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Heavy Duty Diesel Emission Standards Regulation Evolution Review - Current Outcomes and Future Perspectives

FCB Research and Consulting-Fábio Coelho Barbosa
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0174
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
Heavy duty vehicle (HDV) segment, as an important source of emissions that strongly impact air quality and human health - especially in urban centers - has been continuously challenged by the increasingly stringent emission limits. The adoption of emission standards for the heavy duty industry was initially launched by the United States, followed by the European Union and Japan, and, subsequently, by other countries, like Australia, Brazil, China and India, among others, generally with a time lag. This continuous “cleaning” effort has led to the current rigorous emission limits - materialized by the so called U.S. EPA 2010 and Euro VI and their foreign variants - which have provided huge emissions reductions (HC, CO, NOx, PM and smoke and, more recently, CO2). Nevertheless, due to air quality and global climate change concerns (basically derived from the air quality non compliance, associated with cities' pollution hotspots, as well as greenhouse gas emissions) there is still a regulatory demand for further emissions control improvement. In this scenario, the heavy duty vehicle industry has pursued not only increasingly…
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Hybrid plant modelling of diesel engine and After treatment systems using Artificial Neural Networks

Mercedes-Benz Research and Development India-Sandeep Kumar, Sudip Gope, Aishwarya Vijapur
Mitsubishi Fuso Truck and Bus Corporation (Japan)-Shinji Nakayama
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2292
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
(a)Motivation:For Euro VI & JOBD-II emission compliance, emission control software and fault monitors are complex. In order to test such complex functionalities on a Hardware-In-Loop (HIL) environment, a realistic plant model is necessary. A realistic plant model can replicate real life scenarios accurately and help create scenarios difficult to test on a vehicle. A realistic plant model can increase the scope of emission software controls and OBD fault monitor testing on a HIL system.(b)Problem statement:Emission control software interacts with emission control devices based on complex chemical and physical interactions. Although physical and empirical approaches of modeling the complex emission plant models have been explored earlier, there is a tradeoff between plant model complexity and real time performance on HIL system, also there is a large effort and equipment infrastructure spent on parametrization of the complex physical and empirical models using techniques of Design of Experiments (DOE) and data analysis.(c)Approach:One promising avenue is to introduce machine learning and sophisticated control techniques inspired by artificial intelligence into plant modelling.Within machine learning and artificial intelligence, neural networks are…
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Experimental Investigations on CO2 Recovery from Engine Exhaust Using Adsorption Technology

ARC,SMEC,Vellore Institute of Technology-Saravanan S, Chidambaram Ramesh Kumar
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2577
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Energy policy reviews state that automobiles contribute 25% of the total Carbon dioxide (CO2) emission. The current trend in emission control techniques of automobile exhaust is to reduce CO2 emission. We know that CO2 is a greenhouse gas and it leads to global warming. Conversion of CO2 into carbon and oxygen is an energy-consuming process compared to the catalytic converters. The best way to reduce CO2 is to capture it from the source, store it and use it for industrial applications. To physically capture the CO2 from the engine exhaust, adsorbents like molecular sieves are utilized. In comparison to other CO2 separation methods, adsorption technique consumes less work and energy. Moreover, the sieves can be regenerated, reused and recycled once it is completely saturated. In this research work, zeolite X13 was chosen as a molecular sieve to adsorb CO2 from the exhaust. A chamber was designed to store the zeolite and it is attached to the exhaust manifold. The selected engine was a single-cylinder Briggs and Stratton petrol engine. The experiments were conducted in two…
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Combustion Optimization and In-Cylinder NOx and PM Reduction by Using EGR and Split Injection Techniques

ARAI Academy-Madhan Kumar, Aatmesh Jain, Kamalkishore Chhaganlal Vora
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2560
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Nowadays, the major most challenge in the diesel engine is the oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) trade-off, with minimal reduction in Power and BSFC. Modern day engines also rely on expensive after-treatment devices, which may decrease the performance and increase the BSFC. In this paper, combustion optimization and in-cylinder emission control by introducing the Split injection technique along with EGR is carried out by 1-D (GT- POWER) simulation. Experiments were conducted on a 3.5 kW Single-cylinder naturally aspirated CRDI engine at the different load conditions. The Simulation model incorporates detailed pressure (Burn rate) analysis for different cases and various aspects of ignition delay, premixed and mixing controlled combustion rate, the injection rate affecting oxides of nitrogen and particulate matter. The predictive combustion model (DI-PULSE) has been developed for the calibration of an engine under multiple injections and the detailed injection rates with EGR rates. Split injection with higher fuel quantity injected in the 1st pulse, helped to significantly reduce PM emissions. This reduction is due to the restraint in the premixed phase…
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Characterization of AlSi10Mg Alloy Produced by DMLS Process for Automotive Engine Application

Turbo Energy Ltd.-Emmidi Thrinadh
Turbo Energy Private Ltd.-Kumaran Arun, Kumaran Aravindh
Published 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
Considerable weight of an automobile is constituted by the engine and there is scope for improvement in fuel efficiency and emission control through optimization of weight in the engine. In this work, AlSi10Mg alloy produced by the direct metal laser sintering (DMLS) is suggested for engine application which is a lightweight aluminum alloy. Mechanical properties like tensile strength, compressive strength, and hardness of both cast and DMLS manufactured alloy are compared followed by analysis of SEM images of tensile test fractured surfaces. Reciprocating wear test is carried out for one lakh cycles at 125°C temperature with SAE 40 grade oil as lubricant. Co-efficient of friction (COF), wear rate of the cast and DMLS manufactured samples are compared. Wear patterns are analyzed using SEM images of the wear tracks.
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Comparison of Regulated and Unregulated Emissions and Fuel Economy of SI Engines with Three Fuels: RON95, M15, and E10

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Israel Institute of Technology, Israel-Gideon Goldwine, Eran Sher
University of Toronto, Canada-Diana Sher
  • Journal Article
  • 04-12-03-0013
Published 2019-10-04 by SAE International in United States
This article focuses on a comparative research of the emissions discharged from four vehicles equipped with SI engines, which comply with different emission control systems (Euro 6, Euro 5, and Euro 3). The vehicles used for this work were installed with two different fuel injection technologies (direct injection and port fuel injection) and were operated with three different types of fuels (RON 95, M15, and E10). The tests were performed at the Joint Research Center (JRC) in Ispra using a state-of-the-art emissions test facility according to the European emissions legislation. The test bench included a chassis dynamometer and two different driving cycles were used: NEDC and US06. The main conclusions observed by this article are: (1) Emissions levels from vehicles fueled with M15 are similar to or lower than from those fueled with RON95. (2) Using M15 has the potential to decrease carbon dioxide emissions and to save fuel on an energetic basis. (3) PM emissions are lower for gasoline/alcoholic fuels. (4) No statistically significant effects on carbonyl emissions were found with M15.
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Analysis of Emissions in the European Driving Cycle of Used Light-Duty Vehicles Imported to Europe from North America

SAE International Journal of Sustainable Transportation, Energy, Environment, & Policy

State Road Transport Research Institute, Ukraine-Oleksiy Klymenko, Viktor Ustymenko, Kostiantyn Kolobov, Sergiy Rychok, Mykola Hora, Nila Naumenko
  • Journal Article
  • 13-01-01-0001
Published 2019-09-13 by SAE International in United States
This study analyzes the distribution of exhaust mass pollutants emission obtained in 1,157 tests in the European driving cycle of used light-duty vehicles (LDVs). At the time of production, the tested vehicles complied with the Federal environmental requirements of the United States (USA) and were imported to Europe from North America. They included 1,109 passenger cars (PCs) and 48 light-duty trucks (LDTs), equipped with gasoline engines. In general, for measured emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHC), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and particulate matter (PM): 25% of test results for PCs do not exceed the T2B5 limits of the US Federal Standard; 43% of test results for PCs do not exceed the thresholds, designated for on-board diagnostic system (OBD) proper functioning; 45% of test results for PCs do not exceed the European Union (EU)’s former standard “Euro-5” norms. The automotive manufacturers of the PCs group represented various legislative and engineering approaches in Europe (Volkswagen, VW), Japan (Mazda), and North America (Ford) that are reflected in the emissions analysis results. In particular, the stricter CO limits…
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Pressure Drop of Particulate Filters and Correlation with the Deposited Soot for Heavy-Duty Engines

Aristotle University Thessaloniki-Dimitrios Karamitros, Grigorios Koltsakis
FPT Industrial-Ourania Voutsi, Dimitrios Tsinoglou
Published 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
Particulate filters are a widely used emission control device on heavy-duty diesel engines. The accumulation of particulate matter, mostly consisting of soot, inside the filter results in increased filter pressure-drop (backpressure). This increased backpressure has been used by the on-board control systems as trigger for regeneration procedures, which aim to actively oxidize the accumulated soot. However, it is known that passive soot oxidation during normal operation affects the correlation between backpressure and the deposited soot mass in filter. Therefore, the backpressure alone cannot be a reliable trigger for regeneration. In this work we highlight operating conditions with very poor correlation between backpressure and accumulated soot mass in filter and evaluate the possible root causes.Experiments with several heavy-duty diesel engines and particulate filters were conducted on engine test bench. These experiments involved prolonged operation under conditions emulating real-world operation. Under certain conditions, the backpressure of the filter did not correlate with the accumulated soot mass: although the soot mass increased monotonically, reaching the regeneration soot mass limit, the measured backpressure corresponded to the backpressure of an…
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Experimental Investigations on Engine-Out Emissions Sensitivity to Fuel Injection Pressure of a High-Performance DISI Single Cylinder Engine

Ferrari S.p.A.-Vincenzo Rossi, Nicola Silvestri, Massimo Medda
Published 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
In recent times, complying with increasingly stringent emission regulations has become ever more challenging than before. While an efficient after-treatment system, that includes a gasoline particulate filter, enables compliance with legislation requirements, lowering engine-out emissions by improving the combustion system must be considered as a crucial advantage for both pollutants emission control and performance. In this respect, high-performance enabling contents such as relatively large displacement, flow-capacity oriented intake ports and a limited stroke-to-bore ratio have significant drawbacks on the charge motion quality and, consequently, on mixture formation and homogeneity. As a countermeasure, fuel injection system components, as well as control strategies, need to be substantially improved. The increase of fuel injection pressure, coupled with optimized injection timing and splitting, has proven to be effective in reducing emissions, especially with regard to particulate matter. This paper provides results of an experimental study investigating the effect of different fuel injection strategies on engine-out emissions, with special emphasis on the influence of very high fuel injection pressures (up to 50 MPa) on particulate matter. A multi-hole inwardly-opening fuel…
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A Comprehensive Study on Euro 6 Turbocharger Selections and Its Deterioration with Closed Crank-Case Ventilation in Heavy Commercial Vehicles

VE Commercial Vehicles Ltd-Aravind Mohan, Juzer Jaliwala, Kunaal Bhagat, Kumar Patchappalam
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-24-0061
Published 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
Euro 6 emission norms are getting implemented in India from April 2020 and it is being viewed as one of the greatest challenges ever faced by the Indian automotive industry. In order to achieve such stringent emission norms a good strategy will be to optimize the engine out emission through in cylinder emission control techniques and a right sized after treatment system has to be used for this optimized engine. There exist several factors and trade-off between these should be established for in cylinder optimization of emissions. Since the turbocharger plays an apex role in controlling both the performance and engine out emissions of a CI engine, turbocharger selection is a crucial step in the development of new generation of Euro 6 engines in India. Such engines are equipped with additional actuators such as Intake Throttle Valve and Exhaust Throttle Valve and combination of these flap operations with turbocharger output plays a prominent role in controlling performance and emission. This study focusses on the use of different AVU (Air Valve Unit) controlled waste gate turbochargers…
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