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CATARC New Type Drivetrain NVH Test Facility

CATARC-Hui Gao, Yongchao Wang, Dong Wang
Jilin University-HongBin Yin
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-0788
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
As the most intuitive performance of users, NVH performance is one of the comprehensive indicators to evaluate the manufacturing standard of the whole vehicle. About one-third of the vehicle complaint are related to NVH performance. As a core component of the vehicle, the NVH characteristics of the drivetrain have a significant impact on vehicle comfort . How to reliably and stably reproduce the specific condition of the whole vehicle through the test method, and obtain the highly consistent objective data for analyzing and improving the NVH characteristics of the drivetrain, which is of great significance in engineering. For this purpose, China Automotive Technology Research Center Co., Ltd. (CATARC) designed and built a unparalleled drivetrain NVH test facility, which consists of five dynamometers. Test specimens such as powertrain, transmission, and rear axle can be mounted to the facility. The structure is not limited to the horizontal/vertical, front/rear drive/four-wheel drive structure, or even a whole vehicle. Due to the battery simulator, the above specimens of the fuel vehicle, hybrid vehicle and electric vehicle can be satisfied. The…

Experiment Studies of Charging Strategy for Lithium-ion Batteries

Xuezhe Wei
Tongji Univ-Pei Yu, Haifeng Dai
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-0792
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Regarding the lithium-ion batteries used in the electric vehicle, charging time and charging efficiency are the concern of the public. In this paper, a lot of experiments were conducted to investigate the common charging strategies, including the CC-CV (constant current-constant voltage) charging and the pulse current charging, for the LiFepO4 batteries, which are still widely used in commercial vehicles. Charging temperature and the charging current in the CC phase are the main influence factors to be studied for the CC-CV charging strategy, and the contribution of CC phase and CV phase to the whole charging is analyzed from three aspects, including the time percent, charging energy efficiency and the capacity of battery at different temperatures and charging current.Regarding the pulse charging strategy, the pulse frequency is determined from the perspective of energy loss, then the experiments for pulse charging with different pulse mode, different duty cycle, as well as different charging temperature and charging current were conducted to study the characteristic of pulse charging.In order to eliminate the battery polarization, we optimized the charging current…

Research on Vibration Characteristics of Permanent Magnet Motor of Electric Vehicle on different Control Strategies

Jilin University-Fangwu Ma, HongBin Yin
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-0166
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
In order to solve the energy and environmental crisis, electric vehicles and hybrid electric vehicles have developed rapidly around the world. The permanent magnet motor (PMM) is an important part of electric vehicle power system, which greatly affects the comfort of electric vehicles. This paper develops a multiphysics coupling model for permanent magnet motors. The vibration characteristics of permanent magnet motor are analyzed based on the multiphysics coupling model. Firstly, the control strategy model of permanent magnet drive motor for electric vehicles is established, parameters of the input current of PMM under different control strategies are obtained. Secondly, an electromagnetic simulation model is established by using finite element software, and the radial electromagnetic force is calculated by Maxwell stress tensor method. Thirdly, a finite element model of the stator structure considering the anisotropy of the core and the winding material is established and verified by modal test. Finally, the electromagnetic force simulation model is coupled with the structural model to establish the motor vibration simulation model, and the influence of different control strategies on the…

Research on Key Factors for Range and Energy Consumption of Electric Vehicles

Chongqing Changan New Energy Auto Co.Ltd-Chen Zhao, Guan Gong, Cheng Yu, Ying Liu, Shu Zhong, Yanxing song, Chenghao Deng, Anjian Zhou, Honglu Ye
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-0723
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Investigations have been carried out to examine the potential to optimize the energy consumption and drive range of the Electric Vehicles (EV). Theoretically, the energy consumption is strongly influenced by system efficiency, coasting resistance and energy recovery technology. In this paper, these three aspects have been studied in detail through both simulation tool and experimental test. Research has been conducted on a Changan sedan EV to explore the influence of each factor on the energy consumption and drive range. The most paramount factor is the vehicle coasting resistance, followed by the power-train system efficiency. To reduce the coasting resistance, interests can be drawn to the application of tire with low resistance coefficient, low friction brake clamp and the modification of vehicle styling. The drive-train efficiency includes the motor efficiency, inverter efficiency and the gearbox efficiency. Interestingly, the effect of energy recovery technology is sensitive to the driving conditions. The I-pedal technology which can supply deceleration up to 0.2g has little influence over NEDC but can extend the range over real-world driving by up to 10%…

Distributed Drive Electric Vehicle Longitudinal Velocity Estimation with Adaptive Kalman Filter: Theory and Experiment

CAERI-Yaming Zhang PhD
Tongji University-Lu Xiong, Zhuoping Yu, Dequan Zeng
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-0439
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Velocity is one of the most important inputs of active safety system such as ABS, TCS, ESP et al. Sensors which can measure velocity directly are still expensive and not widely assembled in production automobiles. In a distributed drive electric vehicle equipped with four in-wheel motors, velocity is hard to obtain due to all wheel drive, especially in wheel slip conditions. This paper focus on longitudinal velocity estimation of the distributed drive electric vehicle. Firstly, a basic longitudinal velocity estimation model is built based on a typical used Kalman filter, where four wheel speeds obtained by wheel speed sensors constitute an observation variable and the longitudinal acceleration measured by an inertia moment unit is chosen as input variable. In simulations, the typical Kalman filter show good results when no wheel slips severely; when one or more wheels slip, the typical Kalman filter with constant covariance matrices does not work well, while estimation results can be improved by calibrating observation error covariance matrix and/ or system error covariance matrix. Therefore, the adjusting gain matrix-based Kalman filter…

Vehicle auxiliary energy supply device based on composite solar module

Suizhou-WUT Industry Research Institute-Gangfeng Tan
Wuhan University of Technology-Shuai Wang, Zebiao Ma, Xiaofei Ma, Jingfeng Sun, Daolin Zhou, Yiran Ding, Yifeng Jiang
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1258
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
The degree of electrification of vehicles is gradually increasing and the demand for electric energy is increasing. The solar energy is clean, rich and widely distributed, but the photoelectric conversion efficiency of photovoltaic cells is low. In this paper, a composite vehicle-mounted solar module integrating photovoltaic and thermoelectricity is designed. According to the spectral absorption characteristics of photovoltaic cells and solar selective absorbing coatings. The sunlight that cannot be absorbed by the photovoltaic cell is fully used for collecting heat, and the generated high-temperature heat energy is transmitted to the hot end of the thermal electric generator (TEG) by using heat pipes, and the TEG cold end is connected to the vehicle body through the heat pipe for cooling to achieve temperature difference power generation. It improves the comprehensive utilization efficiency of the solar energy within the limited range of the roof and provide energy supply for the vehicle. Based on the photoelectric conversion model and the photothermal thermal model, the effects of solar illuminance, ambient temperature and air velocity on the energy conversion effect…

Performance simulation for energy management considering derating effects of electrified vehicles

Magna Steyr Fahrzeugtechnik AG & Co. KG-Michael Martin
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-0351
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
One scope of work for energy management of electrified vehicles is the powertrain dimensioning in early development phases. In current development processes only dynamic short term or stationary long term maneuvers for powertrain dimensioning are considered. Therefore, requirements can be already defined for peak and continuous operation for electric motors and the traction battery, but not for the transition in-between. Based on analysis of benchmark vehicles and the driving of more realistic load cases it is noticeable that also dynamic long term maneuvers become interesting for the end customer. The derating behavior of the electric powertrain components must be considered, especially for such maneuvers. This means in detail the transition between peak and continuous operation. Therefore, this aspect requires a simulation model considering dynamic derating effects for early development phases. Initially, benchmark vehicle are equipped with measurement devices and standardized maneuvers are driven with the vehicles on a chassis dyno to bring the vehicle into derating status. The derating behavior on system level describing the transition from peak to continuous operation is derived based on…

R410A BASED AUTOMOTIVE HEAT PUMP SYSTEM THAT HITS CABIN HEATING GOAL SUCECCESFULLY IN -30 °C EXTREME AMBIENT

BAIC Motor Corp., Ltd. New Energy-KELVIN Zhai
BYD Auto Industry Company Limited-xuefeng Chen
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-0910
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
R410A BASED AUTOMOTIVE HEAT PUMP SYSTEM THAT HITS CABIN HEATING GOAL SUCECCESFULLY IN -30 °C EXTREME AMBIENT KELVIN ZHAI, HAOJIE WANG, BAIC MOTOR CO. LTD. XUEFENG CHEN, BYD AUTO CO. LTD ABSTRACT It is a big wave in the world towards to future to replace traditional vehicles by Battery powered Electric Vehicles (BEV). However, it’s also well known that there are critical technical barriers for BEV based AC systems to work in very low ambient to heat up the cabin sufficiently for human comfort requirement, due to weak battery output impacted by the low ambient. The regular heat pump systems with R134A/R1234YF, even with Vapor Injection cycle (VI) added, due to -26°C boiling temperature limits, are still encountering serious challenges to meet -30 °C or lower ambient needs, although VI heat pump may reach COP>=1.7 at ambient -18 °C. There are so many areas in the world where are so cold that lower than -30°C, and may last couple of months per year, in most Canada, northern USA and northern China. Somehow, limited by the…

A Systems Approach in Developing a Ultralightweight Outside Mounted Rearview Mirror Using Discontinuous Fiber Reinforced Thermoplastics

Clemson University-Sai Aditya Pradeep, Srikanth Pilla
Clemson University - ICAR-Senthil Raj Ramesh, Veera Aditya Yerra
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1124
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Fuel efficiency improvement of automobiles has been a topic of great interest in the past years, especially with the introduction of new CAFE standards. Although there are multiple ways of improving the fuel efficiency of an automobile, light weighting is one of the most common approaches taken by many automotive manufacturers. Importance of lightweighting is more significant in electric vehicles as it directly effects the range. The use of composite materials in place of metals has proven to achieve substantial weight reductions in the past. The focus of using these composite materials for weight reduction was generally limited to major structural components such as BiW and closures, due to the high material cost. Secondary structural components which contribute approximately 30% of the vehicle weight are usually neglected by these weight reduction studies. This work is an attempt to prove that composites can also be used effectively in the weight reduction of secondary structural components while meeting the mechanical performance, cost and scalability. Discontinuous fiber reinforced injection molded materials offer good mechanical properties and very high…

Feasibility Analysis of Taxi Fleet Electrification Using 4.9 Million Miles of Real-World Driving Data

National Renewable Energy Laboratory-Matthew Moniot, Clement Rames, Erin Burrell
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-0392
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Ride hailing activity is rapidly increasing, largely due to the growth of transportation network companies (TNC’s) such as Uber and Lyft. However, traditional taxi companies continue to represent an important market share of hailed trips. Columbus Yellow Cab (CYC), a taxi company in Columbus, Ohio, allows traditional taxi hailing as well as on-request rides using an app. Data from CYC trips was provided to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to analyze the potential for electrification of their fleet, currently comprised entirely of gasoline and hybrid vehicles. CYC data contained information describing both GPS trajectories and taxi meter information. The data spanned a period of 13 months, containing approximately 70 million GPS points, 840 thousand trips, and 170 unique vehicles. A CYC taxi was found to have an average daily Vehicle Miles Traveled (VMT) of 154 miles with an annualized VMT of 29 thousand miles. Additionally, meter information facilitated an understanding of vehicle deadheading; 46% of miles traveled were driven without a passenger. A variety of scenarios were evaluated using CYC data and the Electric…