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EMC challenges & solutions for Electric Buses

ICAT-Enoch Eapen
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2503
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
EMC challenges & solutions for Electric Buses Enoch Eapen, Devender Kumar and Madhusudan Joshi International Centre for Automotive Technology, Manesar Electric buses are talk of the town in India with Government pushing the implementation of E-mobility in general and for public transportation in particular. However due to high voltages and complex power electronics design, it often becomes difficult to deal with EMC related non-compliances. ICAT being largely experienced in the EMC testing and validation of E-buses, would like to present the various EMC challenges and the solutions related to E-buses. In this paper we would share three case studies where the EMC issues related to E-buses were mitigated by either introducing simple changes to the existing design or through large/small modification. We believe that the proposed case studies would help the bus manufactures to understand the real EMC issues closely and implement the solutions accordingly prior to submitting for final certification to the test agencies leading to lesser cost impact and shorter validation time.
 

Approach for standardization of Advanced Driving Assistance System (ADAS) in India

International Centre For Automotive Tech.-Aditi Sethi
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2464
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Authors: Aditi Sethi1, Siddhanta Shrivastava2, Madhusudan Joshi3 Organization: 1,2,3 International Centre for Automotive Technology, Manesar Introduction: With the increasing utilization of electronics in Indian automobile industry, there is an essential requirement for standardizing the functional safety of sub-systems that constitute advanced driving assistance system (ADAS) as it would be the foundation stone for the automated vehicles in future. These systems assist the driver and the driving process, further increasing the car safety and road safety, subsequently reducing human error. Due to interaction of several electronic control units (ECUs) in a vehicle and complexity of the system, electronic stability plays a vital role. Therefore, the standards shall be more performance oriented and technology neutral. They shall also cover validation tests associated with safety, mechanical rigidity, durability, environmental protection and electromagnetic compatibility. Standardization of ADAS would authenticate the quality, regulate and smoothen the uniform implementation of these sub-systems. Interestingly the standardization of ADAS is in progress at the international level. It is therefore pertinent to consider adoption, formulation or both of international standards as a part of…
 

Optimization of An EV Controller Design For A Three Wheeler BOVs - EMC Approach

International Centre For Automotive Tech.-Nikhil Grover
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2474
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Introduction: The advent of electric mobility is changing the conventional mobility techniques and their application in automobiles across all segments. Three wheeler Battery Operated Vehicles (BoVs) are a special category of electric vehicles (EVs) as far as EMC compliance is concerned. The problem mainly lies with the open body design and cost cutting measures being exercised by the manufactures which makes Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) compliance challenging. Objective: Though it is sometimes possible to resolve EMC malfunctions related to motor power cable, cables & wiring harness etc. using external techniques post design stage, but controller being a closed and typical element makes it difficult to improve against EMC malfunctions using external techniques. This paper would concentrate on the controller design parameters and improvement of the same in terms of Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) and performance efficiency at the design stage itself. Methodology: This study would concentrate on designing of motor controller for three wheeler EVs, improving and optimizing the EMI/EMC aspects of the design and its performance with the following aspects in mind: 1. Selection of critical…
 
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Nominal High-Altitude Electromagnetic Pulse (HEMP) Waveforms

Aerospace & Defense Technology: August 2019

  • Magazine Article
  • 19AERP08_08
Published 2019-08-01 by SAE International in United States

Calculating the characteristics of high-altitude electromagnetic pulses created by the detonation of a nuclear device.

Even before the Trinity nuclear test in July of 1945, physicists predicted a transient electromagnetic signal would be caused by high-energy photons released from the detonation interacting with the air around the detonation. Predictions of these signals were difficult to make due to the complexity of the physics unleashed by the detonation.

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Electromechanical Actuators Specification Guide

A-6B3 Electro-Mechanical Actuation Committee
  • Aerospace Standard
  • ARP5754
  • Current
Published 2019-06-10 by SAE International in United States
This Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) provides general characteristics, requirements, and design data to be recommended for inclusion in a procurement technical specification of an electromechanical actuator (EMA), including its control and monitoring.
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Wireless Power Transfer for Light-Duty Plug-in/Electric Vehicles and Alignment Methodology

Hybrid - EV Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J2954_201904
  • Current
Published 2019-04-23 by SAE International in United States
The Recommended Practice SAE J2954 establishes an industry-wide specification that defines acceptable criteria for interoperability, electromagnetic compatibility, EMF, minimum performance, safety, and testing for wireless charging of light-duty electric and plug-in electric vehicles. The specification defines various charging levels that are based on the levels defined for SAE J1772 conductive AC charge levels 1, 2, and 3, with some variations. A standard for wireless power transfer (WPT) based on these charge levels enables selection of a charging rate based on vehicle requirements, thus allowing for better vehicle packaging and ease of customer use. The specification supports home (private) charging and public wireless charging. In the near term, vehicles that are able to be charged wirelessly under Recommended Practice SAE J2954 should also be able to be charged by SAE J1772 plug-in chargers. This Recommended Practice is planned to be standardized after the 2018 timeframe after receiving vehicle data. The contents, including frequency, parameters, specifications, procedures, and other contents of this Recommended Practice, are to be re-evaluated at that time to allow for additional developments and…
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Energy Saving Glazing and Its Compatibility with Heating, Antenna and Wireless Communication

Vitro Automotive Glass-David Dai, Mukesh Rustagi, Peter Dishart
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Conductive heat reflecting automotive windows significantly attenuate RF communication signals. A number of methods are available to maintain electromagnetic compatibility and the function of these and other devices in the passenger compartment, while accruing the heat load reduction benefits of the coating. One of the methods is to integrate antennas on to the coated glazing and have glass antenna act as a communication interface between inside and outside of the vehicle. Another approach is to design a wideband or bandpass Frequency Selective Surface (FSS) window to facilitate wireless communication while preserving the thermal performance of the window. This paper provides detailed overview on coated antennas for vehicle communications, FSS window design for wideband and bandpass applications and coated antenna combined with de-ice and de-fogger functions with some designs and testing data.
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The Dynamic Electromagnetic Distribution and Electromagnetic Interference Suppression of Smart Electric Vehicle

Tongji University-Ji Zhang, Yu Lv, Mengjing Shen
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Smart electric vehicles need more accurate and more timely information as well as control than traditional vehicles, which depends on great environmental sensors such as millimeter-wave radar. In this way, the electromagnetic compatibility of whole vehicle would confront more serious challenges because of its high frequency range. Thus, this paper studies the electromagnetic distribution and electromagnetic interference suppression of smart electric vehicles with the followings. Firstly, the millimeter wave radar is modeled and optimized. Micro strip patch antenna, with small size, light mass and low cost, is used as array element of antenna. Millimeter wave radar is modeled and simulated step by step from array element to line array to planar matrix. Then the Cross Shape - Uniplanar Compact - Electromagnetic Band Gap (CS-UC-EBG) structure is deployed to optimize its electromagnetic characteristics, based on finite time domain difference model theory. Secondly, considering that the most of electromagnetic interference (EMI) in electric vehicle comes from drive system, the conduction model of electric drive system is established on the basis of analyzing mechanism of EMI in electric…
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Information on Electric Brakes

A-5A Wheels, Brakes and Skid Controls Committee
  • Aerospace Standard
  • AIR5937
  • Current
Published 2019-02-15 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) describes the design, operation, and attributes of electrical braking systems for both military and commercial aircraft. At this time, the document focuses only on brakes utilizing electromechanical actuators (EMAs), as that is the present state of the art. As such, the discussions herein assume that EMAs can simply replace the hydraulic actuation portion of typical brake system leaving things such as the wheel and heat sink unchanged. Furthermore, the document provides detail information from the perspective of brake system design and operation. The document also addresses failure modes, certification issues, and past development efforts. Details on the design and control of electric motors, gear train design, ball or roller screw selection are available in the reference documents and elsewhere, but are outside the scope of this document. Other all-electric technologies such as piezoelectric actuation or more exotic methods of applying drag to a rotating wheel may be included at a later time. Important: Electric braking systems for aircraft are at the early stages of production implementation. There are also…
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Film Blocks Electromagnetic Interference

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-33700
Published 2019-02-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

Electromagnetic interference (EMI) can harm smartphones, tablets, chips, drones, wearables, aircraft, and human health. EMI is increasing with the explosive proliferation of devices that generate it. A technique was developed to produce relatively low-cost EMI-blocking composite films.