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Engine Fuel Economy Optimization for different Hybrid Architectures using 1-D Simulation technique

Tafe Motors and Tractors Limited-Ajay Nain, Devendra Nene
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2496
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
In order to improve fuel economy of the 3.3 litre tractor model, various kinds of engine hybridization is studied. This paper presents a methodology to predict engine fuel consumption using 1-D software by coupling Ricardo Wave and Ricardo Ignite. Engine fuel consumption and emission maps are predicted using Ricardo WAVE. These maps are used as an input to IGNITE for predicting cumulative fuel consumption. There is good agreement within 10% deviation between simulated cumulative fuel consumption and experimental cumulative fuel consumption. Same calibrated model is used further for studying series hybridization, parallel P1 type and Parallel P2 type of hybridization. A design of experiment (DOE) model is run for different electric motor sizes, battery capacity and battery state of charge condition, to understand their effects on overall engine fuel consumption and cycle soot emission. Model predicts overall significant reduction in cumulative fuel consumption and soot emission. Lower soot emission will leads to smaller exhaust after-treatment size. There is trade-off between higher cost due to hybridization and lower cost due to lower after-treatment size. A cost…


IIT MANDI-Narsa Tummuru
IIT Mandi-Ankit Joshi, Arpan Gupta, Aman soni
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2485
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Abstract The electrification of conventional internal combustion engine vehicle is a need of today’s advanced world to reduce the dependency of the transportation sector on the oil and gases. It can be achieved by replacing the engine by an electric motor which is powerful enough to provide required torque. The important requirement for a vehicle to drive in the hilly region with steep corners is proper torque distribution on each wheel which is taken care by the differential system. When the friction between road and wheels are different from left to right, then the wheel with low friction contact will lose its traction on the road. These situations are unfavorable for driving a vehicle on off-road and extrema conditions like driving in muddy roads or on the ice. These problems can be overcome by providing individual power supply system to separate wheels. If the required torque can be provided to each wheel separately, then the problem can be overcome and the mechanical differential system can be avoided. The mechanical driveline is very bulky, which can…

Future hybrid Vehicles with advanced 48V electrified drive train technology to reduce Co2 emission

Mercedes-Benz R&D India Pvt Ltd-Chandrakant Palve, Pushkaraj Tilak
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2487
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Future hybrid vehicles with advanced 48V electrified drive train technology to reduce CO2 emission. Chandrakant Palve* Pushkaraj Tilak * * Mercedes-Benz Research & Development India Pvt. Ltd. Bangalore. India. Key Words: 48V, CO2, P3 Hybrid, Electrified powertrain, AMT, emission, shift comfort, motor Research and/or Engineering Questions/Objective Global automotive industry is putting effort in moving from conventional powertrain technology to hybrid & electric powertrains. This efforts plays a vital role to achieve cleaner environment, improved performance, reduced fossil-fuel dependency, low noise for meeting regulatory & customer requirements. Automotive industry is facing a challenge of meeting stringent CO2 emission targets of 95g & 175g per kilometer for passenger cars & light commercial vehicles respectively. 48V is an important stepping stone in this direction. By taking motivation from this strategic challenge, advanced 48V P3 electrified powertrain technology has been proposed. The objective of this research is a novel electrified powertrain which offers Dual Clutch Transmission (DCT) level of shift comfort in combine with CO2 benefit without additional cost and weight penalty. Methodology The present study describes a unique…

Electric hybrid system Architecture & Functional component selection criteria for application based Off-Highway segment

Ajay Nain, Devendra Nene
Hybrid Vehicle-Jaipal Singh
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2495
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Hybridization continues to be growing trend in vehicular applications. Current study shows a holistic system approach for the design & integration of the powertrain in Off-Highway tractor applications. It includes study & benchmarking of system architecture of an all-electric and diesel-electric drive systems as per application requirement. Further comprehensive study was done on functional components for an electric powertrain, which includes electric drives, batteries & controllers. Selection & design of these components was studied & component selection approach was developed for typical Off-Highway tractor application. Current study was divided into three parts. 1.Study of different Off-Highway tractor applications & selection of all-electric, series & parallel hybrid architectures as per application requirement. For Parallel hybrid configuration, Comprehensive approach was developed for selection & optimization of degree of hybridization required as per Off-Highway tractor application requirement. Architecture selection approach considers the way to take care of % increase of cost price with conventional tractor, market availability of components, Integration constraints, fuel consumption, and efficiency of transmission & smooth delivery of power as required by operator. 2.For above…

Development of Systematic Technique for Design of Electric Motor Mounting System in EV/ HEV Application

Automotive Research Association of India-Ravindra Kumar, Mayur Shimpi
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2508
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Last decade has been era of environmental awareness. Various programs have launched for making devices and appliances eco-friendly. This initiative has lead automobile industry toward hybridization and now total electrification of vehicles. Electric motor produce high frequency vibration along with high torque. Hence it needs to be isolated properly & carefully as these vibrations can damage other automobile parts. Dynamic response of electric motor is different from response of IC engines, so use of engine mounting design method is not suitable for designing mounting system for electric motor mounting system. In design of electric motor mounting, position and orientation of elastomeric mounts plays important role. Mounts used in passive vibration isolation are made up of elastomeric material which are stiff and resilient in nature. Ideal positions for elastomeric mounts are found by drawing free body diagrams (FBD) of force distribution on mount due to electric motor at various position in a single plane. Both 4- point and 3- point mounting system are designed and considered for analytical and experimental investigation of force and displacement transmissibility.…

Compensation of Signal Offset, Amplitude Imbalance and Imperfect Quadrature in Rotor Position Sensor Signals for Motor Drives

Samiksha Meshram-Samiksha Meshram
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2524
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
In recent years, the use of the electric motors in automotive applications such as electric power steering (EPS), hybrid and electric vehicles has increased. In these fields, rotor position information plays and important role in the field- oriented control concept. It performs a transformation from the stator reference frame to the rotor reference frame and vice versa. This is nothing but the Park and inverse Park transformation. They are typically used to provide accurate absolute rotor position in high-performance motor drive systems because their robustness and reliability make them particularly suited to Automotive Environment. Hence, greater accuracy of these sensor signals is required. However, in reality, the output signals include the position error in the sensor itself as well as error in the sensor signal conditioning circuits. The actual sensor signals have non ideal characteristics such as amplitude imbalance, imperfect quadrature, inductive harmonics, reference phase shift, excitation signal distortion, and disturbance signals. Due to the non-ideal characteristics of these signals, the position information of the Motor is considerably distorted. To solve this problem, the compensation…

Testing Electric Vehicle sub-systems using low cost programmable electronic load

Hella India Automotive Pvt Ltd. Pune-Ameya V Gambhir, Nekzad Doctor
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2492
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
The advancements in Electric Vehicles have introduced many complex sub-systems with demanding and sporadic power needs. For example, the current consumed by electric motor or bank of super-capacitors involve transients making them non-linear loads. Conventional test systems for load analysis mainly involved resistive loads where the rate of rise or fall of current was linear, falling short to accommodate the dynamic behavior of the Electric Vehicle loads. In this paper, we have proposed a low cost; yet effective electronic load that is independent of the battery voltage and can sink the current in any prescribed pattern with respect to time. The simulation results have shown the effectiveness of the hardware with respect to changes in temperature, aging and sudden input fluctuations. The implemented electronic load is interfaced to a desktop application to program the dynamic load behavior and the test duration. The same interface can act as data logger for long duration environmental and longevity tests. The indigenous system has proven quite useful for design validation tests and during End-of-Line testing of systems like DC-DC…

Recent trends on drivetrain control strategies and battery parameters of a hybrid electric vehicle

BITS Pilani-Sandip Deshmukh
VNR VJIET-Pavan Bharadwaja Bhaskar, Prashanth Khannan, Amjad Shaik
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-0155
To be published on 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
Environmental consciousness is being developed in each and every sector, automotive industry has concentrated in a greater manner. Reduction of tail pipe emission was concentrated and found that hybridization can ensure better results. Hybrid electric vehicle operates on electric motor as well as internal combustion engine. Battery power is one the major source of energy for driving electric motor and different battery technologies have been developed. Battery management system (BMS) controls battery parameters like State of Charge (SoC), State of Health (SoH) and Depth of Discharge (DoD) which definitely has an impact on power-torque ratings. Various drive train configurations are developed based on the power-torque requirements and size of engine/electric motor. Maintaining proper flow of energy can have better reduction in emissions, more battery life, less fuel consumption and optimum power-torque ratings. Power and torque has to be varied based on the driver’s requirement, maximum power and torque may not be required all the time and that is the area to capitalize some efficiency. Higher fuel efficiency lies in managing energy flow from various power…

Design and Development of a Semi Active Electromagnetic Suspension System under Static Loading for Lower Frequency Range

ARAI-Kiran Pralhad Wani
B.Tech Research Student ARAI Academy-Palash Agrawal, Amey Desai, Jaya Surya Mallireddy
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-0110
To be published on 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
This research paper, includes the design and development of semi active suspension system using permanent and electromagnet and its control. The combination of permanent magnets is used to withstand static load of 20 kg. The controller is used to deploy the control logic and decide the supply of the required quantity of current to the electromagnets. There are two inputs given to the controller, one of them is air gap between upper and lower magnets and second is the nature of the road profile in terms of amplitude of irregularity of the road. Based on the values of these two inputs the current supplied to the electromagnet is varied which results in variable damping force. The experimental setup for semi active suspension is developed. It includes a metallic roller fitted with irregularity similar to road profile, chain and sprocket connected to electric motor with irregularities, simulating the road irregularities, whose magnitude is sensed and given as an input to the controller. Based on this input value, the current supplied is varied as per the predefined…

Preliminary Design of Hydraulic and Pneumatic System Architectures for a Morphing Flight Control Structure

German Aerospace Center DLR-Michael Schäfer, Andreas Schäfer, Oliver Bertram
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1916
To be published on 2019-09-16 by SAE International in United States
Bionics in aeronautics has the potential to increase the performance and efficiency of aircraft significantly. Inspired by the wings of birds, morphing wing structures are extensively investigated over the last decades. The continuous adaption of the wings over a large scale of the flight envelope enables an optimization of the aerodynamic characteristics and, in this way, a reduction of the fuel consumption. Additionally, those structures could support or replace traditional flight control surfaces. Depending on the morphing technology, different systems may be suitable to actuate the morphing structure. An early inclusion of the system architecture concepts into the development of the morphing technology enables the design of an optimal system in compliance with all requirements. Therefore, this paper discusses the conceptual design of system architectures for a novel morphing wing structure that is used for flight control. The benefits of morphing structures for aircraft applications are shown and the functionality of the used morphing structure is introduced. The morphing structure was designed to be actuated by fluids and is compatible with different gases and liquids.…