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Real Driving Emissions Measurement of Brake Dust Particles

Technische Universitat Ilmenau-David Hesse, Klaus Augsburg
Published 2019-09-15 by SAE International in United States
The measurement of brake dust particles is a complex challenge owing to its open system configuration; indeed, the emitted particles are directly spread into the environment. Measurements on the inertia brake dyno feature controllable and reproducible environmental and operational parameters. Although Real Driving Emission (RDE) measurements enable the detection of brake dust particles emitted in real driving conditions (i.e. traffic condition, driving style, air humidity, vehicle components’ wear and ageing, etc.), they are complex and not reproducible due to external, continuously changing parameters (e.g., flow conditions, changing traffic conditions, particulate matter from other sources). The motivation lies in developing a real driving emission sampling system for brake particle emissions, which meets the quality requirements of the measurements, as well as the prevention of particle losses and contamination, thereby supplementing and reviewing laboratory-based procedures. On the basis of knowledge from the computational fluid dynamics and experimental investigations, an advantageous concept of a sampling system for mobile application is presented. The chosen methodological approach shows that the transport efficiency and the uniformity of the number concentration depend…
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Analysis of Emissions in the European Driving Cycle of Used Light-Duty Vehicles Imported to Europe from North America

State Road Transport Research Institute, Ukraine-Oleksiy Klymenko, Viktor Ustymenko, Kostiantyn Kolobov, Sergiy Rychok, Mykola Hora, Nila Naumenko
  • Journal Article
  • 13-01-01-0001
Published 2019-09-13 by SAE International in United States
This study analyzes the distribution of exhaust mass pollutants emission obtained in 1,157 tests in the European driving cycle of used light-duty vehicles (LDVs). At the time of production, the tested vehicles complied with the Federal environmental requirements of the United States (USA) and were imported to Europe from North America. They included 1,109 passenger cars (PCs) and 48 light-duty trucks (LDTs), equipped with gasoline engines. In general, for measured emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHC), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and particulate matter (PM): 25% of test results for PCs do not exceed the T2B5 limits of the US Federal Standard; 43% of test results for PCs do not exceed the thresholds, designated for on-board diagnostic system (OBD) proper functioning; 45% of test results for PCs do not exceed the European Union (EU)’s former standard “Euro-5” norms. The automotive manufacturers of the PCs group represented various legislative and engineering approaches in Europe (Volkswagen, VW), Japan (Mazda), and North America (Ford) that are reflected in the emissions analysis results. In particular, the stricter CO limits…
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Emission Factors Evaluation in the RDE Context by a Multivariate Statistical Approach

Marianeve Costabile
Istituto Motori CNR-Livia Della Ragione, Giovanni Meccariello
Published 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
The Real Driving Emission (RDE) procedure will measure the pollutants, such as NOx, emitted by cars while driven on the road. RDE will not replace laboratory tests, such as the current WLTP but it will be added to them. RDE is complementary to the laboratory-based procedure to check the pollutant emissions level of a light-duty vehicle in real driving conditions. This means that the car will be driven on a real road according to random acceleration and deceleration patterns conditioned by traffic flow. So, the procedure will ensure that cars deliver real emissions over on-road and so the currently observed differences between emissions measured in the laboratory and those measured on road under real-world conditions, will be reduced. However, the identification of a path on the road to check the test conditions of RDE is not easy and hardly repeatable. In fact, when the car is driven by a real driver on a real road we need, firstly, to overcome some problems for identifying the best way to travel through an unknown traffic area to…
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Solid Nucleation Mode Engine Exhaust Particles Detection at High Temperatures with an Advanced Half Mini DMA

CERTH/CPERI-Penelope Baltzopoulou, Anastasios D. Melas, Nickolas Vlachos, Danis Deloglou, Eleni Papaioannou, Athanasios G. Konstandopoulos
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-24-0052
Published 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
Diesel and gasoline direct injection engines emit nucleation mode particles either under special conditions or as part of their normally emitted size distribution, respectively. Currently, European legislation excludes nucleation mode particles as particle number vehicle emission measurements are limited down to 23 nm. The rationale behind such a cut-off size is based on the avoidance of significant uncertainties inherent in the sampling and measuring of sub-23 nm solid particles. However, the sub-23 nm particles have drawn increased attention since a large fraction of particles emitted by modern vehicles lies in this size range. In this study we investigate the possibility of accurate nucleation mode particles detection by using the Advanced Half Mini Differential Mobility Analyzer (HM-DMA). The Advanced HM-DMA system is able to classify aerosol particles in the mobility size range 5 - 30 nm with high resolution and fast spectrum acquisition that can accommodate a sample flow maintained at up to 200°C. The unique ability to classify particles at high temperatures permits engine exhaust measurements without the need for aerosol conditioning. Initially, the Advanced…
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Life Cycle Analysis to Estimate the CO2-Equivalent Emissions from MAC Operation

Interior Climate Control Vehicle OEM Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J2766_201908
  • Current
Published 2019-08-06 by SAE International in United States

This recommended best practice outlines a method for estimating CO2-equivalent emissions using life cycle analysis.

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Evaluation of Emissions from Light Duty Trucks with and without the Use of a Gasoline Particulate Filter

Environment and Climate Change Canada-Fadi Araji, Jonathan Stokes
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
The goal of this study was to investigate the emission impacts of replacing the OEM three-way catalyst on light duty trucks using various, commercially available, gasoline particulate filter (GPF) configurations. Three light duty trucks were tested: a Port Fuel Injection (PFI) PFI_1 and two Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) vehicles GDI_1 and GDI_2. The testing of these vehicles was conducted on a chassis dynamometer in a controlled test cell environment at two temperatures (25 °C and -7 °C) using the Federal Test Procedure (FTP-75) and the US06 test procedure. All three vehicles were tested in stock OEM configuration followed by testing PFI_1 and GDI_1 with a non-catalyzed GPF and GDI_2 with a catalyzed GPF. GDI_2 was also tested on-road using a portable emissions measurement system (PEMS) with and without the use of the catalyzed GPF. Gaseous emissions, Particulate Matter (PM), Black Carbon (BC) and Particle Number (PN) emissions were measured. Results for the non-catalyzed GPF configuration on PFI_1 and GDI_1 showed a decrease in PM at both standard and cold temperatures, with the biggest decrease being…
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Investigation in Calibration Procedures for Portable and Stationary Solid Particle Number Measurement Systems

Horiba Europe GmbH-Yoshinori Otsuki, Hiroshi Nakamura
Horiba Ltd.-Kentaro Kojima, Kenji Kondo, Kazuhiko Haruta
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
The Particle Measurement Programme (PMP) established under the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe has developed the solid particle number (PN) measurement methodology, which has relatively higher sensitivity than the particulate matter measurement protocol. The first PN emission regulation was introduced in 2011. The stationary PN measurement system (PMP system) has been applied in the chassis and the engine test cells. In recent years, real driving emissions (RDE) measurement is attracting attention. Portable emissions measurement systems for PN measurement (PN-PEMS) which can be installed on vehicles during RDE testing are available now. The European RDE regulation requires validation of PN-PEMS by comparing emission measurement results with a stationary PMP system on a chassis dynamometer prior to the on-road emissions testing. Measurement differences between the PN-PEMS and the PMP system has to be within the tolerance defined by the regulation. Therefore, equivalency in measurement results of the PN-PEMS to the PMP system is required. However, a PN-PEMS does not generally have the same system configuration as a PMP system. In addition, a PN-PEMS has different calibration…
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Real-World Emission Modeling and Validations Using PEMS and GPS Vehicle Data

US Environmental Protection Agency-SoDuk Lee, Carl Fulper, Joseph McDonald, Michael Olechiw
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Portable Emission Measurement Systems (PEMS) are used by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to measure gaseous and particulate mass emissions from vehicles in normal, in-use, on-the-road operation to support many of its programs, including assessing mobile source emissions compliance, emissions factor assessment for in-use fleet modeling, and collection of in-use vehicle operational data to support vehicle simulation modeling programs. This paper discusses EPA’s use of Global Positioning System (GPS) measured altitude data and electronically logged vehicle speed data to provide real-world road grade data for use as an input into the Gamma Technologies GT-DRIVE+ vehicle model. The GPS measured altitudes and the CAN vehicle speed data were filtered and smoothed to calculate the road grades by using open-source Python code and associated packages. Ambient temperature, ambient pressure, humidity, wind direction, and speeds were used to simulate actual driving environment conditions, and to calculate vehicle performance, fuel economy, and emissions associated with environmental effects. Complete engine maps, transmission efficiencies, and vehicle data were used as inputs into the GT-DRIVE+ vehicle model to estimate fuel economy,…
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Numerical Parametric Study of a Six-Stroke Gasoline Compression Ignition (GCI) Engine Combustion

Hyundai Motor Co.-Kyoung-Pyo Ha
Michigan Technological University-Oudumbar Rajput, Youngchul Ra
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Numerical investigation of engine performance and emissions of a six-stroke gasoline compression ignition (GCI) engine combustion at low load conditions is presented. In order to identify the effects of additional two strokes of the six-stroke engine cycle on the thermal and chemical conditions of charge mixtures, an in-house multi-dimensional CFD code coupled with high fidelity physical sub-models along with the Chemkin library was employed. The combustion and emissions were calculated using a reduced chemical kinetics mechanism for a 14-component gasoline surrogate fuel. Two power strokes per cycle were achieved using multiple injections during compression strokes.Parametric variations of injection strategy viz., individual injection timing for both the power strokes and the split ratio that enable the control of combustion phasing of both the power strokes were explored. The computational results suggest that the operability limit of GCI combustion can be effectively expanded by controlling the mixture thermodynamic conditions and achieving optimum mixture stratification. It was uniquely found that the charge mixtures could burn in the mixing-controlled mode during the second power stroke with the injection timing…
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SEMS for Individual Trip Reports and Long-Time Measurement

Horiba Europe GmbH-Frank Heepen, Weilin Yu
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
There is an increasing need to understand the discrepancy between the real-world driving emissions and the emissions determined from type approval in a laboratory. Currently all modern passenger cars and trucks in Europe must undergo an on-road driving emissions test with portable emissions measurement systems (PEMS). Due to the large volume and big operational effort the currently used PEMS has however the constraint for monitoring the emissions of a vehicle within a limited time. To cover as many real-world driving conditions as possible, an online measurement system with automatic functions in data taking, data transferring and data analysis is needed.A Smart Emissions Measurement System (SEMS) was developed by TNO to derive robust and reliable emission factors, this system provides a simple and easy-to-use emissions monitoring solution. Since 2012, this automotive sensor-based system and toolbox has been continuously developed and validated, through numerous measurements of emissions from light duty vehicles (LDV), heavy duty vehicles (HDV) and non-road mobile machinery (NRMM).HORIBA and TNO are collaborating on the industrialization and large-scale deployment of SEMS, enabling new possibilities for…
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