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Experimental investigations on CO2 recovery from petrol engine exhaust using adsorption technology

ARC,SMEC,Vellore Institute of Technology-Saravanan S, Chidambaram Ramesh Kumar
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2577
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Energy policy reviews state that automobiles contribute 25% of the total Carbon-di-oxide (CO2) emission. The current trend in emission control techniques of automobile exhaust is to reduce CO2 emission. We know that CO2 is a greenhouse gas and it leads to global warming. Conversion of CO2 into carbon and oxygen is a difficult and energy consuming process when compared to the catalytic action of catalytic converters on CO, HC and NOX. The best way to reduce it is to capture it from the source, store it and use it for industry applications. To physically capture the CO2 from the engine exhaust, adsorbents like molecular sieves are utilized. When compared to other methods of CO2 separation, adsorption technique consumes less energy and the sieves can be regenerated, reused and recycled once it is completely saturated. In this research work, zeolite X13 was chosen as a molecular sieve to adsorb CO2 from the exhaust. A chamber was designed to effectively store the zeolite and it is attached to the exhaust port of the engine. The selected engine…

Combustion Optimization and In-cylinder NOx and PM Reduction by using EGR and Split Injection Technique

A R A I-Madhan Kumar, Aatmesh Jain, Kamalkishore Chhaganlal Vora
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2560
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Nowadays, the major most challenge in the diesel engine is the oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) trade-off, with minimal reduction in Power and BSFC. Modern day engines also rely on expensive after-treatment devices, which may decrease the performance and increase the BSFC. In this paper, combustion optimization and in-cylinder emission control by introducing the Split injection technique along with EGR is carried out by 1-D (GT-POWER) simulation. Experiments were conducted on a 3.5 kW Single-cylinder naturally aspirated CRDI engine at the different load conditions. The Simulation model incorporates detailed pressure (Burn rate) analysis for different cases and various aspects of ignition delay, premixed and mixing controlled combustion rate, the injection rate affecting oxides of nitrogen and particulate matter. The predictive combustion model (DI-PULSE) has been developed for the calibration of an engine under multiple injections and the detailed injection rates with EGR rates. Split injection with higher fuel quantity injected in the 1st pulse, helped to significantly reduce PM emissions. This reduction is due to the restraint in the premixed phase of…

Characterization of AlSi10Mg Alloy Produced by DMLS Process for Automotive Engine Application

Turbo Energy Ltd.-Emmidi Thrinadh
Turbo Energy Private Ltd.-Kumaran Arun, Kumaran Aravindh
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-0134
To be published on 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
Considerable weight of an automobile is constituted by the engine and there is scope for improvement in fuel efficiency and emission control through optimization of weight in the engine. In this work, AlSi10Mg alloy produced by the DMLS is suggested for engine application which is a lightweight aluminum alloy. The mechanical properties like tensile strength, compressive strength, and hardness of both cast and additive manufactured alloy are compared followed by analysis of SEM images of tensile test fractured surfaces. The reciprocating wear test is carried out with lubrication (SAE 40 oil) for one lakh cycles at 125°C temperature and Co-efficient of friction (COF), wear rate of the cast and additive manufactured samples were compared. Wear patterns are analyzed using SEM images of the wear tracks.

Experimental Investigations on Engine-Out Emissions Sensitivity to Fuel Injection Pressure of a High-Performance DISI Single Cylinder Engine

Ferrari S.p.A.-Vincenzo Rossi, Nicola Silvestri, Massimo Medda
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-24-0169
To be published on 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
In recent times complying with increasingly stringent emission regulations has become ever more challenging. While an efficient after-treatment system that includes gasoline particulate filter enables compliance with legislation requirements, lowering engine-out emissions by improving combustion system has to be considered as a crucial advantage not only in regard to pollutants emission control, but also performance. In this respect, high-performance enabling contents such as relatively large displacement, flow-capacity oriented intake ports and a limited stroke-to-bore ratio have significant drawbacks on the charge motion quality and as direct consequence on mixture formation and homogeneity. As a countermeasure, fuel injection system components as well as control strategies need to be substantially improved; on the control side the increase of fuel injection pressure coupled with optimized injection timing and splitting, has proved to be effective in reducing emissions, with special regard to particulate matter. This paper provides results of an experimental study investigating the effect of different fuel injection strategies on engine-out emissions, with special emphasis on the influence of very high fuel injection pressures (up to 50 MPa)…

Analysis of Water Injection Strategies to Exploit the Thermodynamic Effects of Water in Gasoline Engines by Means of a 3D-CFD Virtual Test Bench

Brandenburg Univ of Technology-Tim Franken, Corinna Netzer
FKFS Stuttgart-Marco Chiodi
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-24-0102
To be published on 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
CO2 emission constraints taking effect from 2020 lead to further investigations of technologies to lower knock sensitivity of gasoline engines, main limiting factor to increase engine efficiency and thus reduce fuel consumption. Moreover the RDE cycle demands for higher power operation, where fuel enrichment is needed for component protection. To achieve high efficiency, the engine should be run at stoichiometric conditions in order to have better emission control and reduce fuel consumption. Among others, water injection is a promising technology to improve engine combustion efficiency, by mainly reducing knock sensitivity and to keep high conversion rates of the TWC over the whole engine map. The comprehension of multiple thermodynamic effects of water injection through 3D-CFD simulations and their exploitation to enhance the engine combustion efficiency is the main purpose of the analysis. As basis for the research a single cylinder engine derived from a 1l turbocharged 3-cylinders engine is used to evaluate indirect and direct water injection. The entire engine flow field is reproduced and analyzed with 3D-CFD simulations and numerical models are employed to…

Strive for Zero Emission Impact from Hybrid Vehicles

Continental-Lorenzo Pace, Katrin Konieczny
Volvo Car Corporation-Mats Laurell, Fredrik Ekström
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-24-0146
To be published on 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
Since several decades, passenger cars and light duty vehicles (LDV) reach full pollutant conversion during warm up conditions; the major challenge has been represented by the cold start and warming up strategies. The focus on technology developments of exhaust after treatment systems have been done in the thermal management in order to reach the warm up conditions as soon as possible. A new challenge is now represented by the Real Driving Emission Regulation as this bring more various, and not any longer cycle defined, Cold Start Conditions. On the other hand, once the full conversion has been reached, it would be beneficial for many EATS components if the exhaust gas temperature could be lowered. To take significant further emission steps, approaching e.g. zero emission concepts, we investigate to bring in electrical heating catalyst (EHC) and emission trap approaches. The clear goal is to have the right temperature in the right place at the right time. Several approaches have been investigated, for example innovative and smart EATS architecture combined with EHC and active control to reach…

Pressure Drop of Particulate Filters and Correlation with the Deposited Soot for Heavy-Duty Engines

Aristotle University Thessaloniki-Dimitrios Karamitros, Grigorios Koltsakis
FPT Industrial-Ourania Voutsi, Dimitrios Tsinoglou
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-24-0151
To be published on 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
Particulate filters are a widely used emission control device on heavy-duty diesel engines. The accumulation of particulate matter, mostly consisting of soot, inside the filter results in increased filter pressure-drop (backpressure). This increased backpressure has been used by the on-board control systems as trigger for regeneration procedures, which aim to actively oxidize the accumulated soot. However, it is known that passive soot oxidation during normal operation affects the correlation between backpressure and the deposited soot mass in filter. Therefore, the backpressure alone cannot be a reliable trigger for regeneration. In this work we highlight operating conditions with very poor correlation between backpressure and accumulated soot mass in filter and evaluate the possible root causes. Experiments with several heavy-duty diesel engines and particulate filters were conducted on engine test bench. These experiments involved prolonged operation under conditions emulating real-world operation. Under certain conditions, the backpressure of the filter did not correlate with the accumulated soot mass: although the soot mass increased monotonically, reaching the regeneration soot mass limit, the measured backpressure corresponded to the backpressure of…

Development and Experimental Validation of a Control Oriented Model of a Catalytic DPF

Università di Salerno-Federica D'Aniello, Bruno Rossomando, Ivan Arsie, Cesare Pianese
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
1The wall-flow Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) is currently the most common after-treatment system used to meet the particulate emissions regulations for automotive engines. Today’s technology shows the best balance between filtration efficiency and back-pressure in the engine exhaust pipe. During the accumulation phase the pressure drop across the filter increases, thus requiring periodic regeneration of the DPF through after and post fuel injection strategies. This paper deals with the development of a control oriented model of a catalytic silicon carbide (SiC) wall flow DPFs with CuFe2O4 loading for automotive Diesel engines. The model is intended to be used for the real-time management of the regeneration process, depending on back-pressure and thermal state. In order to ensure suitable computational demand and to realize emissions control and fuel economy objectives, the 0-D model has been developed with the aim of investigating the essential behavior of the system, such as the chemical kinetic of filtered soot oxidation, the thermal and backpressure dynamics along accumulation and regeneration processes. Parameters identification and model validation have been performed vs. experimental data…
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Consideration of Corrosion Behavior of Aluminum Wire at Crimped Terminal and Effective Anti-Corrosion Treatment

Fujikura, Ltd.-Takuya Kawaguchi, Keiji Fukaura, Yuki Nakamura, Makoto Mochizuki, Satoshi Otani
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
The demand for weight reduction of vehicles is growing in compliance with CO2 emission control requirements. Also, demand for copper is on the rise with an increase in the number of electric vehicles because their motors and wiring require a lot of copper. This has raised concerns about higher copper prices and vehicle weight. Recently, attempts to reduce vehicle weight have been actively made by partially replacing copper with aluminum, which is lighter and less expensive. Although the use of aluminum wires on limited areas of some vehicles has already been reported, that on all areas has not been reported yet. The authors focus on reducing weight of wiring harnesses, which is about 20 kg per vehicle, and consider using aluminum instead of copper as the conductor of the electrical wires. One of the factors impeding the use of aluminum wires in wider areas is galvanic corrosion occurring at crimped terminals. Since aluminum causes galvanic corrosion when the metal is in electrical contact with a different metal in an electrolyte, it is essential to prevent…
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Development of Brushless Smart Motor for Front Wipers

Mitsuba Corp.-Tomohiko Annaka, Naoki Kojima, Takeshi Ikeda, Masaaki Kimura
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Along with the auto industry’s proactive engagement in autonomous driving and the development of hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) and electric vehicles (EVs) driven by regulatory compliance for vehicle emissions control and fuel economy, there is a growing need for quieter, lighter, more compact and efficient designs of electronic components for automobiles. For wiper functions, the demand for improving wiping performance at high driving speeds and increasing wiped areas is on the rise. To fulfill all these needs, this project aimed to develop the world’s first brushless controlled wiper system, focusing on the following key elements: 1) power efficiency improvement and noise reduction through an effective sensing design and control methods of field weakening and wide-angle commutation, and 2) lightweight and compact design by reducing the weight and shaft length. The first challenge was to minimize power consumption in consideration of constant load changes during wiper operation as well as reducing the motor noise. With the correction method applied to the sensing design and the field weakening control and the wide-angle commutation control, the final design…
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