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Benefit of a Lightweight Frunk

Autoneum Management AG-Federico Di Marco, Flavio Pezzani, Andreas Daving, Luca Mazzarella
Published 2019-06-05 by SAE International in United States
Due to the increasing number of battery electric vehicles (BEVs), the engineering fields regarding driving comfort and NVH issues are becoming more and more challenging: many new factors affect the development of BEVs NVH package. The noise sources related to the powertrain are different from the traditional ones of internal combustion engines, for instance due to the presence of tonal components, strong harmonics and potential whining noise.To satisfy NVH specifications and the need for lightweight solutions to increase driving range, it is important to mask as much as possible the noise coming from the engine bay with materials both lightweight and acoustically performing. Moreover, for electric vehicles new interesting solutions are possible with the introduction of new components that do not find room under the hood of ICE or hybrid vehicles. These components, if properly designed, could lead to significant NVH benefits. The present paper reports the NVH effects of one of these new components, the frunk, a small compartment inside the engine bay, functionally similar to the trunk.In this paper, the design-by-simulation of a…
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Structural Vibration and Acoustic Analysis of a 3-Phase AC Induction Motor

Peyman Poozesh
Kettering University-Anand Krishnasarma, Allan Taylor, Javad Baqersad
Published 2019-06-05 by SAE International in United States
This paper aims to study the NVH and acoustic performance of a 3-phase AC induction motor in order to develop an approach to reduce the magnetic component of noise from an electric motor in an electric vehicle (EV). The final goal of this project is to reduce the magnetic component of sound from the motor by making modifications to the end bracket of the motor housing.EVs are being considered the future of mobility mainly due to the fact that they are environment-friendly. As many companies are already investing in this technology, electric drives are set to become extremely popular in the years to come. The heart of an EV is its motor. Modern electric vehicles are quiet, furthermore with the lack of an IC engine to mask most sounds from other components, the sound from the electric motor and other auxiliary parts become more prominent. The primary source of electromagnetic noise in a motor arises from magnetic flux variations in the air gap which interfere with the resonant frequencies of the stator core. These flux…
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Power Electronic Noise-Simulation Measurement Comparison

AVL LIST GmbH-Markus Resch, Thomas Resch, Stephan Brandl
AVL Software and Functions Gmbh-Peter Olbrich, Hartwig Reindl
Published 2019-06-05 by SAE International in United States
A growing development of hybrid or fully electrical drives increases the demand for an accurate prediction of noise and vibration characteristics of electric and electronic components. This paper describes the numerical and experimental investigation of noise emissions from power electronics, as one of the new important noise sources in electric vehicles.The noise emitted from the printed circuit board (PCB) equipped with multi-layer ceramic capacitors (MLCC) is measured and used for the calibration and validation of numerical model. Material properties are tuned using results from experimental modal analysis, with special attention to the orthotropic characteristic of the PCB glass-reinforced epoxy laminate sheet (FR-4). Electroacoustic excitation is pre-calculated using an extension of schematic-based EMC simulation and applied to the structural model. Structural vibrations are calculated with a commercial FEM solver with the modal frequency response analysis. Sound radiation is simulated using the wave-based approach (WBT). Simulation and experimental results are compared in a frequency range up to 10 kHz.The developed simulation methodology can successfully identify the main noise sources from the equipped PCB. Critical peak noise responses…
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Test and Analysis of Electromagnetic Noise of an Electric Motor in a Pure Electric Car

Geely Automoile Research Institute-Qiang Kang, Perry Gu, Chao Gong
Tongji University-Shuguang Zuo
Published 2019-06-05 by SAE International in United States
Compared with the low-frequency ignition order of mechanical and combustion noise of an internal combustion engine, the noise of electric drive assembly of electric vehicles is mainly the high-frequency whining noise generated by electromagnetic forces of motors and gear meshing of reducers, as well as the high-frequency umbrella-shape noise generated by DC/AC pulse width modulation. Although the radiated sound power of these high frequency noise is far less than that of an internal combustion engine, the high frequency noise of the motor and the reducer is subjectively quite annoying. This paper studies the characteristics of electromagnetic noise of a permanent magnet synchronous motor in an electric car. By testing and analyzing of noise sources of an electric motor in the car and on a test rig, the spatial order characteristics and amplitude-frequency characteristics of the electromagnetic forces are revealed. The noise orders are multiples of the number of motor poles. The most critical order is 48th order, and its spatial order is 0th order. The peak of this 48th order is due to the stator’s…
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The Identification of Minimum Weight Sound Packages That Meet Specified Vehicle Interior Sound Pressure Levels

Purdue University- West Lafayette-Hyunjun Shin, J. Stuart Bolton
Published 2019-06-05 by SAE International in United States
A vehicle’s fuel mileage is directly related to its CO2 emissions, which have a negative impact on the environment. This negative vehicle attribute can, of course, be mitigated by increasing the vehicle’s fuel mileage beyond current levels: the reduction of vehicle weight is one of the options automobile manufacturers can employ to meet that goal. Similarly, an electric vehicles range can be increased by reducing the vehicle’s weight. Therefore, the minimization of the weight of vehicle sound packages while maintaining their acoustical performance has a positive impact on the environment as well as on vehicle efficiency. In this research, a simple model of a vehicle front-of-dash sound package which consists of a limp porous layer placed in series with a flexible microperforated panel is considered. By varying the surface density and flow resistance of these two components, the sound absorption and transmission performance of the sound package can be balanced to achieve targeted interior sound levels. Previously, an analytical, transfer matrix approach to modeling both components of the sound package by using equivalent fluid models…
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Tonal Annoyance Metric Development for Automotive Electric Vehicles

General Motors-Glenn Pietila, William Seldon, Timothy Roggenkamp, Timothy Bohn
Published 2019-06-05 by SAE International in United States
Historical metrics intended to drive the development of vehicle powertrains have focused on sounds that are characteristic of IC engines. The interior noise contribution of the propulsion system in electric vehicles has significantly more tonal noise (and much less impulsive and broadband noise) than their IC engine counterparts. This tonal noise is not adequately represented by current propulsion systems metrics. While metrics exist today that were developed to represent the presence of tones in sounds most have focused on the level aspect of the tones relative to the surrounding noise or masking level, some examples include tonality, tone-to-noise ratio, and prominence ratio. A secondary, but also important aspect of tones is the annoyance as a function of frequency. This paper will highlight the development of a tonal annoyance weighting curve that can be used to account for the frequency aspect of tonal annoyance relative to electric vehicles. This weighting curve can then be used in conjunction with the current tonal metrics to represent perceived tonal annoyance of electric vehicles. The benefit of the tonal annoyance…
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Effects of the Feature Extraction from Road Surface Image for Road Induced Noise Prediction Using Artificial Intelligence

Gifu University-Yuichi Matsumura, Kojiro Matsushita
Toyota Motor Corp.-Shunsuke Nakamura, Masashi Komada, Keisuke Ishizaki
Published 2019-06-05 by SAE International in United States
Next generation vehicles driven by motor such as electric vehicles and fuel cell vehicles have no engine noise. Therefore the balance of interior noise is different from the vehicles driven by conventional combustion engine. In particular, road induced noise tends to be conspicuous in the low to middle vehicle speed range, therefore, technological development to reduce it is important task. The purpose of this research is to predict the road induced noise from the signals of sensors adopted for automatic driving for utilizing the prediction result as a reference signal to reduce road induced noise by active noise control (ANC). Using the monocular camera which is one of the simplest image sensors, the road induced noise is predicted from the road surface image ahead of the vehicle by machine learning. The effects to extract features (Histograms of Oriented Gradients (HOG) feature, autoencoder feature, Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) feature) from road surface images are evaluated by visualization result of t-SNE. From the features acquired by the above method, the frequency characteristics of the road induced noise…
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The New Challenges of NVH Package for BEVs

Autoneum Holding AG-Grégoire Lepoittevin, Jan Horak, Davide Caprioli
Published 2019-06-05 by SAE International in United States
Battery electric vehicles (BEVs) bring new challenges when it comes to NVH package development, which are affected by many new factors. The noise sources from the powertrain are different, for instance due to the presence of tonal components, strong harmonics and potential whining noise. Another important aspect is the missing effect of masking noise from a combustion engine. As a consequence, other noise sources, such as tires, become more predominant. This means that the NVH package has to be re-engineered considering new noise sources and cannot just be significantly decontented in general. At the same time, NVH package weight reduction should at least partly counterbalance the vehicle weight increase due to the presence of a large and heavy battery pack in order to maximize the driving range. In the early days of BEVs, OEMs mostly carried over technologies used on combustion engine vehicles to electric cars. With the development growth of specific vehicle platforms for electric cars, NVH strategies and technologies might strongly change.The aim of this paper is to discuss the future NVH package…
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EMBATT looks to double the driving range of EVs

Automotive Engineering: June 2019

Kami Buchholz
  • Magazine Article
  • 19AUTP06_11
Published 2019-06-01 by SAE International in United States

A chassis-integrated sandwich structure of solid electrolytes currently in development is projected to deliver all-electric driving ranges that far out-distance today's typical 200-mile (320 km) EV real-world driving range. IAV, Thyssenkrupp AG and Fraunhofer Institute for Ceramic Technologies and Systems (IKTS) are the core project partners working to develop EMBATT, a chassis-embedded energy technology.

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As automotive climates shift, GKN ramps up its winter testing

Automotive Engineering: June 2019

Paul Seredynski
  • Magazine Article
  • 19AUTP06_13
Published 2019-06-01 by SAE International in United States

As the influx of electrification continues to roil the industry, seamlessly integrating the hardware and wealth of software it brings with it creates a far broader engineering challenge. Tier-1 companies that traditionally supplied “parts” are rapidly transitioning from a component-level mindset to system-level projects that include exponential investments in programming and control algorithms. Meshing innovative electrified propulsion systems while still meeting diverse and performance-hungry OEM integration criteria is making winter testing more crucial than ever.

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