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Impact of Vehicle Electrification on Brake Design

Maruti Suzuki India, Ltd.-Vipul Gupta
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2499
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Electric vehicles have come full circle from being primary vehicle type in 19th century (much before IC powered vehicles) to 21st century where major stake holders in mobility have announced plans towards vehicle electrification. Apart from battery & powertrain system, braking system is area which will undergo major changes because of vehicle electrification. But Why? Major keywords are regenerative braking, increased vehicle weight, no or insufficient vacuum from engine and silent powertrains. This paper tries to outline potential impact on hydraulic brake system & its component design for M1 and N1 category of four wheelers with advent of vehicle electrification. Needless to say extent of change will vary depending upon extent of electrification and extent of recuperation during regenerative braking. Extent of electrification depends upon whether vehicle is range extender type hybrid vehicle, plug in hybrid vehicle, battery electric vehicle, fuel cell vehicle etc. Extent of electrification defines in turn extent of recuperation possible, extent of increase in vehicle weight, availability of vacuum and NVH of powertrains. Extent of recuperation is constrained by motor generator…
 

Performance of Switched Reluctance Motor for Small Electric Vehicle in Urban Mobility

ARAI-Yogesh Krishan Bhateshavar
ARAI Academy-Vignesh S, Mohammad Rafiq Agrewale, Kamalkishore Vora
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2501
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Small electric vehicles are challenging in nature while designing the power train and especially the mounting of batteries within the volume available. In this research, power train of small electric vehicle is designed and it is compared with the electric vehicles. The designed vehicle should meet the requirements of urban car so that it can be preferred in urban mobility. Emphasis is given on studying performance parameters such as motor speed, torque for different urban driving cycles by altering the motor and its no. of poles. Battery pack is designed to fit under the front hood of the vehicle whereas motor is fitted at the rear. Range is estimated using Simulink and it is validated with mathematical calculation using Peukert method performed in MATLAB. It is concluded that the designed vehicle with Switched Reluctance Motor 6/4 configuration of 15 kW, 110 Nm is sufficient to meet the urban car in 2020 targets. NCA battery is preferred for range improvement. Retro fitment is given higher priority while designing battery pack.
 

Aerodynamic analysis of electric passenger car using wind turbine concept at front end

ARAI Academy-Snehil Mendiratta, Sugat Sharma
Automotive Research Association of India-Mohammad Rafiq Agrewale, Kamalkishore Vora
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2396
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Electric passenger car with floor battery usually have its front boot space empty and the space is used as additional luggage storage. This space can be utilized to capture the wind energy and generate electricity. Based on this, the objective of the work is to perform an aerodynamic analysis of an electric passenger car using wind turbine placed at the front. Active front grill shutters will be used to optimize the aerodynamic drag at different vehicle speeds. Initially the aerodynamic analysis of a basic electric car model is performed and then it is validated with the scaled model by using wind tunnel testing. The modified model is designed with wind turbines and with add-on-devices - vortex generator, spoiler and diffuser and then simulated. Based on the simulation carried out in ANSYS Fluent, our scaled down optimized model is fabricated and tested in Wind Tunnel for validation. A successful reduction in the Drag Coefficient by 5.9% is achieved.
 

Determining the State Of Health [SOH] of Li Ion cell

Sushant Manohar Mutagekar
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2579
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
“NuGen Mobility Summit-2019” Paper Title : Determining the State Of Health [SOH] of Li Ion cell Authors: Sushant Mutagekar, Ashok Jhunjhunwala, Prabhjot Kaur Objective Cells age with life. This aging is dependant on various factors like charging/discharging rates, DOD of operation and operating temperature. As the cell ages it undergoes power fade (ability to deliver required power at particular State of Charge [SOC]) and capacity fade (the charge storage capacity of cell). In an Electric Vehicle it is important to know what power shall be demanded from a battery irrespective of what its current SOC is and number of cycles it has undergone. With minimal accuracy and less computational power, it is difficult for a Battery Management System [BMS] to accurately determine SOH; the paper proposes a a precise model that may help. Methodology To understand different cells aging at different conditions, an experiment was setup to simulate various conditions of a cell. • Cycling: Cells of different form factors were cycled continuously at different ambient temperatures, different discharge rates and Depth of discharges. •…
 

Low Voltage Powertrain in Light Electric Vehicles

DEKI ELECTRONICS-Shubham Rai
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2467
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Engineering objective Light Electric Vehicles (LEV) with Li-ion batteries suffer from short battery life and poor efficiency, due to low grade electronics. Battery management systems (BMS) cannot always keep the pack in balance, and after cell voltages drift, capacity of the pack diminishes and some cells may destruct, causing a fire. The paper describes a novel approach to LEV powertrains using parallel connected battery cells & control methodology that keep cells in balance naturally, thereby eliminating BMS and hence safer to use. Li-Ion cells with different chemistries can be used and superior thermal management reduces temperature rise, resulting in longer battery life. Methodology Based on the original invention by the author, the system circuit schematics was designed and simulated using OrCAD PSpice. After obtaining results from the simulation, the first prototype device was constructed and tested in laboratory. Heat mapping and thermo couples were used to find hot spots and improve the efficiency, at the same time creating a thermal pattern that was easy to cool. Different components were tested to find the most efficient…
 

Analysis Of GaN Based BLDC Motor Drive For Automotive Application

Sudhanshu Telrandhe-Sudhanshu harish Telrandhe
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2471
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Objective Automotive sector is rapidly moving towards electric vehicle. BLDC motor is gaining popularity in the field of electric vehicle due to its high torque to weight ratio and simple control. In this paper we will focus on Switching loss characterization of 3 kW GaN based BLDC drive for electric vehicle. To improve efficiency of drive gallium-nitride based power transistor is used instead of Si MOSFET. GaN devices enable the design of inverter at higher frequencies with improved power density and efficiency as compared to traditional Si MOSFETs. Methodology In this paper commercially available GaN devices compared with Si MOSFETs. The power devices, which are selected for the performance comparison, are EPC2022 GaN by EPC, GS61008P GaN by Gan System and SiDR668DP Si MOSFET by Vishay. The Switching losses analytically predicted in MATHCAD tool and then compared with SPICE simulation losses. Double pulse test circuit is used to find out power losses of power transistors. This double pulse test carried out for two different GaN devices from two manufacturers and one traditional Si mosfet device…
 

Usage of Telematics Data in Advance Powertrain Development

Honda Cars India Pvt Ltd-Anurag Anurag, Mohit Singhal, Isao Chiba, Kouji Okayasu
Honda Cars India Pvt, Ltd.-Shubham Garg
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2438
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
To achieve accuracy in model development with large scale customer actual data in low cost and limited time usage of telematics system was adopted. Honda’s OBD II diagnostic connecting device Honda Connect was used as transceiver for this telematics system which was used as an accessory in Honda vehicles. Data collected with this device with large sample size and regional diversity across India was used in product development for Honda System. Control system development for BSVI vehicles, Idle start stop hardware specificaton selection and Battery electric vehicle target range study was done with Honda Connect Data.
 

Design improvements in advanced automotive batteries using AI

International Centre For Automotive Tech.-Devesh Pareek Sachin
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2505
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Introduction: The advent of electric mobility is changing the conventional mobility techniques and with this comes challenges to improve the performance of battery to optimize power consumption in electric vehicles. Objective: This paper would focus on the optimization of battery performance incoherent with vehicle power consumption behavior in terms of efficiency using decision-making ability based on given input signals
 

Review of architecture and control strategies of Hybrid Electric and Fuel Cell Technology for Automotive Application

ARAI-Rakesh Vilasrao Mulik
VIT Universtity-Senthil Kumar Senthilkumar
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2509
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Well-functioning and efficient transport sector is a requirement for economic and social development in the 21st century. Another side of this transport sector is responsible for a many negative social and environmental effects, like a significant contribution to global greenhouse gas emissions, air pollution and reduction in fossil fuels resources. It is need of time to shift to a greener and low carbon economy and for that it is necessary to improve the ways in which energy is produced and used. Other energy sources like battery, fuel cells (FC), supercapacitors (SC) and photovoltaic cells (PV) are the alternative solutions to the conventional internal combustion engines (ICE) for automobiles. Development of Hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) along with other cleaner vehicle technologies like Fuel cell electric vehicles (FCV), battery electric vehicles are continuously increasing in the list of green energy options. This paper presents a comprehensive review on various control strategies and Energy Management Systems (EMS) proposed and developed for HEVs. This paper revisits architecture of HEVs and different types of HEVs. An optimum control strategy for…
 

Non-linear dynamic Modeling, Simulation and Control of Five-Phase 10/8 Switched Reluctance Motor for Electric Vehicle Application

College of Engineering Pune-Rahul Muley
Hella India Automotive Private Limited-Ravi Marravula
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2473
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
The SRM is gaining much interest for EVs due to its rare-earth-free characteristic and excellent performance. SRM possess several advantages such as low cost, high efficiency, high power density, fault-tolerant and it can produce extended constant power region, and this makes SRM as viable alternative over conventional PM drives. Objective: The objective of this paper is to establish proof of theoretical concepts related to SRM. The key to achieve an effective SRM modeling is to use a methodology that allow the nonlinearity of its magnetic characteristics to be represented while maximizing the simulation speed. This paper represents how magnetization data obtained from FEA in the form of look up tables is most appropriate way to represent SRM model. In this paper, performance analysis of SRM is done with the help of Open loop and Closed loop MATLAB simulations. These dynamic simulations of SRM will assist in understanding behavior of SRM in various loading and speed conditions. Methodology: The machine geometry and design are first completed in ANSYS Maxwell 2-D software. Then Non-linear magnetization data is…