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Design of electric motor using coupled electromagnetic and structural analysis and optimization

Altair Engineering-Numair Mazgaonkar, Linus Francis Fernandes
Automotive Accessories-Mazharul Chowdhury
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-0937
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Vehicle architecture in existing vehicles is changing continuously due to the need for increasing vehicle electrification. Electric motors have helped sustain this requirement. Traditional internal combustion engines are being replaced or coupled with traction motors or in-wheel motor systems in the full or hybrid electric vehicles. With the use of electric motor in a vehicle, several parts can be reduced. This leads to reduced packaging size and complexity. Also, CO2 emissions are reduced, and overall efficiency is increased. But the task of designing an electric motor which is which assembled in a vehicle could be quite complex. The design of an electric motor can affect the durability, and noise and vibration characteristic of the vehicle structure to which it is connected. The design of the vehicle structure to which the motor attaches should be able sustain the magnetic torque generated by the motor. Electromagnetic forces generated on the stator of an electric motor affect the vibration characteristic of the motor casings and structure to which it connects. In an internal combustion powered vehicle, engines contribute…

Design of an Electric Drive Transmission for a Formula Student Race Car

Gavin White, Geoffrey Cunningham, Darryl Doyle
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1295
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
This paper presents a methodology used to configure an electric drive system for a Formula Student car and the detailed design of a transmission for in-hub motor placement. Various options for the size, number and placement of electric motors were considered and a systematic process was undertaken to determine the optimum configuration and type of motor required. The final configuration selected had four 38 kW in-hub motors connected through a 14.8:1 reduction transmission to 10” wheels. Preliminary design of the transmission design indicated that the overall gear ratio would be best achieved with a two-stage reduction, and in this work an offset primary spur stage coupled to a planetary second stage was chosen. Detailed design and validation of the transmission was conducted in Ricardo SABR and GEAR, using a duty cycle derived from an existing internal combustion Formula Student car. The analysis was conducted in line with ISO 6336 and permitted the examination of the stresses in gear teeth and the prediction of gear and bearing life. A detailed design was proposed with due regard…

Performance simulation for energy management considering derating effects of electrified vehicles

Magna Steyr Fahrzeugtechnik AG & Co. KG-Michael Martin
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-0351
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
One scope of work for energy management of electrified vehicles is the powertrain dimensioning in early development phases. In current development processes only dynamic short term or stationary long term maneuvers for powertrain dimensioning are considered. Therefore, requirements can be already defined for peak and continuous operation for electric motors and the traction battery, but not for the transition in-between. Based on analysis of benchmark vehicles and the driving of more realistic load cases it is noticeable that also dynamic long term maneuvers become interesting for the end customer. The derating behavior of the electric powertrain components must be considered, especially for such maneuvers. This means in detail the transition between peak and continuous operation. Therefore, this aspect requires a simulation model considering dynamic derating effects for early development phases. Initially, benchmark vehicle are equipped with measurement devices and standardized maneuvers are driven with the vehicles on a chassis dyno to bring the vehicle into derating status. The derating behavior on system level describing the transition from peak to continuous operation is derived based on…

Development of Electric Oil Pump in Hybrid Vehicle based on BLAC Motor and AUTOSAR Platform

ETAS Korea-Hojeong Yoo
Hyundai & Kia Motor Corp.-Gyeongcheol Kim
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-0765
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Traditional hybrid vehicles operated two types of oil pump, mechanical for combustion engine and electrical for electric motor, to supply oil pressure for automatic transmission in each power source. New hybrid vehicles has only one electrical pump to reduce system volume and to improve fuel efficiency. Purposes of this study are to make standardization of firmware development process for Oil Pump Unit (OPU) and Electric Oil Pump (EOP) and to apply BLAC (BrushLess AC) motor instead of BLDC (BrushLess DC) motor. In old-fashioned non-Operating System (OS) firmware, it was convenient to calculate control timing for motor control, however the firmware was deeply dependent to specific MCU. In other words, much of efforts and time are needed if new MicroController Unit (MCU) were applied. In this study, new standard development process for MCU firmware can be built up based on AUTomotive Open System ARchitecture (AUTOSAR) platform by developing specific motor Complex Device Driver (CDD). In existing system, the OPU supplied with high-voltage from battery drives the BLDC motor driven with three-phase block commutation method through the…

CVT, promising solutions for Electrification Benefits of the pushbelt variator in terms of costs, comfort and efficiency

Bosch Transmission Technology B.V.-Francis Van der Sluis, Luc Romers, Gert-Jan Van Spijk, Ingmar Hupkes
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-0359
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
The single gear transmission of electric vehicles (EV) puts hard requirements on the electric motor and battery to enable the full characteristics as offered by the internal combustion engine such as driving large distances at higher speed or towing a trailer. EV developers are facing several challenges in extending driving range, reducing recharge times and finding a performance and efficiency compromise between low speed and high-speed conditions. This research proposes a combination of a dedicated CVT and e-motor that offers opportunities to overcome these challenges. The result is a cost effective and efficient solution where the surplus cost for the CVT is recovered within the powertrain by lowering the cost of the electric components, cooling system and battery. A CVT reduces the maximum torque and speed requirement of the electric motor, which enables a reduced size and cost of the active parts. The combination of a downsized e-motor and a pushbelt CVT can deliver the good performance that EV-consumers expect from their vehicles. This paper combines the results of research into various topics to confirm…

Model-based pitch control for distributed drive electric vehicle

Tongji University-Yize Yu, Lu Xiong, Zhuoping Yu, Yuye Hou
Tongji Universtiy-Xing Yang, Bo Leng
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-0451
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
On the dual-motor electric vehicle, which is driven by two electric motors mounted on front and rear axles respectively, longitudinal dynamic control and electro-dynamic braking can be realized by controlling the torque of front and rear axle motors respectively. Suspension displacement is related to the wheel torque, thus the pitch of vehicle body can be influenced by changing the torque distribution ratio. The pitch of the body has an important influence on the vehicle comfort, which occurs mainly during acceleration and braking progress. Traditionally active suspension is adopted to control the pitch of body. Instead, in this paper an ideal torque distribution strategy is developed to limit the pitch during acceleration and braking progress. This paper firstly explores the relationship between the torque distribution and the body pitch through the simulation and the real vehicle test, which reveals the feasibility of the vehicle comfort promotion by optimizing the torque distribution coefficient. A two-degree-of-freedom semi-vehicle model is established according to the actual vehicle parameters. Based on the vehicle model, the control system is established to minimize…

Conceptual Design and Analysis of Hybrid Torque-Vectoring Differential(H-TD)

Industrial Technology Research Institute-Yun-Jui Chung
National Taiwan Univ.-Cheng-Kai Lin, Po-Jen Cheng, Tyng Liu
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-0333
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
This study proposes a motor-controlled torque-vectoring differential equipped with electric hybrid functionality, hereinafter referred to as H-TD (Hybrid Torque-vectoring Differential). The mechanism of H-TD consists of an open differential, a planetary gearset, an electric motor, a clutch brake, and a clutch. The main difference between H-TD and preciously published TVD (Torque Vectoring Differential) systems is that it uses the electric motor to be able to not only distribute torque between output shafts, but also provide additional hybrid power. Hence, H-TD provides the possibility to integrate multiple functions into a single system. Furthermore, H-TD can be utilized in both hybrid electric vehicles and electric ones. Firstly, the constitution of H-TD mechanism is introduced, and three operation modes of the system, control strategy, as well as the dynamic models for the system are presented. Secondly, after considering the possible design requirements and the possible powertrain configurations of H-TD on four-wheeled vehicles, the feasible design parameters of the system are obtained and evaluated. After completing the conceptual design of H-TD, this study uses a numerical simulation program prepared…

Integration of an ORC Waste Heat Recovery with Electrification and Supercharging through Use of a Planetary Gear System for a Class 8 Tractor Application

FEV North America, Inc.-Satyum Joshi, Mufaddel Dahodwala, Erik Koehler, FNU Dhanraj, Michael Franke, Dean Tomazic
Michigan Technological Univ-Jeffrey Naber
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-0229
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
A novel approach to the integration of turbocompounding, electrification and supercharging technologies was previously presented by FEV to reduce fuel consumption in a heavy-duty diesel engine. In the development of the ITES FEV applied a turbocompound turbine as the means for waste heat recovery. In a new approach a waste heat recovery expander is applied in place of the turbocompound unit. This configuration continues to provide a powersplit integration of the applied technologies, helping to achieve optimal management of power flow. As with the original ITES, this new approach delivers a reduction in both expense and space claim while improving the overall system efficiency in comparison to the independent implementation of each of these individual technologies. As with the original ITES, the approach is enabled through the application of a planetary gear system. However in this configuration an organic Rankine cycle (ORC) expander is connected to the sun gear while the secondary compressor remains connected to the ring gear and the electric motor/generator is again connected to the carrier gear. The planetary gear system is…

Pure Electric Vehicles Simulation Using Powertrain Energy Estimator Tool

IAV Automotive Engineering Inc.-Salem Al-Assadi, Jason McConnell
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-0367
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
This paper* presents the results of simulation using the IAV Powertrain Energy Estimator (PEE) tool developed to evaluate the performance of Pure Electric Vehicles (PEV’s). This tool uses basic physics calculations based on the available vehicle parameters and measured components performance to model any conceptual PEV’s. It calculates the predicated torques, speeds, voltages, efficiency and power passed from one component to other and save all the simulation results in database for further user’s analysis. This PEE tool is a model based simulations and it’s flexible enough to operate on most computers in commercially available MATLAB/Simulink graphical/objective-oriented program. The advantages of using PEE tool is to simplify the usage and the development of PEV’s and their powertrain models simulation in Matlab/Simulink environments. The models of all vehicle components can be easily created and updated on-line from various files loaded with the new component parameters and saved all changes to the model. This paper also presents the estimations of the maximum capacity powers required for the electric motor/battery and evaluate the required final drive ratio. The estimations…

Thermal Management of a Hybrid Vehicle Using a Heat Pump

Toyota Motor Corporation-Kei Okamoto, Hidefumi Aikawa, Minoru Ohmikawa, Kunihiko Hayashi
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-0502
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
This paper presents the thermal management of a hybrid vehicle (HV) by using a heat pump system in cold weather. The advantage of an HV is a high efficiency of the vehicle system since an electric motor and an engine are coupled and optimally controlled. However, in the conventional HV, we see the fuel economy degradation in cold weather because delivering heat to the passenger cabin by using an engine results in a low efficiency of the vehicle system. To improve the fuel economy degradation, in this study, a heat pump is used and combined with an engine for the thermal management. The heat pump with an electrically driven compressor pumps heat from ambient into a water-cooled condenser. The heat which is generated by the engine and the heat pump is delivered to the engine and the passenger cabin because the engine needs to warm up quickly to reduce the emission and the cabin needs heat for thermal comfort. To control the heat flow from the engine and the heat pump, a shut-off valve is…