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Identification of Automotive Cabin Design Parameters to Increase Electric Vehicles Range, Coupling CFD-Thermal Analyses with Design for Six Sigma Approach

FCA ITALY S.p.A.-Andrea Alessandro Piovano, Giuseppe Scantamburlo, Massimo Quaglino, Matteo Gautero
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-37-0032
To be published on 2020-06-23 by SAE International in United States
The ongoing global demand for greater energy efficiency plays an essential role in the vehicle development, especially in case of electric vehicles (EVs). The thermal management of the full vehicle is becoming increasingly important, since the Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning (HVAC) system has a significant impact on the EV range. Therefore the EV design requires new guidelines for thermal management optimization. In this paper, an advanced method is proposed to identify the most influential cabin design factors which affect the cabin thermal behavior during a cool down drive cycle in hot environmental conditions. These parameters could be optimized to reduce the energy consumption and to increase the robustness of the vehicle thermal response. The structured Taguchi’s Design for Six Sigma (DFSS) approach was coupled with CFD-Thermal FE simulations, thanks to increased availability of HPC. The first control factors selected were related to the thermal capacity of panel duct, dashboard, interior door panels and seats. Surface IR emissivity and solar radiation absorptivity of these components were then added to the study. Car glass with absorptive…
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Heat Pumps for BEVs: Architectures and Performance Analysis

Centro Ricerche Fiat SCpA-Walter Ferraris, Federica Bettoja, Mauro Casella, Matteo Rostagno, Angela Tancredi
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-37-0030
To be published on 2020-06-23 by SAE International in United States
Electric vehicles have never been more popular, yet fears around being left stranded by an exhausted battery remain a key reason why some car buyers resist making a purchase. Bigger batteries are not always the solution because of the direct link with higher costs and high impact on weight. A re-engineering of the most energy-consuming auxiliaries is mandatory and the thermal management function is on top of the redesign request list. Heat Pump solution is considered one of the best way to save energy and reduce the impact on vehicle range of heating and cooling function, but the automotive application requires a careful definition of the system features to avoid unjustified growing up of complexity as well as an unneeded system over-sizing. The paper aims to give an overview on the heat pump design best practices through a virtual performance comparison of different lay-out configurations, which have been selected starting from a benchmark analysis crossed with a detailed vehicle segment-oriented functions selection. Control strategies role, costs, and target requirements have been used as drivers for…
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A Reverse Engineering Method for Powertrain Parameters Characterization Applied to a P2 Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle with Automatic Transmission

FEV Group GmbH-Alessandro Perazzo
Politecnico di Torino-Enrico Galvagno, Federico Millo, Giuseppe DiPierro, Mauro Velardocchia, Gianluca Mari
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-37-0021
To be published on 2020-06-23 by SAE International in United States
Over the next decade, CO2 legislation will be more demanding and the automotive industry has seen in vehicle electrification a possible solution. This has led to an increasing need for advanced powertrain systems and systematic model-based control approaches, along with additional complexity. This represents a serious challenge for all the OEMs. This paper describes a novel reverse engineering methodology developed to estimate relevant but unknown powertrain data required for fuel consumption-oriented hybrid electric vehicle modelling. The main estimated quantities include high-voltage battery internal resistance, electric motor and transmission efficiency maps, torque converter and lock-up clutch operating maps, internal combustion engine and electric motor mass moment of inertia, and finally front/rear brake torque distribution. This activity introduces a list of limited and dedicated experimental tests, carried out both on road and on a chassis dynamometer, aiming at powertrain characterization thanks to a suitable post-processing algorithm. In this regard, the methodology was tested on a P2 architecture Diesel Plug-in HEV equipped with a 9-speed AT. voltage and current sensors are used to measure the electrical power exchanged…
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Assessment of the Potential of Power to Gas Fuels for Replacement of Fossile Fuels in Switzerland

EMPA-Panayotis Dimopoulos Eggenschwiler, Florian Kiefer, Karin Schröter, Christian Bach
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-37-0027
To be published on 2020-06-23 by SAE International in United States
In Switzerland, road traffic is responsible for one third of greenhouse gas emissions respectively 40% of the CO2 emissions and therefore accounts for the largest single share of all sectors. These emissions have even increased slightly since 1990 (from 15.5 to 16.2 million tCO2). Private individual road transport achieves a mileage of approximatively 91.0 billion pkm (person-kilometer) and 17.2 billion tkm (tons-kilometer) per year. Therefore, 3.3 billion liters of gasoline and 3.2 billion liters of diesel are used, resulting in 16.2 million tCO2 emissions in total. Thereof, 10.2 million tons of CO2 are emitted by passenger cars and 1.7 million tons by trucks, the two most important means of transport concerning CO2 emissions. The rest is produced by vans, buses, motorcycles, railways and shipping, national air traffic and fuel tourism. The passenger cars are the most relevant application in terms of CO2 emissions with a share of 63% of the road vehicle CO2 emissions. To comply with the 95 g/km target, low CO2 vehicles have to be introduced. In the following, the number of such…
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Energy Management for Electric Vehicle Application: Energy Demand for Cabin Comfort

FCA Italy S.p.A.-Antonio Tarzia
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-37-0031
To be published on 2020-06-23 by SAE International in United States
The rapid development of CO2 reduction policies pushes an equivalent effort by the OEM to design and produce Battery Electric Vehicles (BEV) in order to lower the global CO2 emission of its fleet. The main effort has been done primarily to the electric traction architecture (electric traction motor and battery energy storage). Anyway, the BEV autonomy range is still a weak point and this is even more critical when the customer operates the air conditioning system to reach and maintain the cabin comfort. The aim of this work is to present how the cabin design have to evolve in order to allow the reduction of the energy demand by the Air conditioning system allowing the vehicle to increase the autonomy range.
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Next-Generation Refrigerant and Air Conditioner System Choice for Internal Combustion, Hybrid and Electric Vehicles (Presentation Only) by Stephen O. Andersen, Jiangping Chen, Sourav Chowdhury, Tim Craig, Walter Ferraris, Jianxin Hu, Sangeet Kapoor, Carloandrea Malvicino, Prasanna Nagarhalli, Nancy J. Sherman, and Kristen N. Taddonio

Centro Ricerche Fiat SCpA-Walter Ferraris
FCA ITALY S.p.A.-Carloandrea Malvicino
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-37-0029
To be published on 2020-06-23 by SAE International in United States
With the passage of Kigali Amendment to the Montreal Protocol in 2016, HFC-134a will need to be phased down in all markets worldwide due to its high global warming potential (GWP=1300). Meanwhile, global adoption of electric vehicles is accelerating. Improved MAC and heat pump efficiency is critically important to extend vehicle range. Engineers must design MAC and heat pump systems using low-GWP refrigerants that are simultaneously cost-effective, energy efficient, safe, reliable, affordable for consumers, and able to provide both cooling and heating of the cabin and thermal management of vehicle components like power electronics and batteries. This is a challenging and complex task. Fortunately, solutions are available, but they may diverge from traditional direct expansion systems of the past. This paper: 1) documents the global history and market status of the development of alternatives to HFC-134a, including secondary-loop (SL-MAC) systems; 2) outlines the existing and expected regulations demanding low-GWP MAC refrigerant and high fuel efficiency; 3) explains the importance of comprehensive LCCP analysis when evaluating MAC climate impacts instead of focusing on only one component…
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A Power Split Hybrid Propulsion System for Vehicles with Gearbox

Istituto Motori CNR-Luigi De Simio, Michele Gambino, Sabato Iannaccone
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-37-0014
To be published on 2020-06-23 by SAE International in United States
New internal combustion engines (ICE) are characterised by increasing maximum efficiency, thanks to the adoption of strategies like Atkinson cycle, downsizing, cylinder deactivation, waste heat recovery and so on. However, the best performance is confined to a limited portion of the engine map. Moreover, electric driving in urban areas is an increasingly pressing request, but battery electric vehicles use cannot be easily widespread due to limited vehicle autonomy and recharging issues. Therefore, in order to reduce ICE vehicle fuel consumption, by decoupling the ICE running from road load, as well as permit energy recovery and electric driving, hybrid propulsion systems are under development. This paper analyses a new patent solution for power split hybrid propulsion system with gearbox. The system comprises an auxiliary power unit, adapted to store and/or release energy, and a planetary gear set which is interposed between the ICE and the gearbox. The system is characterized by a further device coupled with the ICE to modulate the resistance torque, in order to use the auxiliary power unit also for regenerative braking. The…
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A Theoretical and Experimental Analysis of the Coulomb Counting Method and Estimation of the Electrified-Vehicles Electricity Balance Over the WLTP

European Commission Joint Research-Alessandro Tansini, Georgios Fontaras
Politecnico di Torino-Federico Millo
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-37-0020
To be published on 2020-06-23 by SAE International in United States
The energy storage devices of electrified vehicles (Hybrid Electric Vehicles and Battery Electric Vehicles) are required to operate with highly dynamic current and power outputs, both for charging and discharging operation. When calculating the vehicle CO2 emissions and electrical energy consumption from a trip, the change in electrical energy content at vehicle-level has to be accounted for. This quantity, referred to as the electricity balance in the WLTP regulation, is normally obtained through a time-integration of the current or power supplied by the vehicle batteries during operation and the efficiency factor is often assumed to be unitary (as in the official type-approval procedure). The Joint Research Centre has collected experimental data from different electrified vehicles with regards to electrical energy use and battery State Of Charge (SOC) profile; the latter was used as a reference to quantify the actual vehicle electricity balance from a trip or driving cycle. In this work, the approach of using a simple Coulomb counting method with unitary efficiency for charging and discharging for the quantification of the vehicle electricity balance…
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Plug-in Electric Vehicles fueled with Green Fuels in LTC mode

Jesus Benajes
Universitat Politecnica de Valencia-Antonio Garcia, Javier Monsalve-Serrano, Santiago Martinez
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-37-0026
To be published on 2020-06-23 by SAE International in United States
Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs) can be considered as the most promising technology to achieve the European CO2 targets in 2025 together with a moderate infrastructure modification. However, the real benefits, in terms of CO2 emissions, depend on a great extent on the energy source (fuel and electricity mix), user usage, and vehicle design. Moreover, the electrification of the powertrain does not reduce other emissions as NOx and particles (mainly soot). In the last years, low temperature combustion (LTC) modes as the reactivity-controlled compression ignition (RCCI) have shown to achieve ultra-low NOx and soot emission simultaneously due to the use of two fuels with different reactivity and high exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) rates. Therefore, the aim of this work is to assess, through numerical simulations fed with experimental results, the effects of different energy sources on the PHEV performance and emissions. The dual-fuel ICE was fueled with diesel as high reactivity fuel and two different low reactivity fuel: gasoline and ethanol. The powertrains are optimized to meet the European homologation legislation (WLTP) for PHEVs. The…
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Advance CAE Methods for NVH Development of High Speed Electric Axle

AVL LIST GmbH-Mehdi Mehrgou, Julian Pohn, Bernhard Graf, Christoph Priestner
AVL Software and Functions Gmbh-Mathias Deiml
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1501
To be published on 2020-06-03 by SAE International in United States
By developing more electric vehicles more and more focus are to the noise and vibration from Electric Drive unit. Here a high-speed E-axle for premium class vehicle is being developed up to 30,000 rpm, with high power density and lightweight design which introduce new challenges. Benchmarking of different E-axle and vehicles lead to targets which can be used at the begin of development as subsystem targets. This paper shows first how these targets like tonal noise can be simulated. Then the CAE method is used to optimize the source and structure to improve the NVH. Different aspects like torque ripple, electric whine, gears whine and mounting are discussed.