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Validation Testing of Lithium Battery Performance-Based Packaging for use in Air Transportation (SAE G-27)

National Research Council Canada-Khalid Fatih, Manuel Hernandez
Transport Canada-Ian Whittal, Kiran Shoib
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0042
To be published on 2020-03-10 by SAE International in United States
The SAE G-27 committee was tasked by ICAO to develop a performance-based packaging standard for lithium batteries transported as cargo on aircraft. The standard details test criteria to qualify packages of lithium batteries & cells for transportation as cargo on-board passenger aircraft. Lithium batteries and cells have been prohibited from shipment as cargo on passenger aircraft since 2016. This paper summarizes the results of the tests conducted by Transport Canada and National Research Council Canada to support the development of this standard with evidence-based recommendations. It includes a description of the test specimens, the test set up, instrumentation used, and test procedures following the standard as drafted to date. The study considered several lithium-ion battery and cell chemistries that were tested under various proposed testing scenarios in the draft standard. The aim was to assess the feasibility of proposed tests, and to determine whether the tests are able to accurately capture hazards which may arise from a catastrophic battery or a cell failure within the package. Laboratory results were also simulated with Computational Fluid Dynamics…
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Simulation Analysis of the Scavenging Process of a Uniflow and Loop Scavenging Concept

Institute of Internal Combustion Engines and Thermodynamics,-Stefan Sturm, Michael Lang, Stephan Schmidt
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-32-0549
To be published on 2020-01-24 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
The two-stroke engine, as a today unconventional concept in automotive applications, has a great potential for a relaunch in the fast-growing market of Plugin Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) or Range Extender Electric Vehicle (REX) [2, 3, 4, 8, 9]. An efficient scavenging to remove the in-cylinder burnt gases and to fill the cylinder with fresh charge, performed at the same time is one of the major challenges, as losses of fresh air and fuel towards the exhaust line should be avoided when operating a lambda = 1 concept necessary for a 3-way catalyst aftertreatment system.A prior study [1] of different gas exchange designs for two-stroke engines concludes that two possible concepts cover this purpose. In this paper, 3D-CFD simulation is used to compare these two different scavenging concepts, a uniflow and a loop scavenging type with control elements for the gas exchange process. As boundary conditions, it is assumed that both concept types have nearly the same displacement, are used with an external scavenging blower and have a lubrication system like a conventional oil sump…
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Electric Vehicle Power Transfer System Using Conductive Automated Connection Devices Infrastructure-Mounted Pantograph (Cross-Rail) Connection

Hybrid - EV Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J3105-1_202001
  • Current
Published 2020-01-20

This document details one of the connections of the SAE J3105 document. The connections are referenced in the scope of the main document SAE J3105. SAE J3105-1 details the infrastructure-mounted pantograph, or cross-rail connection. All the common requirements are defined in the main document; the current document provides the details of the connection.

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Electric Vehicle Power Transfer System Using Conductive Automated Connection Devices Enclosed Pin and Socket Connection

Hybrid - EV Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J3105/3_202001
  • Current
Published 2020-01-20 by SAE International in United States

This document details one of the connections of the SAE J3105 document. The connections are referenced in the scope of the main document SAE J3105. SAE J3105/3 details the enclosed pin and sleeve connection. All the common requirements are defined in the main document; the current document provides the details of the connection.

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Electric Vehicle Power Transfer System Using Conductive Automated Connection Devices

Hybrid - EV Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J3105_202001
  • Current
Published 2020-01-20 by SAE International in United States

This document covers the general physical, electrical, functional, testing, and performance requirements for conductive power transfer, primarily for vehicles using a conductive ACD connection capable of transferring DC power. It defines conductive power transfer methods, including the infrastructure electrical contact interface, the vehicle connection interface, the electrical characteristics of the DC supply, and the communication system. It also covers the functional and dimensional requirements for the vehicle connection interface and supply equipment interface. There are also sub-documents which are identified by a SAE J3105-1, SAE J3105-2, and SAE J3105-3. These will be specific requirements for a specific interface defined in the sub-document.

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Electric Vehicle Power Transfer System Using Conductive Automated Connection Devices Vehicle-Mounted Pantograph (Bus-Up)

Hybrid - EV Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J3105/2_202001
  • Current
Published 2020-01-20 by SAE International in United States

This document details one of the connections of the SAE J3105 document. The connections are referenced in the scope of the main document SAE J3105. SAE J3105/2 details the vehicle-mounted pantograph, or the bus-up connection. All the common requirements are defined in the main document; the current document provides the details of the connection.

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Two-Speed Transmission Gear Shift Process Analysis and Optimization Using Genetic Algorithm

SAE International Journal of Alternative Powertrains

China-Zhan Cao
China Automotive Technology and Research Center Co., Ltd., China-Jiansen Yang, Xinyu Wang
  • Journal Article
  • 08-09-01-0001
Published 2020-01-16 by SAE International in United States
Electric Vehicle (EV) equipped with two-speed transmission has benefit in improving dynamic performance and saving battery consumption. However, during gear shift process, torque interruption and shift impact may lead to a bad shift quality. This work investigates gear shift process in an Automated Manual Transmission (AMT) configuration-based two-speed transmission. First of all, a typical gear shift process is analyzed. Parameters like motor speed, shift force, motor torque change rate, and speed difference between synchronizer and target engage gear are all included to find the relationships with shift duration. Then vehicle jerk is introduced as a criterion to evaluate shift impact. Besides, a comprehensive shift control strategy is developed. While keeping the output torque at wheels unchanged, the shift strategy also improved motor working efficiency after gear shift. Therefore, to determine an optimum shift strategy and achieve a balance among different parameters, Genetic Algorithm (GA) multi-objective optimization method is implemented. Through GA optimization, several solutions are presented and discussed. The final results can well satisfy the requirements of different objectives. This work provides a novel and…
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Brake System Thermal Performance for Brazil Market Battery Electric Vehicles

General Motors, LLC-David Antanaitis
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0019
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
The discussion in the braking industry that has been ongoing for over a decade now on how to specify brake systems for regenerative-brake intensive vehicle applications has intensified considerably in the past few years as the automotive industry ponders a future where electric vehicles become predominant. Major automotive manufactures have announced plans to create dedicated electric-only vehicle architectures, from which to offer a full range of electric vehicle configurations. The time to really figure out the translation of Voice of the Electric Vehicle Customer to technical requirements and brake system content is approaching very rapidly. One of the major design decisions in the brake system is the sizing of foundation brake components for thermal performance. There is no question that regenerative brakes can significantly reduce the demand on the friction brakes in normal usage, sometimes by a full order of magnitude or more. Brakes no longer need to be sized for everyday use, rather, the sizing is driven by “limit cases” such as failure of the regen system, a full state of charge in the…
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ALL-WHEEL DRIVE ELECTRIC VEHICLE MODELING AND PERFORMANCE OPTIMIZATION

Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Politecn-H. de Carvalho Pinheiro, E. Galanzino, A. Messana, L. Sisca, A. Ferraris, A. G. Airale, M. Carello
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0197
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
Electrification of the powertrain is one of the most promising trends in the automotive industry. Among the novel architectures, this paper aims to study the latent advantages provided by in-wheel motors, particularly an All-Wheel-Drive powertrain composed by four electric machines directly connected to each wheel-hub of a high performance vehicle. Beyond the well-known packaging advantage allowed by the in-wheel motor, the presence of four independent torque sources allows more flexible and complex control strategies of torque allocation. The study explores three different control modules working simultaneously: torque vectoring, regenerative braking and energy efficiency optimization protocol. The main objectives of the project are: improving handling, measured through the lap time of the virtual driver in a simulated track, and enhance energy efficiency, assessed by the battery state of charge variation during standard events. The torque vectoring strategy is based on a feedback PID controller working in parallel to a feedforward logic that predict the desired behavior based on the driver demands (such as steering angle) and vehicle states (chassis accelerations and velocities). The regenerative braking manages…
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Pulsating Heat Pipe Automotive Application

Magneti Marelli Sistemas Automotivos, Universidade Estadual-Rafael Beicker Barbosa de Oliveira, Sergio Gradella Villalva, Luiz Paulo Rodrigues Filho, Fernando Luiz Windlin, Guilherme Henrique Mayer Alegre, Rogério Gonçalves do Santos
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0227
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
It is proposed a study to evaluate PHP (pulsating heat pipes) device application in battery thermal management systems for HEV (hybrid-electric vehicle) and EV (electric vehicle). Firstly, it is necessary to understanding Li-ion (lithium ion) batteries for HEV/EV, the electrical energy supply state-of-the-art. The analyzed aspects were battery framework and configuration; working principles and mechanisms; and market penetration and potential. Secondly, the adverse effects of temperature over such batteries were discussed. After understanding the case study, a battery modeling survey was performed in order to later evaluate BTMSs (battery thermal management systems). Well comprehended case study and battery modeling, then, it was possible to examine current automotive battery cooling and heating solutions. Finally, PHP was evaluated as a possible BTMS regarding technical and commercial aspects, explaining what would be the requisites in order to attend automobile heat dissipation demands and the challenges for embedding it.
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