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Influence to the PN Emissions in Calibration Procedure for Portable and Stationary Solid Particle Number Measurement Systems

HORIBA Europe GmbH-Yoshinori Otsuki
HORIBA, Ltd.-Kenji Kondo, Kentaro Kojima, Takeshi Kusaka
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2196
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
The Real Diving Emissions (RDE) regulation has been introduced since September, 2017 by utilizing the Portable Emissions Measurement System (PEMS). For the PEMS for the solid Particle Number (PN) measurement (PN-PEMS), the validation tests are required by comparing to the stationary PN measurement system on a chassis dynamometer prior to the on-road emissions testing. However, there are some cases that the emission results of PN-PEMS have big difference for that of the PMP system as the PN-PEMS does not have the same system configuration and calibration procedures as a PMP system. In this paper, the influence of the calibration procedure to the PN emissions results was observed by applying the calibration procedure of the PN-PEMS to the PMP system. The current systems configurations for PMP system and PN-PEMS, and the differences of them were described. And, the calibration procedure of the PN-PEMS was applied to the PMP system to adjust the system detection efficiency at 23 nm. Finally, the influence of the calibration protocol was investigated by compared the PN emissions of PMP system and…
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Improvement in PEMS performance for RDE testing at high and varying altitudes

HORIBA, Ltd.-Shun Fukami, Haruhisa Mohara
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2200
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
RDE (Real Driving Emissions) by definition is performed under a wide range of conditions. Altitude, as well as temperature, is one of the boundary conditions that depends on the area where the test is performed, which will vary from country to country. These boundary conditions not only affect the exhaust emissions from the vehicle, they also affect the accuracy of the PEMS (Portable Emission Measurement System).The effect of barometric pressure changes on a PEMS was evaluated by altitude simulation chamber and means of an RDE test on Mt. Fuji. This paper describes the challenges for PEMS measurement with barometric pressure variations and the advanced system that has been developed to meet them.
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Particle number emissions from standard and hybrid SI passenger cars

National Laboratory of Automotive Performance & Emission-Xin Wang, Yunshan Ge, Wenlin Yu, Bin Song
School of Chemical and Process Engineering, The University o-Daisy Thomas, Hu Li, Yan Kang, Karl Ropkins
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2194
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
This paper presents the PN (Particle Number) and some gaseous emissions results from a group of SI (Spark Ignition) passenger cars including HEV (Hybrid Electric Vehicle), PFI (Port Fuel Injection) and GDI (Gasoline Direction Injection) vehicles. The PEMS (Portable Emission Measurement System) was used for on-board emission measurements. The vehicles were driven using the routes complying with the EU Real Driving Emissions (RDE) test procedures required in the European Commission Regulation (EU) 2016/427, i.e. starting in an urban driving mode and then continuing into a rural driving mode and ending with motorway driving mode part. The percentage of these three segments is approximately 33%, 33%, 33% respectively. The total test time was between 90 to 120 minutes.The vehicles’ driving parameters such as road speed, tailpipe exhaust temperatures and energy consumption were recorded and their correlations with emissions were investigated. The results show that most of the PN spikes were related to acceleration, deceleration and engine restart events. Comparing accumulated PN from different vehicles, total PN from the hybrid car was the lowest, even though this…
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In-Depth Analysis of Additive-Treated Gasoline with a Modified HFRR Technique

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Afton Chemical Company, USA-William Colucci, Kristine Morel
Shell Global Solutions (US) Inc., USA-Edward Malisa, Joseph Russo, Andreas Glawar, John Mengwasser, Edward Nelson
  • Journal Article
  • 04-13-01-0002
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Gasoline fuel lubricity is key to reducing wear and energy losses from friction in engines. The High-Frequency Reciprocating Rig (HFRR) test protocol recommended for gasoline fuels has been modified to evaluate the wear and friction properties of additized fuels. Adapted from the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) D6079 test for diesel lubricity and literature-based procedures developed for gasoline fuels, the protocol and hardware used in this study allow for differentiation of fuels with unique additive chemistries and varying additive treat rates (EPA-approved lowest additive concentration, LAC, or higher). Supplementing HFRR tests, measurements of acoustic emissions corroborate friction coefficient trends using different additized fuels. Anti-wear performance of fuels during engine tests was characterized by roller-follower pin wear and metal concentration in engine oil, further distinguishing LAC from alternate additized fuels. The engine tests and acoustic emissions measurements support HFRR observations that gasoline fuels with varying additive chemistries and concentrations can offer enhanced lubricity compared to fuels additized with basic LAC additized fuels.
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Real Driving Emissions Measurement of Brake Dust Particles

Technische Universitat Ilmenau-David Hesse, Klaus Augsburg
Published 2019-09-15 by SAE International in United States
The measurement of brake dust particles is a complex challenge owing to its open system configuration; indeed, the emitted particles are directly spread into the environment. Measurements on the inertia brake dyno feature controllable and reproducible environmental and operational parameters. Although Real Driving Emission (RDE) measurements enable the detection of brake dust particles emitted in real driving conditions (i.e. traffic condition, driving style, air humidity, vehicle components’ wear and ageing, etc.), they are complex and not reproducible due to external, continuously changing parameters (e.g., flow conditions, changing traffic conditions, particulate matter from other sources). The motivation lies in developing a real driving emission sampling system for brake particle emissions, which meets the quality requirements of the measurements, as well as the prevention of particle losses and contamination, thereby supplementing and reviewing laboratory-based procedures. On the basis of knowledge from the computational fluid dynamics and experimental investigations, an advantageous concept of a sampling system for mobile application is presented. The chosen methodological approach shows that the transport efficiency and the uniformity of the number concentration depend…
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Analysis of Emissions in the European Driving Cycle of Used Light-Duty Vehicles Imported to Europe from North America

SAE International Journal of Sustainable Transportation, Energy, Environment, & Policy

State Road Transport Research Institute, Ukraine-Oleksiy Klymenko, Viktor Ustymenko, Kostiantyn Kolobov, Sergiy Rychok, Mykola Hora, Nila Naumenko
  • Journal Article
  • 13-01-01-0001
Published 2019-09-13 by SAE International in United States
This study analyzes the distribution of exhaust mass pollutants emission obtained in 1,157 tests in the European driving cycle of used light-duty vehicles (LDVs). At the time of production, the tested vehicles complied with the Federal environmental requirements of the United States (USA) and were imported to Europe from North America. They included 1,109 passenger cars (PCs) and 48 light-duty trucks (LDTs), equipped with gasoline engines. In general, for measured emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHC), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and particulate matter (PM): 25% of test results for PCs do not exceed the T2B5 limits of the US Federal Standard; 43% of test results for PCs do not exceed the thresholds, designated for on-board diagnostic system (OBD) proper functioning; 45% of test results for PCs do not exceed the European Union (EU)’s former standard “Euro-5” norms. The automotive manufacturers of the PCs group represented various legislative and engineering approaches in Europe (Volkswagen, VW), Japan (Mazda), and North America (Ford) that are reflected in the emissions analysis results. In particular, the stricter CO limits…
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Emission Factors Evaluation in the RDE Context by a Multivariate Statistical Approach

Marianeve Costabile
Istituto Motori CNR-Livia Della Ragione, Giovanni Meccariello
Published 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
The Real Driving Emission (RDE) procedure will measure the pollutants, such as NOx, emitted by cars while driven on the road. RDE will not replace laboratory tests, such as the current WLTP but it will be added to them. RDE is complementary to the laboratory-based procedure to check the pollutant emissions level of a light-duty vehicle in real driving conditions. This means that the car will be driven on a real road according to random acceleration and deceleration patterns conditioned by traffic flow. So, the procedure will ensure that cars deliver real emissions over on-road and so the currently observed differences between emissions measured in the laboratory and those measured on road under real-world conditions, will be reduced. However, the identification of a path on the road to check the test conditions of RDE is not easy and hardly repeatable. In fact, when the car is driven by a real driver on a real road we need, firstly, to overcome some problems for identifying the best way to travel through an unknown traffic area to…
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Solid Nucleation Mode Engine Exhaust Particles Detection at High Temperatures with an Advanced Half Mini DMA

CERTH/CPERI-Penelope Baltzopoulou, Anastasios D. Melas, Nickolas Vlachos, Danis Deloglou, Eleni Papaioannou, Athanasios G. Konstandopoulos
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-24-0052
Published 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
Diesel and gasoline direct injection engines emit nucleation mode particles either under special conditions or as part of their normally emitted size distribution, respectively. Currently, European legislation excludes nucleation mode particles as particle number vehicle emission measurements are limited down to 23 nm. The rationale behind such a cut-off size is based on the avoidance of significant uncertainties inherent in the sampling and measuring of sub-23 nm solid particles. However, the sub-23 nm particles have drawn increased attention since a large fraction of particles emitted by modern vehicles lies in this size range. In this study we investigate the possibility of accurate nucleation mode particles detection by using the Advanced Half Mini Differential Mobility Analyzer (HM-DMA). The Advanced HM-DMA system is able to classify aerosol particles in the mobility size range 5 - 30 nm with high resolution and fast spectrum acquisition that can accommodate a sample flow maintained at up to 200°C. The unique ability to classify particles at high temperatures permits engine exhaust measurements without the need for aerosol conditioning. Initially, the Advanced…
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Test Procedure to Determine the Hydrocarbon Losses from Fuel Tubes, Hoses, Fittings, and Fuel Line Assemblies by Recirculation

Fuel Systems Standards Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J1737_201908
  • Current
Published 2019-08-26 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Recommended Practice is intended for the determination of the losses of hydrocarbon fluids, by permeation through component walls, as well as through "microleaks" at interfaces of assembled components while controlling temperature and pressure independently of each other. This is achieved in a recirculating system in which elements of a test fuel that permeate through the walls of a test specimen and migrate through the interfaces are transported by a controlled flow of dry nitrogen to a point where they are measured. That measurement point is a device, such as a canister containing activated charcoal or other means of collection or accumulation where the hydrocarbon losses are then measured by weight change or analyzed by some other suitable means.
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Life Cycle Analysis to Estimate the CO2-Equivalent Emissions from MAC Operation

Interior Climate Control Vehicle OEM Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J2766_201908
  • Current
Published 2019-08-06 by SAE International in United States
This recommended best practice outlines a method for estimating CO2-equivalent emissions using life cycle analysis.
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