. In the process of engine development, the modification of fuel properties has lately gained great attention. In particular, the oxygenate fuel oxymethylene ether (OME) has proven potential to not only drastically reduce emissions, but possibly resolve the formerly inevitable trade-off completely. Although intensified investigations with OME were conducted within the past decade, little is known about the specific influence of fuel properties inherent to unimolecular, high chain length OME on combustion characteristics, emission performance and particle size. The latter is of special concern, as studies on oxygenate fuels reported increased formation of nanoparticles, which are known to have adverse effects on human health. In this paper, the authors…
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A Comprehensive Approach to Evaluate Emission Reliability for Full Useful Life

FCA US LLC-Shuguang Lu
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0375
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
As legislations around the globe tighten vehicle emission regulations, it has become more and more difficult for vehicles to meet the regulatory requirements on emissions. If emission failures occur while vehicles are in use, the manufacturer may face recalls or penalties which will result in heavy financial losses to the manufacturer. In order to prevent emission failures in real usage, manufacturers should evaluate the emission reliability of all vehicle programs to ensure that 1) all vehicles will comply with regulatory emission requirements throughout the full useful life and no emission failures will occur in in-use verification testing, and 2) to identify any risks in emission reliability so that necessary remedy actions can be taken before production launch. This paper introduces a comprehensive approach to evaluate emission reliability. By this approach, a certain number of test vehicles from each vehicle family are selected to represent all vehicle configurations. The test vehicles accumulate road mileage according to the drive cycle which represents real customer usage. At certain mileage intervals, the vehicles are emission tested. The mileage intervals…
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RDE-compliant PEMS Testing of a Euro 6d-TEMP Passenger Car at Two Ambient Temperatures with a Focus on the Cold Start Effect

BOSMAL & Poznan University of Technology-Jerzy Merkisz
BOSMAL Automotive R&D Institute Ltd-Piotr Bielaczyc, Joseph Woodburn
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0379
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
European Union RDE (real driving emissions) legislation requires that new vehicles be subjected to emissions tests on public roads. Performing emissions testing outside a laboratory setting immediately raises the question of the impact of ambient conditions – especially temperature – on the results. In the spirit of RDE legislation, a wide range of ambient temperatures are permissible, with mathematical moderation (correction) of the results only permissible for very high and very low ambient temperatures. Within the standard range of temperatures, no correction for temperature is applied to emissions results and the applicable emissions limits have to be met. Given the well-known link between the thermal state of an engine and its emissions following cold start, ambient temperature can be of great importance in determining whether a vehicle meets emissions requirements during an RDE test. This paper reports the results of full RDE-compliant on-road emissions tests performed on a Euro 6d-TEMP passenger car with a direct injection spark ignition engine and a gasoline particle filter. Testing was performed at two temperatures, both lying within the “standard”…