Your Selections

Electric motors
Show Only

Collections

File Formats

Content Types

Dates

Sectors

Topics

Authors

Publishers

Affiliations

Committees

Events

Magazine

   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Thermal Modeling of DC/AC Inverter for Electrified Powertrain Systems

FCA US LLC-Meng Li, Bruce Geist
Gotion, Inc.-Fan He
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1384
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
A DC-to-AC main Power Inverter Module (PIM) is one of the key components in electrified powertrain systems. Accurate thermal modeling and temperature prediction of a PIM is critical to the design, analysis, and control of a cooling system within an electrified vehicle. PIM heat generation is a function of the electric loading applied to the chips and the limited heat dissipation within what is typically compact packaging of the Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT) module inside the PIM. This work presents a thermal modeling approach for a 3-phase DC/AC PIM that is part of an automotive electrified powertrain system. Heat generation of the IGBT/diode pairs under electric load is modeled by a set of formulae capturing both the static and dynamic losses of the chips in the IGBT module. A thermal model of the IGBT module with a simplified liquid cooling system generates temperature estimates for the PIM. Temperatures of chips, baseplates, and sinks are predicted from electric input loads. A case study is provided in wh ich the PIM thermal model is coupled with…
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Integrated Regenerative Braking System and Anti-lock Braking System for Hybrid Electric Vehicles & Battery Electric Vehicles

Ford Motor Company-Yixin Yao, Yanan Zhao, Mark Yamazaki
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0846
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Regenerative braking in hybrid electric vehicles is a critical feature to achieve the maximum fuel economy benefit of hybridization. In order to maximize energy recuperation, it is desired to enable regenerative braking during an Anti-lock Braking System (ABS) event. For certain driveline configurations with a single electric motor connected to the axle shaft through an open differential, it has been observed that the regenerative braking torque can increase the wheel slip during the ABS operation, and significantly impact vehicle dynamics. This negative effect introduced by regen braking during ABS control may also lead to hardware failures, such as breaking a drive shaft. This paper describes development of an integrated regenerative braking and ABS control for hybrid and electric drive vehicles, referred to as RBS-ABS Event Control. This control is intended for drivelines containing a single electric motor connected to the axle shaft through an open differential. The design objectives are to recuperate the maximum amount of kinetic energy during an ABS event, and to provide no degraded anti-lock control behavior as seen in vehicles with…
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Fuel consumption on different drive cycles: A unified approach based on average power/weight

Ford Motor Company-Patrick Phlips, William Ruona, Thomas Megli, Mrudula Orpe
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1278
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
In previous work we have shown that fuel consumption on a particular drive cycle is proportional to traction work, with an offset for powertrain losses. The finding applies to different drive cycles, but with different offsets. Following Soltic (2011), it is shown that if fuel usage and traction work are both expressed in terms of cycle average power, a wide range of drive cycles collapse to a single transfer function. Data for vehicles of different weights further collapses when normalized for weight, i.e. by working in power/weight (P/W). The fuel P/W is primarily a function of traction P/W, and secondarily of displacement/weight. The useful work or power definition is then expanded beyond the traction power to include electrical power for customer functions, and power to drive the air conditioning. With this expanded definition the linear powertrain transfer function can be applied not only to strictly defined regulatory drive cycles and procedures, but also to ‘real driving’ conditions that cover a much broader range of situations. When applied to hybrid electric vehicles, the method clearly shows…
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Modeling, Validation and Control Strategy Development of a Hybrid Super Sport Car based on Lithium Ion Capacitors

Automobili Lamborghini Spa-Riccardo Parenti, Maurizio Reggiani
University of Bologna-Alessandro Franceschi, Nicolo Cavina, Enrico Corti
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0442
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Today, the contribution of the transportation sector on greenhouse gases is evident. The fast consumption of fossil fuels and its impact on the environment have given a strong impetus to the development of vehicles with better fuel economy. Hybrid electric vehicles fit into this context with different targets, starting from the reduction of emissions and fuel consumption, but also for performance and comfort enhancement. Lamborghini has recently invested in the development of a hybrid super sport car, due to performance and comfort reasons. Aventador series gearbox is an Independent Shift Rod gearbox with a single clutch and during gear shifts, as all the single clutch gearbox do, it generates a torque gap. To avoid the additional weight of a Dual Clutch Transmission, a 48V Electric Motor has been connected to the wheels, in a P3 configuration, to fill the torque gap, and to habilitate regenerative braking and electric boost functions. This paper discusses the usage of a control-oriented vehicle and powertrain model to analyze the performance of the first Lithium Ion Capacitor-based hybrid V12 by…
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

An investigation into the Traction and Anti-Lock Braking System Control Design

Ford Motor Company-Ming Kuang, Rajit Johri, Jose Velazquez Alcantar
University of California Davis-Louis Filipozzi, Francis Assadian
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0997
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Wheel slip control is crucial to active safety control systems such as Traction Control System (TCS) and Anti-lock Braking System (ABS) that ensure the vehicle safety by maintaining the wheel slip in a stable region. For this reason, a wide variety of control methods has been implemented by both researchers and in the industry. Moreover, the use of new electro-hydraulic, electro-mechanical brakes and in-wheel electric motors allow for a finer control of the slip, which should further improve the vehicle dynamics and safety. In this paper, we compare two methods for wheel slip control: a loop-shaping Youla parametrization method, and a sliding mode control method. Each controller is designed based on a simple single wheel system. The benefits and drawbacks of both methods are adressed. Finally, the controller performance and stability robustness are then compared based on several metrics in a simulation using a high-fidelity vehicle model with several driving scenarios.
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

EDGE-QUALITY EFFECTS ON MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF STAMPED NON-ORIENTED ELECTRICAL STEEL

General Motors LLC-Peggy Jones, Margarita Thompson, Yew Sum Leong, Paul Crepeau
General Motors Technical Center India-Virupakshappa Lakkonavar, Swaroop Kavi
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1072
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The market for electric vehicles and hybrid electric vehicles is expected to grow in the coming years, which is increasing interest in design optimization of electric motors for automotive applications. Under demanding duty cycles, the moving part within a motor, the rotor, may experience varying stresses induced by centrifugal force, a necessary condition for fatigue. Rotors contain hundreds of electrical steel laminations produced by stamping, which creates a characteristic edge structure comprising rollover, shear and tear zones, plus a burr. Fatigue properties are commonly reported with specimens having polished edges. Since surface condition is known to affect fatigue strength, an experiment was conducted to determine the effect of sample preparation in stamped specimens. Tensile properties were unaffected by polishing. In contrast, polishing was shown to increase fatigue strength by approximately 10-20% in the range of 105-107 cycles to failure.
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Gasoline particulate filter applications for plug-in hybrid and traditional cars

BYD Auto Industry Co., Ltd.-Qinglian Zhang, Yinsheng Liao, Hongzhou Zhang
Corning Co., Ltd.-Lei Zhang, Suhao He
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1430
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Abstract Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) and battery electric vehicles (BEVs) are considered as primary paths in China to meet corporate average fuel consumption (CAFC) credit and new energy vehicle (NEV) credit regulations. Many original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) develop PHEVs based on their internal combustion engine (ICE) base models without significant modification on engine side. Traditional ICE vehicles are solely driven by engines, while PHEVs can be driven by engine or electric motors, independently or together, depending on powertrain architecture and operating strategy. PHEVs may have more PN/PM emissions. To meet CN6 regulation, gasoline particulate filters (GPFs) are widely used for both PHEV and traditional cars. It is important to investigate the impacts of hybrid powertrain on gasoline particulate filter applications. This paper compares GPF application development for a traditional BYD Tang ICE base model and a BYD Tang PHEV model. Same aftertreatment design with slightly different layout is used to cover both models to meet PM/PN/gas emission standards. GPF soot loading and burning behavior are compared. There are more challenges on soot management on…
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Driveline Torque Profiling Based on Speed Estimation for xEVs

Hyundai Motor Group-Jiwon Oh, Jeong Soo Eo, Sung Jae Kim, Dohee Kim
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0964
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
This paper suggests a method to formulate the driveline torque command for vehicles that use electric motor as part of their sources for providing driving power. The shape of the driveline torque profile notably influences the drivability criteria of the vehicle, and among them, driveline NVH and responsiveness are often tradeoffs for each other. Hence the real-time computed driveline torque profiling (DTP) enables formulation of the effective torque command at any given time to simultaneously satisfy both NVH and responsiveness criteria. Such task is fulfilled by using a shaft distortion prediction model based on a motor speed observer. A compensation torque command based on the amount of shaft distortion is formulated to prevent the shaft distortion with minimum effort. The effectiveness of the suggested driveline torque profiling method is verified using an actual vehicle, and the vehicle NVH and responsiveness are numerically assessed for comparison.
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

New Integrated Electromagnetic and NVH Analyses of Induction Traction Motors for Hybrid and Electric Vehicle Applications

General Motors LLC-Song He, Jingchuan Li, Michael Muir, Gautam GSJ, Bhyri Rajeswara Rao
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0413
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Electric motor whine is one of the main noise sources of hybrid and electric vehicles. Compared with permanent magnetic motors, characterization and prediction of traction induction motor is particularly challenging due to high computational costs to calculate the electro-magnetic (EM) forces as noise source, as well as motor slip and harmonic orders change at different torque/speed operating conditions. Historically, induction motor NVH is designed qualitatively by optimizing motor topology including rotor bar, pole number and slot counts etc. A new integrated electromagnetic and NVH analysis method is developed and successfully validated at all dominant motor orders for an automotive traction motor, which enables quantitative prediction of induction motor N&V performance in early design stage: First, a new Equivalent Rotor Current Method (ERCM) is proposed that significantly reduces the computational time required to calculate the EM force over transient response. Dominant force orders are compared with conventional EM finite-element (FE) results and the new ERCM method shows good correlation. Next, a High-Fidelity (Hi-Fi) mechanical FE model is developed for the induction motor stator, with less than…
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

“Omega” fin design for enhanced cooling capability on IGBTs

Senior Flexonics-Brian Costello, Ryan Collins
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0597
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Vehicle electrification is a rapidly growing and developing technology. As with any new technology there are hurdles that must be overcome as development marches forward. Overcoming these obstacles will require new and innovative solutions. One area of electrification that is quickly developing is the ability to convert voltage from AC to DC and from DC to AC. This is important since the battery pack outputs a DC voltage which must be converted to AC to drive the electric motor. The reverse is true when braking, the AC voltage generated by the electric motor is converted to DC in order to charge the battery. The conversion of voltage back and forth is controlled through the use of an inverter. The inverter uses Insulated-Gate Bipolar Transistors or IGBTs which generate heat while in operation. As the IGBTs heat up there efficiency goes down. In order to maintain a high level of efficiency the circuity can be directly cooled through the use of a heat sink. A unique “omega” fin design has been developed for use in IGBT…