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The study on the influence of factors on vehicle refueling emission test

China Automotive Technology and Research-Chunbei Dai, Taiyu Zhang, Chongzhi Zhong, Qiang Chen, Jiaxing Sun, Xiaoliang Wu, Tiefei Yu
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1070
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Two vehicles with ORVR system which are met with the US standard are studied. A comparative of refueling emissions test under different refueling rate and different refueling temperature are studied. The HC chemical analysis was carried out for the fuel gas emission from a sample car. The results show that with the increase of the refueling rates, the refueling emissions decline at first, and then gradually stabilize; with the increase of the refueling temperature, the results of refueling emissions show a gradual increase. Under the condition of 37 L / min refueling flow rate and 20 ℃ fuel temperature, 14 kinds of alkanes were emitted from the fuel, in which isobutane, isopentane and n-pentane were the highest emissive components, accounting for 57.66% of the total amount of VOCs.
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RDE-compliant PEMS Testing of a Euro 6d-TEMP Passenger Car at Two Ambient Temperatures with a Focus on the Cold Start Effect

BOSMAL / Poznan University of Technology-Jerzy Merkisz
BOSMAL Automotive R&D Institute, Ltd.-Piotr Bielaczyc, Joseph Woodburn
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0379
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
European Union RDE (real driving emissions) legislation requires that new vehicles be subjected to emissions tests on public roads. Performing emissions testing outside a laboratory setting immediately raises the question of the impact of ambient conditions – especially temperature – on the results. In the spirit of RDE legislation, a wide range of ambient temperatures are permissible, with mathematical moderation (correction) of the results only permissible for very high and very low ambient temperatures. Within the standard range of temperatures, no correction for temperature is applied to emissions results and the applicable emissions limits have to be met. Given the well-known link between the thermal state of an engine and its emissions following cold start, ambient temperature can be of great importance in determining whether a vehicle meets emissions requirements during an RDE test. This paper reports the results of full RDE-compliant on-road emissions tests performed on a Euro 6d-TEMP passenger car with a direct injection spark ignition engine and a gasoline particle filter. Testing was performed at two temperatures, both lying within the “standard”…
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Effect of Driving Cycles on Emissions from On-Road Motorcycles

Environment and Climate Change Canada-Debbie Rosenblatt, Jonathan Stokes
Evoke Management Consulting-Kevin F. Brown
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0377
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The effects of driving cycles and fuel composition on emissions from on-road motorcycles were studied with the objectives of understanding the effects of established drive cycles, quantifying the emissions from a more rigorous drive cycle, and determining the emission differences between various certification test fuels. Chassis dynamometer emissions testing was conducted on three motorcycles with engine displacements of 300 cc, 750 cc and 1200 cc. All of the motorcycles were Class II North American certified motorcycles with fuel injection and three-way catalysts. The motorcycles were tested using the North American certification cycle, also known as the Federal Test Procedure (FTP); the World Motorcycle Transit Cycle (WMTC); and a trial cycle based on real-world motorcycle driving, informally named the ‘Real World Driving Cycle’ (RWDC). Per cycle exhaust emissions characterization included the following: carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen, hydrocarbons, carbon dioxide, total particulate matter, and a calculated determination of fuel economy. Along with an analysis of test cycle phase contributions and cumulative emissions over the test cycles. Engine torque was plotted against engine speed for each motorcycle…
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Characteristics of Transient NOx Emission of HEV under Real Road Driving

Anhui Jianghuai Automobile Group Corp.-Bo He, Shi Bo
Cambustion, Ltd.-Qiang Li
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0380
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
To meet the request of China National 6b emission regulations which will be officially implemented in China, firstly including the RDE emission test limits, the transient emissions on real road condition are paid more attention. Several non-plug-in hybrid light-duty gasoline vehicles (HEV) sold in the Chinese market were selected to study real road emissions employed fast response NOx analyzer from Cambustion Ltd. with a sampling frequency of 100Hz. The concentration of NOx emissions before and after the TWC (Three Way Catalyst) of the hybrid vehicle were also sampled and analyzed, and the working efficiency of the TWC in real road driving process was investigated. It is found that when the engine is at low-speed and heavy-load conditions, especially when fuel is injected after fuel cut, instantaneous spikes in tailpipe NOx emissions could be observed, which means that traffic positions such as crosswalks, speed bumps, high-speed entrances, traffic lights, would lead to higher NOx emissions. At the same time, emissions from PEMS were also recorded and compared with the results from fast response NOx analyzer. Obvious…
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Statistical Model for the Prediction of Shift Points for Manual Motorcycles

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency-Peter James Caffrey
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1046
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Emissions from manual transmission motorcycles have been shown to be dependent upon transmission shift patterns. Presently, when undergoing an emission test for EPA certification a manufacturer can designate their own shift points during the cycle or utilize an Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) prescribed shift pattern which uses basic up or down shifts at specific speeds regardless of the type of motorcycle. In order to predict the real-life emissions from motorcycles, a comparative real-life shift pattern has been developed which can then be used to evaluate the suitability of the manufacturer’s shift schedule. To that end, a model that predicts shift points for motorcycles has been created. This model is based on the actual operation of different motorcycles by real life operators in a combined city and highway operational setting. Recognizing that no model is sufficient to adequately predict user operation in all situations, this model maintains a degree of flexibility in allowing the user to designate various limits to the shift probability, thus representing various rider scenarios. This would include a broad range of probability…
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Axle Efficiency Comparison Method and Spin Loss Benefit of Front Axle Disconnect Systems

FCA US LLC-Siqin Wei, Timothy Schumaier, Jasbir Singh
Ford Motor Company-William Guarino, Joe Torres, Steven Zhou
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1412
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
There are a variety of test protocols associated with vehicle fuel economy and emissions testing. As a result, a number of test protocols currently exist to measure axle efficiency and spin loss. The intent of this technical paper is to describe a methodology that uses a singular axle efficiency and spin loss procedure. The data can then be used to predict the effects on vehicle FE and GHG for a specific class of vehicles via simulation. An accelerated pre-conditioning method using a comparable energy approach has been developed, and can be used to meet the pre-conditioning requirements of different vehicle emission test protocols. A “float to equilibrium” sump temperature approach has been used to produce instantaneous efficiency data, which can be used to more accurately predict vehicle FE and GHG, inclusive of Cold CO2. The “float to equilibrium” approach and “fixed sump temperature” approach has been compared and discussed. Independent Front Suspension (IFS) axles were used for this project as an enabler to determine the spin loss benefits of Front Axle Disconnect (FAD) systems. The…
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Comparison between the WLTC and the FTP-75 driving cycles applied to a 1.4 L light-duty vehicle running on ethanol

Federal University of Santa Maria-Maria F. P. Mazer, Leonardo S. Hatschbach, Igor R. dos Santos, Juliano P. Silveira, Roberto A. Garlet, Mario E. S. Martins, Macklini Dalla Nora
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0144
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
The forecast scenarios regarding the environmental pollution raises a question whether the current vehicle emission certification is reliable enough to assure fleet agreement with the legal limits. Type approval tests have been performed on chassis dynamometer in order to evaluate the emission factors and fuel consumption for passenger cars. Standardized procedures such as the FTP-75 proposed in the United States (currently incorporated in the Brazilian legislation) and the Worldwide harmonized Light vehicles Test Cycle (WLTC), a transient driving cycle model designed by the European Union to overcome the shortcomings of the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC), are discussed in this paper. Both cycles were performed in a chassis dynamometer with a flex-fuel passenger car running on ethanol blend (E92W08). The driver, vehicle and fuel were kept constant so the comparison between the cycles would not be compromised. The vehicle chosen was a 1.4 dm3 displaced volume FIAT sedan with maximum power of 60 kW at 5500 rpm and maximum torque of 122 Nm at 2250 rpm. The cycle dynamics and the engine operation points were…
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Study of New HILS Test Method with Combination of the Virtual Hybrid Electric Powertrain Systems and the Engine Test Bench

SAE International Journal of Advances and Current Practices in Mobility

National Traffic Safety and Environment Laboratory-Nobunori Okui, Masayuki Kobayashi
  • Journal Article
  • 2019-01-2343
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
Fuel consumption rate (fuel economy) and exhaust gas emission regulations are being tightened around the world year by year. In Europe, the real driving emission (RDE) method for evaluating exhaust gas emitted from road-going vehicles was introduced after September 2017 for new types of light/medium-duty vehicles, in addition to the chassis dynamometer test using the worldwide harmonized light vehicles test procedure (WLTP). Further, the worldwide harmonized heavy-duty certification (WHDC) method was introduced after 2016 as an exhaust gas emission test method for heavy-duty vehicles. In each evaluation, the tests of vehicles and engines are initiated from cold states.Heavy-duty hybrid vehicles are evaluated using the vehicle simulation method. For example, the power characteristics of a engine model is obtained during engine warm operation. Therefore, various performances during cold start cannot be precisely evaluated by using simulator.In this study, we simultaneously control a real engine and vehicle simulation in real time, and examine a new evaluation technique for evaluating various performances by considering the engine temperature.
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A Study on the Performance Deterioration of SCR for Heavy-Duty Diesel Vehicles

Department of Automotive Engineering, Kookmin University-Seangwock Lee
Graduate School of Automotive Engineering, Kookmin Universit-Manjae Kwon, Giyoung Park, Hyunjae Lim, Jungjun Kim
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2235
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
In this study, a six litres displacement, commercial vehicle engine that meets the EURO-5 regulation was used to evaluate the durability and performance deterioration of the SCR system mounted on a heavy-duty diesel vehicle. ESC and ETC modes were used for emission test. Characteristics of emissions by SCR catalyst deterioration were investigated using mileage vehicles of 0 km, 120,000 km, and 360,000 km. EDS (Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy) analysis on PM filters and CT scan to catalyst substrate were carried out in order to investigate the status of catalyst by each mileage. As a result, it was found that NOX, slipped NH3 as well as PM due to unreacted ammonia and urea increased as the mileage of the catalyst increased.
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Numerical Optimization of Compression Ratio for a PPC Engine running on Methanol

Lund University-Erik Svensson, Sebastian Verhelst
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2168
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
Partially premixed combustion (PPC) has shown to produce high gross indicated efficiencies while yielding lower pollutant emissions, such as oxides of nitrogen and soot, than conventional diesel combustion. Gasoline fuels with a research octane number (RON) of 60-70 have been proposed as optimal for PPC as they balance the trade-off between ensuring good combustion stability at low engine loads and avoiding excessive peak pressure rise rates at high loads. However, measures have to be taken when optimizing the engine operating parameters to avoid soot emissions. In contrast, methanol has a much lower propensity for soot formation. However, due to a higher RON of methanol the required intake temperature is higher for the same engine compression ratio to ensure auto-ignition at an appropriate timing. Increasing the compression ratio allows a lower intake temperature and improves combustion stability as well as engine brake efficiency. Nevertheless, a higher compression ratio generally increases in-cylinder heat losses and peak pressure. These effects were investigated in a simulation study, which combined 0-D and 1-D models, of a multi-cylinder heavy-duty Scania D13…
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