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On Maximizing Argon Engines' Performance via Subzero Intake Temperatures in HCCI Mode at High Compression Ratios

King Abdullah University of Science & Technology-Ali Elkhazraji, Abdulrahman Mohammed, Sufyan Jan, Jean-Baptiste Masurier, Robert Dibble, Bengt Johansson
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1133
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Maximizing the indicated thermal efficiency with minimal amount of emissions is one of the main challenges to overcome in the field of internal combustion engines. The main obstacle that hinders achieving this goal is the typically low thermodynamic efficiency which is the ratio of the positive produced work on the piston to the amount of heat released inside the cylinder. Many concepts and technologies were innovated to maximize the thermodynamic efficiency. One of the main guidelines that have been followed to achieve so, is the ideal Otto’s cycle that predicts that increasing the compression ratio and/or the specific heat ratio of the combustion reactants, will maximize the thermodynamic efficiency. This study combines both high compression ratios and a high specific heat ratio via two of the main approaches used to maximize the thermodynamic efficiency. First, is the HCCI combustion mode. HCCI is typically operated at fuel-lean conditions, allowing to operate at higher compression ratios without having intense knock (pressure waves, generated by undesired autoignition, that can damage the engine). Second, air was replaced by an…
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A path towards high efficiency SI combustion in a CFR engine: Cooling the intake to sub-zero temperatures

King Abdullah University of Science & Technology-Sufyan M. Jan, Abdulrahman Mohammed, Ali Elkhazraji, Jean-Baptiste Masurier
University of California-Robert Dibble
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0550
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Textbook engine thermodynamics predicts that SI (Spark Ignition) engine efficiency η is a function of both the compression ratio CR of the engine and the specific heat ratio γ of the working fluid. In practice the compression ratio of the SI engine is often limited due to “knock”. When this knock limit is reached, increase in heat transfer losses result in reduction in efficiency. One way to lower the end-gas temperature is to cool the intake gas before inducting it into the combustion chamber. With colder intake gases, higher CR can be deployed, resulting in higher efficiencies. In this regard, we investigated the indicated efficiency of the standard Waukesha CFR engine. The engine is operated in the SI engine mode. The engine was operated with three different mediums using the same fuel Methane (Gas). First is Air + Methane at room temperature, second was O2 + Argon + Methane gas mixture at room temperature, and lastly O2 + Argon +Methane at sub-zero conditions. We replace the Air by an Oxygen-Argon mixture to increase the specific…
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Evaluation of an On-board, Real-time Electronic Particulate Matter Sensor Using Heavy-duty On-highway Diesel Engine Platform

EmiSense Technologies LLC-Patrick Thompson, Leta Woo
Southwest Research Institute-Vinay Premnath, Imad Khalek
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0385
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
California Air Resources Board (CARB) has instituted requirements for on-board diagnostics (OBD) that makes a spark-plug sized particulate matter (PM) sensor a critical component of the OBD system to detect diesel particulate filter (DPF) failure. Current PM OBD thresholds for heavy-duty on-highway vehicles is 0.03 g/hp-hr and for light-duty vehicles (2019+ Model Year LEV III) is 17.5 mg/mile. To meet these regulations, and more stringent future regulations, real-time PM sensors offer numerous benefits over traditional accumulation type resistive sensors. The focus of this work is on the experimental evaluation of such a real-time PM sensing technology manufactured by CoorsTek LLC. A 2011 model year on-highway heavy-duty diesel engine fitted with diesel oxidation catalyst/diesel particulate filter/selective catalytic reducer/ammonia oxidation catalyst (DOC/DPF/SCR/AMOX) was used for the evaluation program. Sensors were tested at an emission level of ~ 0.02 g/hp-hr using five repeats each of Federal Test Procedure (FTP), Non-road transient cycle (NRTC), world harmonized transient cycle (WHTC) and ramped modal cycle (RMC) drive cycles. Exhaust emission levels were tuned using a bypass DOC flow path fitted in…
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Review of Vehicle Engine Efficiency and Emissions

Corning, Inc.-Ameya Joshi
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0352
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
This review paper covers major regulatory and technology developments in 2019 pertinent to tailpipe emissions of greenhouse gases and criteria pollutants. Europe has proposed ambitious reductions in CO2 limits for both light- and heavy-duty sectors. The challenge is compounded with changing measurement norms and a significant shift away from fuel efficient diesels in the light-duty (LD) space. Both incremental and step changes are being made to advance internal combustion. New studies show that in-use NOx emissions from diesels can be much lower than required by the Euro 6 regulation. Discussions have already started on Euro 7 regulations, and the leading regulatory concepts and proposed technical solutions are provided. In the heavy-duty (HD) sector, the progress is outlined in improving engine and vehicle fuel efficiency through the US Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) SuperTruck II program and other representative studies. Common approaches among the participants include hybridization, waste heat recovery, and both open- and closed cycle incremental improvements. Emissions control focus is on evaluating pathways to achieve California’s contemplated low-NOx standards, recently also supported by the US…
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Catalysts for Post Euro 6 Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles

Umicore AG & Co. KG-Jun Zhang, Joerg-Michael Richter, Christoph Kaczmarek
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0354
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Due to benefits from the use of electric power, Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs) and Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs) are regarded to be superior over conventional Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) only vehicles in fuel economy and emissions. However, recent studies find out that this is not always true. On certain conditions, hybrid vehicles can be even more polluted.In order to identify these challenges and develop catalysts to meet more stringent emission requirement in the future, e.g. Euro 7, for hybrid application, as a part of our xHEV project, this study includes exclusively extensive investigation on a latest Euro 6d temp Parallel PHEV.Key parameters including driving modes, Status of Charge (SOC), were investigated under World harmonized Light vehicles Test Cycle (WLTC) and Real Driving Emission (RDE) tests on the chassis dyno, and their influences on engine behaviours and emissions were studied, in comparison with emissions from the ICE only counterpart under the same legislation. Besides regulated emissions, secondary emissions and Particle Number (PN) and size distribution, including those under 23 nm were also analysed. It was…
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Evaluation of Fast Warm-Up Strategies for a Light-Duty Gasoline Compression Ignition (GCI) Engine

Aramco Research Center-Praveen Kumar, Mark Sellnau
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0317
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Increasingly stringent emissions regulations in automotive applications are driving advancements in after-treatment technology and emissions control strategies. Fast warm-up of the after-treatment system during the engine cold-start is essential to meet future emissions targets. In this study, a range of strategies were evaluated on a 2.2L, four cylinder, light-duty Gasoline Compression Ignition (GCI) engine with geometric compression ratio 17. The GCI engine has a single stage turbocharger and low-pressure exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) with EGR cooler bypass. For cold-start assist, the engine is equipped with a 2.5kW electric intake air heater. The aftertreatment system is comprised of an oxidation catalyst, followed by a particulate filter and an SCR catalyst. A GT-Power model of a light-duty diesel engine was modified to represent the GCI engine system setup for catalyst light-off strategies evaluations.In the first work phase, the individual and combined benefit of the engine-based strategies, such as flare speed, load, retarded CA50, intake air heater and backpressure valve throttling were evaluated for ambient cold-start. The cumulative benefit of the strategies produced estimated exhaust temperature and exhaust…
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Impact of multi-mode range and location on fuel economy on a light-duty spark-ignition based powertrain using vehicle system simulations

Oak Ridge National Laboratory-Scott Curran, Robert Wagner
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1018
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Advanced compression ignition (ACI) modes have been shown to offer higher brake thermal efficiency than conventional spark ignition combustion with gasoline range fuels. The goal of a full-time ACI in which an ACI mode can be operated in over the entire speed and load map in a conventional passenger vehicle have been limited to date. The benefits of running ACI modes in a portion of the engine operating map have been shown in a number of studies to have potential benefits on improving fuel economy and reducing emissions. An engine that runs in two different combustion modes is known as a multi-mode strategy. Different multi-mode strategies have been proposed and demonstrated in laboratory and in demo vehicle settings. Multi-mode combustion strategies for vehicle applications offer the ability to maintain functionality expected for the real-world and certification driving cycles but offer part-time higher-efficiency/ lower emissions operation during a sufficient portion of the expected drive/duty cycle to offer significant fuel economy benefits as well as potential emissions controls benefits. There are challenges as well in both combustion…
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Low-Emission and Fuel-Efficient Exhaust System with new Air-fuel Ratio Sensor

DENSO CORPORATION-Makoto Ito
Toyota Motor Corporation-Go Hayashita, Kazuki Takahashi, Keiichiro Aoki
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0655
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
This paper reviews an exhaust emission control system using a new Air-fuel ratio (hereafter, A/F) sensor that contributes to low emissions and low fuel consumption of gasoline engines. The first technical highlight is that the newly designed A/F sensor enables feedback control immediately after the engine starts at any temperature. In order to achieve the delay-less feedback control, it was important not only that the sensor was not broken, but also that the sensor characteristics are not affected by the condensed water in the exhaust pipe. Specifically, the developed protective layer technology with water repellent function in the sensor element was effective in achieving both reliability and characteristics. The second highlight is the reduction of sensor power consumption. Since the A/F sensor is usually kept at 700-800 ° C, it is one of the most power consuming parts of the engine. The new A/F sensor has the highest thermal efficiency by low-temperature activation. In addition, for vehicles such as hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) that the engine stops intermittently, the sensor control method was built to…
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Motor Vehicle Emission Control Quality Monitoring for On-Road Driving -- Dynamic Signature Recognition of NOx & NH3 Emissions

US Environmental Protection Agency-Xiaoguo Tang, John Kargul, Dan McBryde
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0372
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Motor vehicles road drive emission test is important for exhaust emission regulation design/compliance and therefore the atmosphere air quality assessment. US EPA NVFEL has been developing a new approach of emission control dynamic signature to measure vehicle powertrain emission control behavior during both road and dyno driving. This so called signature device equipped with O2/NOx sensor, thermocouple and GPS to record exhaust NOx concentration, air fuel ratio controlled lambda, tailpipe temperature and vehicle speed (acceleration) dynamic signals. At the first stage, it was used to describe PCM control behaviors (cause/effect bijectivity) , then through a trained artificial neural-net (ANN) to distinguish normal control state-space and abnormal state-space (space distance). For the current stage, the emission control dynamic signature is used further to recognize NH3 releasing, and estimate NOx+NH3 during road and dyno driving, since the NH3 conversion can be observed by NOx sensor plus lambda rich biased reading after engine TWC warmed up. Stoich engine exhaust with TWC under certain conditions can have: CO+H2O→H2 & CO+NO+H2→NH3, it converts two regulated species into one unregulated compound,…
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Calibration and parametric investigations on Lean NOx Trap and Particulate Filter models for a light-duty diesel engine

IIT Madras-A Ramesh, Anand Krishnasamy
Mahindra & Mahindra, Ltd.-S. Suresh Bagavathy
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0657
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
To comply with the stringent future emission mandates of light duty diesel engines, it is essential to deploy a suitable combination of emission control devices like diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC), diesel particulate filter (DPF) and DeNOx converter (LNT or SCR). Arriving at an optimum size and layout of these emission control devices for a particular engine through experiments is both time and cost intensive. Thus, it becomes important to develop suitable well-tuned simulation models that can be helpful to optimize individual emission control devices as well as arrive at an optimal layout for achieving higher conversion efficiency at minimal cost. Towards this objective, the present work intends to develop a one dimensional Exhaust After Treatment Devices (EATD) model using a commercial code. The model parameters are fine-tuned based on experimental data. The EATD model is then validated with experiments data that are not used for tuning the model. Subsequently, the model was used for studying the effects of geometrical parameters of the after-treatment devices like diameter and length on the conversion efficiency and the pressure…