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Effect of Driving Cycles on Emissions from On-Road Motorcycles

Environment and Climate Change Canada-Debbie Rosenblatt, Jonathan Stokes
Evoke Management Consulting-Kevin F. Brown
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0377
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The effects of driving cycles and fuel composition on emissions from on-road motorcycles were studied with the objectives of understanding the effects of established drive cycles, quantifying the emissions from a more rigorous drive cycle, and determining the emission differences between various certification test fuels. Chassis dynamometer emissions testing was conducted on three motorcycles with engine displacements of 300 cc, 750 cc and 1200 cc. All of the motorcycles were Class II North American certified motorcycles with fuel injection and three-way catalysts. The motorcycles were tested using the North American certification cycle, also known as the Federal Test Procedure (FTP); the World Motorcycle Transit Cycle (WMTC); and a trial cycle based on real-world motorcycle driving, informally named the ‘Real World Driving Cycle’ (RWDC). Per cycle exhaust emissions characterization included the following: carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen, hydrocarbons, carbon dioxide, total particulate matter, and a calculated determination of fuel economy. Along with an analysis of test cycle phase contributions and cumulative emissions over the test cycles. Engine torque was plotted against engine speed for each motorcycle…
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Optimum Positioning of FIP Drive System for Type-II BSVI Engine Based on Coupled 1D “Valve-Train - Chain Drive Dynamic Analysis

VE Commercial Vehicles, Ltd.-Kaarthic Kaundabalaraman, Hemantkumar Rathi, Jasvir Singh Bisht
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1020
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The automotive industry is gearing up to meet the accelerated emission compliance changes posed by the government. This transition to eco-friendly system would also necessitate an automotive engineer to retain the engine packaging as compact and simple as possible. The packaging layout considered should not be at the expense of deteriorating engine performance.The work started with concept level layout development, with the aim of having simplified system with minimum number of components. The engine on which the work was carried out was 4cylinder 3Liter with OHC configuration A number of layouts were developed which included gear type, belt drive and integrated shaft arrangement for driving FIP.Each of these concepts were brainstormed with its advantages and disadvantages, based on which two concepts were initially proposed for driving FIP system (i) Front Driven FIP (ii) Rear Driven FIP. The difference between the two layouts was that in the latter case the FIP system was directly driven through exhaust camshaft with gear type arrangement.For the above two proposed layouts, dynamic evaluation was done up-to max intermittent speed of…
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Statistical Model for the Prediction of Shift Points for Manual Motorcycles

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency-Peter James Caffrey
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1046
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Emissions from manual transmission motorcycles have been shown to be dependent upon transmission shift patterns. Presently, when undergoing an emission test for EPA certification a manufacturer can designate their own shift points during the cycle or utilize an Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) prescribed shift pattern which uses basic up or down shifts at specific speeds regardless of the type of motorcycle. In order to predict the real-life emissions from motorcycles, a comparative real-life shift pattern has been developed which can then be used to evaluate the suitability of the manufacturer’s shift schedule. To that end, a model that predicts shift points for motorcycles has been created. This model is based on the actual operation of different motorcycles by real life operators in a combined city and highway operational setting. Recognizing that no model is sufficient to adequately predict user operation in all situations, this model maintains a degree of flexibility in allowing the user to designate various limits to the shift probability, thus representing various rider scenarios. This would include a broad range of probability…
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Axle Efficiency Comparison Method and Spin Loss Benefit of Front Axle Disconnect Systems

FCA US LLC-Siqin Wei, Timothy Schumaier, Jasbir Singh
Ford Motor Company-William Guarino, Joe Torres, Steven Zhou
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1412
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
There are a variety of test protocols associated with vehicle fuel economy and emissions testing. As a result, a number of test protocols currently exist to measure axle efficiency and spin loss. The intent of this technical paper is to describe a methodology that uses a singular axle efficiency and spin loss procedure. The data can then be used to predict the effects on vehicle FE and GHG for a specific class of vehicles via simulation. An accelerated pre-conditioning method using a comparable energy approach has been developed, and can be used to meet the pre-conditioning requirements of different vehicle emission test protocols. A “float to equilibrium” sump temperature approach has been used to produce instantaneous efficiency data, which can be used to more accurately predict vehicle FE and GHG, inclusive of Cold CO2. The “float to equilibrium” approach and “fixed sump temperature” approach has been compared and discussed. Independent Front Suspension (IFS) axles were used for this project as an enabler to determine the spin loss benefits of Front Axle Disconnect (FAD) systems. The…
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Comparison between the WLTC and the FTP-75 driving cycles applied to a 1.4 L light-duty vehicle running on ethanol

Federal University of Santa Maria-Maria F. P. Mazer, Leonardo S. Hatschbach, Igor R. dos Santos, Juliano P. Silveira, Roberto A. Garlet, Mario E. S. Martins, Macklini Dalla Nora
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0144
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
The forecast scenarios regarding the environmental pollution raises a question whether the current vehicle emission certification is reliable enough to assure fleet agreement with the legal limits. Type approval tests have been performed on chassis dynamometer in order to evaluate the emission factors and fuel consumption for passenger cars. Standardized procedures such as the FTP-75 proposed in the United States (currently incorporated in the Brazilian legislation) and the Worldwide harmonized Light vehicles Test Cycle (WLTC), a transient driving cycle model designed by the European Union to overcome the shortcomings of the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC), are discussed in this paper. Both cycles were performed in a chassis dynamometer with a flex-fuel passenger car running on ethanol blend (E92W08). The driver, vehicle and fuel were kept constant so the comparison between the cycles would not be compromised. The vehicle chosen was a 1.4 dm3 displaced volume FIAT sedan with maximum power of 60 kW at 5500 rpm and maximum torque of 122 Nm at 2250 rpm. The cycle dynamics and the engine operation points were…
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Study of New HILS Test Method with Combination of the Virtual Hybrid Electric Powertrain Systems and the Engine Test Bench

SAE International Journal of Advances and Current Practices in Mobility

National Traffic Safety and Environment Laboratory-Nobunori Okui, Masayuki Kobayashi
  • Journal Article
  • 2019-01-2343
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
Fuel consumption rate (fuel economy) and exhaust gas emission regulations are being tightened around the world year by year. In Europe, the real driving emission (RDE) method for evaluating exhaust gas emitted from road-going vehicles was introduced after September 2017 for new types of light/medium-duty vehicles, in addition to the chassis dynamometer test using the worldwide harmonized light vehicles test procedure (WLTP). Further, the worldwide harmonized heavy-duty certification (WHDC) method was introduced after 2016 as an exhaust gas emission test method for heavy-duty vehicles. In each evaluation, the tests of vehicles and engines are initiated from cold states.Heavy-duty hybrid vehicles are evaluated using the vehicle simulation method. For example, the power characteristics of a engine model is obtained during engine warm operation. Therefore, various performances during cold start cannot be precisely evaluated by using simulator.In this study, we simultaneously control a real engine and vehicle simulation in real time, and examine a new evaluation technique for evaluating various performances by considering the engine temperature.
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A Study on the Performance Deterioration of SCR for Heavy-Duty Diesel Vehicles

Department of Automotive Engineering, Kookmin University-Seangwock Lee
Graduate School of Automotive Engineering, Kookmin Universit-Manjae Kwon, Giyoung Park, Hyunjae Lim, Jungjun Kim
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2235
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
In this study, a six litres displacement, commercial vehicle engine that meets the EURO-5 regulation was used to evaluate the durability and performance deterioration of the SCR system mounted on a heavy-duty diesel vehicle. ESC and ETC modes were used for emission test. Characteristics of emissions by SCR catalyst deterioration were investigated using mileage vehicles of 0 km, 120,000 km, and 360,000 km. EDS (Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy) analysis on PM filters and CT scan to catalyst substrate were carried out in order to investigate the status of catalyst by each mileage. As a result, it was found that NOX, slipped NH3 as well as PM due to unreacted ammonia and urea increased as the mileage of the catalyst increased.
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Numerical Optimization of Compression Ratio for a PPC Engine running on Methanol

Lund University-Erik Svensson, Sebastian Verhelst
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2168
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
Partially premixed combustion (PPC) has shown to produce high gross indicated efficiencies while yielding lower pollutant emissions, such as oxides of nitrogen and soot, than conventional diesel combustion. Gasoline fuels with a research octane number (RON) of 60-70 have been proposed as optimal for PPC as they balance the trade-off between ensuring good combustion stability at low engine loads and avoiding excessive peak pressure rise rates at high loads. However, measures have to be taken when optimizing the engine operating parameters to avoid soot emissions. In contrast, methanol has a much lower propensity for soot formation. However, due to a higher RON of methanol the required intake temperature is higher for the same engine compression ratio to ensure auto-ignition at an appropriate timing. Increasing the compression ratio allows a lower intake temperature and improves combustion stability as well as engine brake efficiency. Nevertheless, a higher compression ratio generally increases in-cylinder heat losses and peak pressure. These effects were investigated in a simulation study, which combined 0-D and 1-D models, of a multi-cylinder heavy-duty Scania D13…
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Life Cycle Assessment of a Passenger Vehicle to Analyze the Environmental Impacts Using Cradle to Grave Approach

Mahindra Research Valley-Rahul Lalwani, Saravanan N, Arunmozhi Veeraputhiran, IlavarasIi D
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2581
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Climate change is primary driver in the current discussions on CO2 reduction in the automotive industry. Current Type approval emissions tests (BS III, BS IV) covers only tailpipe emissions, however the emissions produced in upstream and downstream processes (e.g. raw material sourcing, manufacturing, transportation, vehicle usage, recycle phases) are not considered in the evaluation. The objective of this project is to assess the environmental impact of the product considering all stages of the life cycle, understand the real opportunities to reduce environmental impact across the product life cycle. As a part of environmental sustainability journey in business value chain, lifecycle assessment (LCA) technique helps to understand the environmental impact categories. To measure overall impact, a cradle to grave approach helps to assess entire life cycle impact throughout various stages. LCA is a technique to assess environmental impacts associated with all the stages of a product's life from raw material extraction through materials processing, manufacture, distribution, use, repair and maintenance, disposal or recycling. A study was conducted on a passenger vehicle for life cycle assessment as…
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Comparison of Regulated and Unregulated Emissions and Fuel Economy of SI Engines with Three Fuels: RON95, M15, and E10

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Israel Institute of Technology, Israel-Gideon Goldwine, Eran Sher
University of Toronto, Canada-Diana Sher
  • Journal Article
  • 04-12-03-0013
Published 2019-10-04 by SAE International in United States
This article focuses on a comparative research of the emissions discharged from four vehicles equipped with SI engines, which comply with different emission control systems (Euro 6, Euro 5, and Euro 3). The vehicles used for this work were installed with two different fuel injection technologies (direct injection and port fuel injection) and were operated with three different types of fuels (RON 95, M15, and E10). The tests were performed at the Joint Research Center (JRC) in Ispra using a state-of-the-art emissions test facility according to the European emissions legislation. The test bench included a chassis dynamometer and two different driving cycles were used: NEDC and US06. The main conclusions observed by this article are: (1) Emissions levels from vehicles fueled with M15 are similar to or lower than from those fueled with RON95. (2) Using M15 has the potential to decrease carbon dioxide emissions and to save fuel on an energetic basis. (3) PM emissions are lower for gasoline/alcoholic fuels. (4) No statistically significant effects on carbonyl emissions were found with M15.
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