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Suppression of Eddy Current Loss in Rectangular Winding of High Power-Density IPMSM Using Concentrated Winding Stator for More Electric Aircraft

Hokkaido University-Sho Manabe, Masatsugu TAKEMOTO
IHI Corporation-Yosuke AKAMATSU, Takehiro JIKUMARU, Fuminori Suzuki, Hitoshi Oyori
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1910
To be published on 2019-09-16 by SAE International in United States
In order to respond to worldwide environmental problems such as global warming and demands for saving fuel cost of aircrafts from the aviation industry, researches on More Electric Aircraft (MEA) are actively conducted. Conventional hydraulic, pneumatic, and mechanical power sources from aero engines for flight actuators or auxiliary systems are replaced by electric motors in MEA. Interior permanent magnet synchronous motors (IPMSMs) are widely used in various applications for high power density and high efficiency. It is considered that rectangular windings can greatly improve the slot factor, thereby making it possible to increase the power density of IPMSMs. Additionally, in the concentrated winding stator, the coil end can be made shorter than that of the distributed winding stator, which is possible to downsize the stator in the axial direction. In this paper, a high power density concentrated winding IPMSMs which employs rectangular windings for MEA is simulated by 2D-FEA. However, this simulation result reveals that considerable amount of eddy current loss generated in the windings of the motor. Excessive eddy current loss in the windings…
 
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Structural Vibration and Acoustic Analysis of a 3-Phase AC Induction Motor

Peyman Poozesh
Kettering University-Anand Krishnasarma, Allan Taylor, Javad Baqersad
Published 2019-06-05 by SAE International in United States
This paper aims to study the NVH and acoustic performance of a 3-phase AC induction motor in order to develop an approach to reduce the magnetic component of noise from an electric motor in an electric vehicle (EV). The final goal of this project is to reduce the magnetic component of sound from the motor by making modifications to the end bracket of the motor housing.EVs are being considered the future of mobility mainly due to the fact that they are environment-friendly. As many companies are already investing in this technology, electric drives are set to become extremely popular in the years to come. The heart of an EV is its motor. Modern electric vehicles are quiet, furthermore with the lack of an IC engine to mask most sounds from other components, the sound from the electric motor and other auxiliary parts become more prominent. The primary source of electromagnetic noise in a motor arises from magnetic flux variations in the air gap which interfere with the resonant frequencies of the stator core. These flux…
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Noise and Vibration End-of-Line Production Testing and Analysis Challenges

Bruel & Kjaer North America, Inc.-Chris Moon
Published 2019-06-05 by SAE International in United States
Theoretical modeling continues to play a larger role in noise and vibration engineering; however, until products are perfectly made, there will be a need to evaluate their end of the production line performance. Manufacturing production of a wide range of items has classically involved some amount of subjective and/or evolved objective quality testing along, or at the end of the production line. This testing can have goals of determining product safety, durability, functionality, and/or the vibration/sound quality. A vibration-based measurement approach is frequently used for many of those goals. Often, many modern products utilize some combination of electric motors, internal combustion engines, and power transmission rotational components. The end-of-line testing for many of these rotational components is after many years now heavily refined in the measurement and analysis methods, and the separation of good, bad and marginally bad samples may not always be challenging. It is frequently the non-standard types of products or unique operating conditions, either as subcomponents or assemblies, which may provide unique challenges to the typical measurement and analysis methods. Additionally, depending…
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Target Development for Transmission and Electric Motor NVH

FEV North America, Inc.-Todd Tousignant, Alex Ford, Kiran Govindswamy
Ford Motor Company-Justin Dech, Frederick Vanhaaften, Matthew Hettenhouse
Published 2019-06-05 by SAE International in United States
It is a common practice to conduct NVH fingerprinting and benchmarking assessments at the powertrain level, to understand source level noise and vibration. To assess the NVH influence of engine, e-motor, and transmission, sub-system testing is often conducted in addition to full powertrain testing. These powertrain or sub-system investigations provide valuable information regarding the status of “source” level excitations relative to targets and / or competitive powertrains. In the case of transmissions and e-machines, it is particularly important to understand source level tonal content and how this will be perceived at the vehicle level. However, variation in component design results in differences in order content, which complicates the process of objectively comparing multiple products.Multiple methods are presented here for characterizing tonal content of transmission and e-machines, based on assessments conducted in a component hemi-anechoic dynamometer test cell. Ultimately, sound quality is assessed by the customer at the vehicle level. Accordingly, the methods developed incorporate means of cascading results between component level and vehicle level. Furthermore, since the perception of tonal noise content is dependent upon…
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Psychoacoustic Order Tonality Calculation

HEAD acoustics GmbH-Julian Becker, Roland Sottek
Published 2019-06-05 by SAE International in United States
Quantifying tonalities in technical sounds according to human perception is a task of growing importance. The psychoacoustic tonality method, published in the 15th edition of the ECMA-74 standard, is a new method that is capable of calculating the perceived tonality of a signal. Other methods, such as Prominence Ratio or Tone-to-Noise Ratio do not consider several essential psychoacoustic effects. The psychoacoustic tonality is based on a model of human hearing and thus is able to model human perception better than other methods. The algorithm described in ECMA-74 calculates tonality over time and frequency. In practice, tonalities often originate from rotating components, for example, parts of an electric motor. In these cases, quantification of the tonality of orders is often more interesting than the tonality over frequency. In this paper, an extension of the psychoacoustic tonality according to ECMA-74 is presented. With this extension, it is possible to calculate the order tonalities by using the rotational speed characteristics of the measured signal in order to control the parameters of the auditory filter bank. Two of the…
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Sound Analysis Method for Warble Noise in Electric Actuators

General Motors-Nathan T. Parker
Published 2019-06-05 by SAE International in United States
Multiple automotive applications exist for small electric motors that are activated by vehicle occupants for various functions such as window lifts and seat adjusters. For such a motor to be described as high quality, not only should the sound it produces be low in amplitude, but it also needs to be free from pulsations and variations that might occur during its (otherwise) steady-state operation. If a motor’s sound contains pulsations or variations between 2 and 8 cycles per second, the variation is described as warble. To establish performance targets for warble noise at both the vehicle and component level a way to measure and quantify the warble noise must be established. Building on existing sound quality metrics such as loudness and pitch variation, a method is established by which processed sound data is put through a secondary operation of Fourier analysis. Thus warble can be reduced to a single value, and in this way, noise engineers have a basis to measure and report warble, and to facilitate product development with A/B comparisons. Depending on its…
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Test and Analysis of Electromagnetic Noise of an Electric Motor in a Pure Electric Car

Geely Automoile Research Institute-Qiang Kang, Perry Gu, Chao Gong
Tongji University-Shuguang Zuo
Published 2019-06-05 by SAE International in United States
Compared with the low-frequency ignition order of mechanical and combustion noise of an internal combustion engine, the noise of electric drive assembly of electric vehicles is mainly the high-frequency whining noise generated by electromagnetic forces of motors and gear meshing of reducers, as well as the high-frequency umbrella-shape noise generated by DC/AC pulse width modulation. Although the radiated sound power of these high frequency noise is far less than that of an internal combustion engine, the high frequency noise of the motor and the reducer is subjectively quite annoying. This paper studies the characteristics of electromagnetic noise of a permanent magnet synchronous motor in an electric car. By testing and analyzing of noise sources of an electric motor in the car and on a test rig, the spatial order characteristics and amplitude-frequency characteristics of the electromagnetic forces are revealed. The noise orders are multiples of the number of motor poles. The most critical order is 48th order, and its spatial order is 0th order. The peak of this 48th order is due to the stator’s…
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Open-Access Testbench Data for NVH Benchmarking of E-Machines under Electromagnetic Excitations

EOMYS Engineering-Karine Degrendele, Jean Le Besnerais
L2EP-Emile Devillers, Michel Hecquet
Published 2019-06-05 by SAE International in United States
This paper presents an experimental setup dedicated to the analysis of noise and vibration due to Maxwell magnetic forces in electrical machines, a significant NVH source in hybrid and electric vehicles traction motors. Both electromagnetic excitations and structural response of the electrical machine are simplified to provide the first public benchmark of e-NVH phenomenon (electromagnetic Noise, Vibration, Harshness).The paper first describes how the testbench is designed and tested in order to reduce as much as possible modelling and experimental uncertainties. A Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machine topology used in EV/HEV applications is used to illustrate tooth modulation effect and interaction between radial and tangential force-induced vibrations, and designed to generate the resonance of several stator structural modes with simplified electromagnetic loading (open-circuit case). A larger air gap allows the insertion of a fine search-coil network to measure time and space distribution of the air-gap flux density and resulting Maxwell stress harmonics. Accelerometers are placed on stator tooth tips to capture tooth bending motion, as well as on the outer yoke of the stator. Besides vibration measurements,…
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Determination of Vehicle Interior Noise due to Electric Motor

University of Michigan- Dearborn-John G. Cherng
Published 2019-06-05 by SAE International in United States
This paper introduces an approach that uses a statistical energy analysis (SEA) method for prediction of noise in the vehicle cabin from an electric motor sound source placed in the engine compartment. The study integrates three different physics, namely, electromagnetics, harmonics, and acoustics. A 2004 Prius permanent magnet synchronous motor with an interior permanent magnet was used for performing the integrated CAE analysis, as the motor’s design details were readily available. The Maxwell forces on the stator teeth were first calculated by an electromagnetic software package. These forces were then mapped into a finite element model of the motor stator to predict the velocity profiles on the stator frame. Velocity profiles were considered as boundary conditions to calculate sound pressure levels and the equivalent radiated sound power level in the acoustic environment. The calculated sound power was used as an input sound source to perform SEA simulation to determine sound pressure level at the driver’s right ear in the passenger compartment. A sensitivity analysis of the motor design was performed on the sound power level…
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Multiphysics Multi-Objective Optimization for Electric Motor NVH

ANSYS, Inc.-Henry Zhang, Joe Ricci, Yijiang Jia
Southeast University-Haiwei Cai
Published 2019-06-05 by SAE International in United States
Prediction and reduction of noise/vibration at the early design stage is important for motor design. Rapid design iterations require a platform where electromagnetic, structural and acoustic solvers can communicate with each other without user scripting or interventions. Based on the platform, multiple designs in a given design space need to be analyzed by distributed high performance computers automatically. To demonstrate such a multiphysics multi-objective optimization workflow, four geometrical variables for an interior permanent magnet motor are selected for optimizing the electric and acoustic performance (Figure 1). Average torque and equivalent radiated power level (ERP) are calculated for multiple design points and response surfaces are then created for the sensitivity study and optimization. Changes on the stator and rotor are adopted to directly address the source of the noise, and a much larger reduction is achieved compared to design changes on the housing only (7.3 dB vs. 0.4 dB).
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