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Engine Fuel Economy Optimization for different Hybrid Architectures using 1-D Simulation technique

Tafe Motors and Tractors Limited-Ajay Nain, Devendra Nene
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2496
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
In order to improve fuel economy of the 3.3 litre tractor model, various kinds of engine hybridization is studied. This paper presents a methodology to predict engine fuel consumption using 1-D software by coupling Ricardo Wave and Ricardo Ignite. Engine fuel consumption and emission maps are predicted using Ricardo WAVE. These maps are used as an input to IGNITE for predicting cumulative fuel consumption. There is good agreement within 10% deviation between simulated cumulative fuel consumption and experimental cumulative fuel consumption. Same calibrated model is used further for studying series hybridization, parallel P1 type and Parallel P2 type of hybridization. A design of experiment (DOE) model is run for different electric motor sizes, battery capacity and battery state of charge condition, to understand their effects on overall engine fuel consumption and cycle soot emission. Model predicts overall significant reduction in cumulative fuel consumption and soot emission. Lower soot emission will leads to smaller exhaust after-treatment size. There is trade-off between higher cost due to hybridization and lower cost due to lower after-treatment size. A cost…
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New CEC Gasoline Direct Injection Fuels Test – Comparison of Deposits and Spray Performance from New and Used injectors.

Afton Chemical, Ltd.-Jonathan James Pilbeam, Alex Robert Thomson
Birmingham University-Hongming Xu
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2392
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
The use of deposit control additives in European market gasoline is well documented for maintaining high levels of engine cleanliness and subsequent sustained fuel and emissions performance. Co-ordinating European Council (CEC) industry fuels tests have played a crucial role in helping to drive market relevant, effective and low-cost deposit control additives into European market fuels. Until now, there has not been a Gasoline Direct Injection engine test available to fuel marketers in any market globally. However, a new CEC engine test is currently being developed to address that gap. Based on an in-house VW injector coking test, it shows promise for becoming a useful tool with which to develop and measure the performance of deposit control additives. A key requirement of industry tests should be to replicate issues seen in consumer vehicles, thereby providing a platform for relevant solutions. For this paper, injectors from the new VW injector coking test in a clean and coked state were compared to injectors from vehicles in the market in respect of deposit geometry, elemental composition and injector spray…
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LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT OF A PASSENGER VEHICLE TO ANALYSE THE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS USING CRADLE TO GRAVE APPROACH

Mahindra Research Valley-Rahul Lalwani, Saravanan N, Arunmozhi Veeraputhiran, IlavarasIi D
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2581
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
OBJECTIVE: Climate change is primary driver in the current discussions on CO2 reduction in the automotive industry. Current Type approval emissions tests (BS III, BS IV) covers only tailpipe emissions, however the emissions produced in upstream and downstream processes (e.g. Raw material sourcing, manufacturing, transportation, vehicle usage, recycle phases) are not considered in the evaluation. The objective of this project is to assess the environmental impact of the product considering all stages of the life cycle, understand the real opportunities to reduce environmental impact across the product life cycle. METHODOLOGY: As a part of environmental sustainability journey in business value chain, Life-cycle assessment (LCA) technique helps to understand the environmental impact categories. To measure overall impact, a cradle to grave approach helps to assess entire life cycle impact throughout various stages. LCA is a technique to assess environmental impacts associated with all the stages of a product's life from raw material extraction through materials processing, manufacture, distribution, use, repair & maintenance, disposal or recycling. A study was conducted on a passenger vehicle for life cycle…
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Combustion Optimization and In-cylinder NOx and PM Reduction by using EGR and Split Injection Technique

ARAI Academy-Madhan Kumar, Aatmesh Jain, Kamalkishore Chhaganlal Vora
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2560
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Nowadays, the major most challenge in the diesel engine is the oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) trade-off, with minimal reduction in Power and BSFC. Modern day engines also rely on expensive after-treatment devices, which may decrease the performance and increase the BSFC. In this paper, combustion optimization and in-cylinder emission control by introducing the Split injection technique along with EGR is carried out by 1-D (GT-POWER) simulation. Experiments were conducted on a 3.5 kW Single-cylinder naturally aspirated CRDI engine at the different load conditions. The Simulation model incorporates detailed pressure (Burn rate) analysis for different cases and various aspects of ignition delay, premixed and mixing controlled combustion rate, the injection rate affecting oxides of nitrogen and particulate matter. The predictive combustion model (DI-PULSE) has been developed for the calibration of an engine under multiple injections and the detailed injection rates with EGR rates. Split injection with higher fuel quantity injected in the 1st pulse, helped to significantly reduce PM emissions. This reduction is due to the restraint in the premixed phase of…
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EMISSION REDUCTION OF A DIESEL ENGINE FUELED WITH BLENDS OF BIOFUEL UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF 1,4-DIOXANE AND RICE HUSK NANO PARTICLE.

Delphi TVS-Santiago Josan
Madras Institute of Technology-Mebin Samuel P, Devaradjane G
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2387
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Research Objectives. In this modern era increase in Pollution became a huge impact in the lives of all living creatures, in this automobile tends to be one of the major contributors in terms of air pollution thanks to their exhaust emissions. The objective of the present study is to reduce the amount of harmful pollutants emitted from the automobiles by the utilization of a biofuel further influenced by two additives (liquid and a Nano additive). Methodology In this study, first the bio oil is extracted, Then the biofuel is mixed with diesel fuel at different proportions of 20%, 40% by volume. Experiments are carried out in a direct injection compression ignition engine, which is a stationary test engine manufactured by Kirloskar, connected to a computer setup. The emission values in the exhaust gases are obtained using AVL exhaust gas analyzer. Then 0.1% of rice husk nano additive is added with the fuel blend followed by 3%, 6% of 1,4-Dioxane blended with the previous blend and its performance (BTE, BSFC) and emission (HC, CO, CO2, NOx,…
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End-of-Life Vehicles in India – Regulatory Perspectives

International Centre for Automotive Technology-Vijayanta Ahuja, Shakti N Khanna
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2580
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
The unprecedented increment in vehicle sales in the last decade brought several challenges with it. Older vehicles, conforming to lenient emission norms continue to ply on road, continuously producing higher emissions. This not only burdens the environment with air pollution caused due to emissions, but also with land pollution caused due to landfills and the overall impact of utilising more resources excavated through nature to fulfil manufacturing requirements. Due to absence of regulations, older vehicles also compromise on active, passive and pedestrian safety measures. A need was felt to withdraw such vehicles from the roads but due to the lack of incentives for the last vehicle owner, unavailability of infrastructure or policy, though a guideline standard (AIS-129) was published, the idea, in its entirety never came to fruition. This paper discusses the areas affected during and beyond the recycling of the End-of-Life Vehicle (ELV). While the scrap of the vehicle shall be crushed and re-utilised from scrap metal (ferrous and non-ferrous), this paper also discusses potential usage of the components (such as head lamps, RVMs…
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Potential for Emission Reduction and Fuel Economy with Micro & Mild HEV

AVL List GmbH-Franz Murr, Ernst Winklhofer, Michael Weissbaeck, Gerald Teuschl
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2504
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
The development of modern combustion engines (spark ignition as well as compression ignition) for vehicles compliant with future oriented emission legislation (BS6, Euro VI, China 6) has introduced several technologies for improvement of both fuel efficiency as well as low emissions combustion strategies. Some of these technologies as there are high pressure multiple injection systems or sophisticated exhaust gas aftertreatment system imply substantial increase in test and calibration time as well as equipment cost. With the introduction of 48V systems for hybridization a cost-efficient enhancement and, partially, an even attractive alternative is now available. An overview will be given on current technologies as well as on implemented or simulated vehicle concepts for light duty gasoline and diesel powertrains. The focus will be on solutions which have potential for the Indian market, i.e. solutions which can be implemented with moderate application effort for currently available compact and medium size cars. The possibilities of 12/24 & 48V technologies for fuel economy and emission reduction will be discussed. Simultaneously, tools for testing and calibration at power train testbed…
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Design and Development of Constant speed diesel engine up to 20 bar BMEP with Inline FIS

Tafe Motors and Tractors Limited-Omprakash Yadav, Piyush Ranjan, Vishal Kumar, Vasundhara Arde, Sanjay Aurora, Remesan Chirakkal
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2549
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Design and Development of Constant speed diesel engine up to 20 bar BMEP with Inline FIS Remesan CB, Sanjay Aurora, Vasundhara V Arde, Vishal Kumar, Om Prakash Yadav, Piyush Ranjan Eicher Engines (A unit of TAFE Motors & Tractors Ltd.) Abstract Development trend in diesel engine is to achieve more power from same size of engine. With increase in brake mean effective pressure (BMEP), the peak firing pressure will also increase. The methodology to control the peak firing pressure on higher BMEP is the major challenge. We achieved better SFC with CPCB II emission targets on a constant speed engine. This study involves a systematic approach to optimize combustion parameters with a cost effective and robust inline Fuel Injection System. This paper deals with the strategies applied and experimental results for achieving the power density of 25kW/lit with Inline FIP by keeping lower Peak firing pressure. Various combustion parameters such as Combustion Bowl Geometry, selection of Turbocharger, Swirl, FIP, Nozzle configuration, EGR flow rate, EGR operation strategy, optimizing injection pressures, start of injection, end of…
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Automobile Exhaust Emmision Control- A review

Manav Rachna International University-Sunny Bhatia
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2382
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Since the 20th century increase in the number of cars in the major cities is been a point of concern because of the toxic gasses being emitted from the engine of an automobile. These gasses are polluting the atmosphere and degrading the air to breathe. The main gasses responsible for the degradation of air quality are carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon and oxides of nitrogen. There is a necessity to find ways to reduce the pollution emitted into the atmosphere from the automobile. The source of emission is either evaporation from fuel tank or carburetor which is easy to be dealt with or harmful gasses due to improper combustion which is a concern for the environment. The two ways to reduce these emissions are, modification in the engine to minimize the production of harmful gases and to treat the harmful gasses emitted from the engine before blowing it into the atmosphere from the exhaust. Catalysts help to break harmful gasses into smaller compounds that are environment-friendly. The catalysts used are Rhodium Palladium and platinum, these make a…
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Approach for CO2 Reduction in India’s Automotive Sector

Maruti Suzuki India, Ltd.-Gaurab Bhowmick, Tapan Sahoo, Anoop Bhat, Gaurav Mathur, Deepak Gambhir
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2388
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
India has gone through a lot of transformation over the last decade. Today it is the 6th largest and one of the fastest growing economies in the world. Rising income level, increased consumerism, rapid growth in urbanization and digitization have attributed to this change. Government focus on “Make in India” for promoting trade and investment in India have ensured that India emerge as one of the largest growing economies in the world. The automotive industry played a pivotal role in the manufacturing sector to boost economic activities in India. The passenger car market has increased 3 times over the last decade and it has led to increased mobility options for many people across India. However, this has put concerns on the country’s energy security and emission levels. According to IEA’s recent report on global CO2 emission, 32.31 Gt of CO2 emissions were from fuel combustion in 2016, out of which transport sector contributed ~25%. India contributed ~11% of transport emissions in Asia in 2016. This necessitates systematic approach and action plans to curb India’s vehicular…