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Investigation on the Dynamic Behaviour of a Torque Transmission Chain for an Innovative Hybrid Power Unit Architecture

Università degli Studi di Modena-Valerio Mangeruga, Matteo Giacopini, Saverio Barbieri, Michele Russo
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-37-0013
To be published on 2020-06-23 by SAE International in United States
In this contribution, the mechanical torque transmission between the Elecrtic Motor (EM) and the Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) of a P0 architecture hybrid power unit is analysed. In particular, the system is made up of a brand new, single-cylinder 480cc engine developed on the basis of the Ducati "959 Superquadro" V90 2-cylinders engine. The thermal engine is assisted by a custom electric motor (30 kW), powered by a Li-Ion battery pack. The Ducati "959 Superquadro" engine is chosen because of its high power-to-weight ratio, and for taking advantage of its V90 2-cylinders layout. In fact, the vertical engine head is removed and it is replaced by the electric motor directly engaged to the crankshaft using the original valvetrain transmission chain, thus achieving a very compact package. This solution could be suitable for many V-type engines and aims to obtain a small hybrid power unit for possible motorcycle/small vehicle applications. The original timing chain object of this study is a silent chain, which is commonly employed as a transmission component in hybrid power unit because it…
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Fuel Consumption and Emission Reduction for Hybrid Electric Vehicles with electrically heated Catalyst

TU Dresden-Frank Atzler
TU Muenchen-Georg Wachtmeister
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-37-0017
To be published on 2020-06-23 by SAE International in United States
Hybridization is a promising way to further reduce the CO2 emissions of passenger vehicles. However, high engine efficiencies and the reduction of engine load, due to torque assist by an electric motor, cause a decrease of exhaust gas temperature levels. This leads to an increased time to light-off of the catalysts resulting in an overall lower efficiency of the exhaust aftertreatment system. Especially in low load driving conditions, at cold ambient temperatures and on short distance drives, the tailpipe pollutant emissions are severely impacted by these low efficiency levels. To ensure lowest emissions at all driving conditions, catalyst heating methods must be used. In conventional vehicles internal combustion engine measures, e.g. late combustion can be applied. A hybrid system with an electrically heated catalyst enables further methods such as the increase of engine load, the so-called load point shifting by the electric motor or using the energy from the battery for electric catalyst heating. Since these methods result either directly or indirectly in additional fuel consumption there is a conflict of objectives between a fast…
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A Reverse Engineering Method for Powertrain Parameters Characterization Applied to a P2 Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle with Automatic Transmission

FEV Group GmbH-Alessandro Perazzo
Politecnico di Torino-Enrico Galvagno, Federico Millo, Giuseppe DiPierro, Mauro Velardocchia, Gianluca Mari
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-37-0021
To be published on 2020-06-23 by SAE International in United States
Over the next decade, CO2 legislation will be more demanding and the automotive industry has seen in vehicle electrification a possible solution. This has led to an increasing need for advanced powertrain systems and systematic model-based control approaches, along with additional complexity. This represents a serious challenge for all the OEMs. This paper describes a novel reverse engineering methodology developed to estimate relevant but unknown powertrain data required for fuel consumption-oriented hybrid electric vehicle modelling. The main estimated quantities include high-voltage battery internal resistance, electric motor and transmission efficiency maps, torque converter and lock-up clutch operating maps, internal combustion engine and electric motor mass moment of inertia, and finally front/rear brake torque distribution. This activity introduces a list of limited and dedicated experimental tests, carried out both on road and on a chassis dynamometer, aiming at powertrain characterization thanks to a suitable post-processing algorithm. In this regard, the methodology was tested on a P2 architecture Diesel Plug-in HEV equipped with a 9-speed AT. voltage and current sensors are used to measure the electrical power exchanged…
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Energy Management for Electric Vehicle Application: Energy Demand for Cabin Comfort

FCA Italy S.p.A.-Antonio Tarzia
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-37-0031
To be published on 2020-06-23 by SAE International in United States
The rapid development of CO2 reduction policies pushes an equivalent effort by the OEM to design and produce Battery Electric Vehicles (BEV) in order to lower the global CO2 emission of its fleet. The main effort has been done primarily to the electric traction architecture (electric traction motor and battery energy storage). Anyway, the BEV autonomy range is still a weak point and this is even more critical when the customer operates the air conditioning system to reach and maintain the cabin comfort. The aim of this work is to present how the cabin design have to evolve in order to allow the reduction of the energy demand by the Air conditioning system allowing the vehicle to increase the autonomy range.
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A Power Split Hybrid Propulsion System for Vehicles with Gearbox

Istituto Motori CNR-Luigi De Simio, Michele Gambino, Sabato Iannaccone
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-37-0014
To be published on 2020-06-23 by SAE International in United States
New internal combustion engines (ICE) are characterised by increasing maximum efficiency, thanks to the adoption of strategies like Atkinson cycle, downsizing, cylinder deactivation, waste heat recovery and so on. However, the best performance is confined to a limited portion of the engine map. Moreover, electric driving in urban areas is an increasingly pressing request, but battery electric vehicles use cannot be easily widespread due to limited vehicle autonomy and recharging issues. Therefore, in order to reduce ICE vehicle fuel consumption, by decoupling the ICE running from road load, as well as permit energy recovery and electric driving, hybrid propulsion systems are under development. This paper analyses a new patent solution for power split hybrid propulsion system with gearbox. The system comprises an auxiliary power unit, adapted to store and/or release energy, and a planetary gear set which is interposed between the ICE and the gearbox. The system is characterized by a further device coupled with the ICE to modulate the resistance torque, in order to use the auxiliary power unit also for regenerative braking. The…
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Efficient Modeling and Simulation of the Transverse Isotropic Stiffness and Damping Properties of Laminate Structures using the Finite Element Method

BMW Group-Vlad Somesan, Endre Barti
Fraunhofer Lbf-Thilo Bein
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1573
To be published on 2020-06-03 by SAE International in United States
The Noise Vibration and Harshness (NVH) characteristics and requirements of vehicles are changing as the automotive manufacturers turn their focus from developing and producing cars propelled by internal combustion engines (ICE) to electrified vehicles. This new strategic orientation enables them to offer products that are more efficient and environmentally friendly. Although electric powertrains have many advantages compared to their established predecessors they also produce new challenges that make it more difficult to match the new requirements especially regarding NVH. Electric motors are one of the most important sources of vibrations in electric vehicles. In order to address the new challenges in developing powertrains that match the acoustic comfort requirements of the customers and also shape the development process as efficiently as possible, car manufacturers use numerical simulation methods to identify NVH problems as early in the design process as possible. Numerically describing the dynamic properties of electric motor components such as the stator or rotor is proving to be especially difficult as they contain heterogeneous parts that have viscoelastic orthotropic or transverse isotropic stiffness and…
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Robust Development of Electric Powertrain NVH for Compact Electric SUV

Hyundai Motor Company-Tae-Won Ha, Jin-Wook Huh, Sang-Kyu Choi, Dong-Wook Min, Chang-Kook Chae
Romax Technology-Annabel Abdy, Carsten Schmitt, Hanafy Mahmoud, Sharad Jain, Leon Rodrigues
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1503
To be published on 2020-06-03 by SAE International in United States
Electric vehicles (EV's) present new challenges to achieving the required noise, vibration & harshness performance (NVH) compared with conventional vehicles. Specifically, high-frequency noise and abnormal noise, previously masked by the internal combustion engine can also cause annoyance in an EV. Electric motor (E-motor) whine noise caused by electromagnetic excitation during E-motor operation is caused by torque ripple and stator local excitation. Under high speed and high load operating conditions, the sound level is low, however high frequency whine noise is a factor that can impair the vehicle level NVH performance. An example of a previously masked abnormal noise is a droning noise that can be caused by manufacturing quality variation of the spline coupling between the rotor shaft of the E-motor and the input shaft of the reducer, it is dominated by multiple higher orders of the E-motor rotation frequency. In this study, the high speed and high load condition whine noise problem was reproduced through electromagnetic and structural analysis, and the countermeasure (E-motor geometry refinements to reduce the excitations and mechanical system transfer path…
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Estimation the Interior Sound Quality in BEV's Regarding Measurements on the Roller Test Bench: Focusing on Tonal Omponents

AVL Deutschland GmbH-Daniel Schecker, Eugen Deisling, Peter Uerlings
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1542
To be published on 2020-06-03 by SAE International in United States
Development of BEVs gains more and more importance for OEMs, Tier 1s and DSPs and the project volumes continue to grow steadily. Even though the complexity of electric drive trains is reduced in comparison to combustion drive lines, the requirements for NVH development increases. Masking effects of noise through combustion noise fall away, the overall noise level decreases and the high frequency noises from the electric motors, inverters and transmissions dominate the overall impression of this new technology. Because of the missing combustion noise also noises like rolling noise from tires and wind noise is felt more and more disturbing for customers and pedestrians. The NVH character of any vehicle is highly dependent on its operating condition. With BEVs, it mainly depends on the vehicle speed, torque, temperature and state of charge of the battery. For this reason customers usually want to measure many speed-ups with constant torque steps. During a 3 Year cooperation with a big OEM almost all premium BEVs on the German market were measured/benchmarked to get a feedback about the own…
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Noise-Vibration (NVH) Analysis & Reduction in Traction Motors-PMSMs at the Design Stage

Tata Motors, Ltd.-Vishwanatha K. Rao
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1509
To be published on 2020-06-03 by SAE International in United States
Various electric propulsion systems are used in the industrial field. Recently, research focused on permanent magnet synchronous motors (PMSMs) because of their several advantages. There are various method to reduce Noise and Vibration of traction at the Design Stage of Motor. Noise reduction has constituted a difficult study point for the last years. A great part of this acoustic noise has electromagnetic origin. The harmonic spectrum of the PWM voltage supply is very rich and every frequency has direct effects on the motor acoustics and also Various Torques effect on the Motor, In this paper, the Design Stage of Electric Motor Describe the Design Specifications and Calculations For reduce Harmonics and unwanted Torque (Electromagnetic Forces) for NVH reduction. Such as two winding methods for the interior permanent-magnet synchronous motor for vehicle traction: concentrated winding and distributed winding. Both have merits and demerits, and both influences the motor’s performance. Also the paper presents and analyses the experimental acoustic noise of AC motors controlled by drives using different PWM techniques. Five criteria are taken into account: motor…
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HEV Evaluation in Simulation Phase Based on Predicted Sound Behavior

AVL LIST GmbH-Paco Langjahr, Markus Resch, Bernhard Graf
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1511
To be published on 2020-06-03 by SAE International in United States
Grown interest in complex modern Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) concepts has raised new challenges in the field of NVH. The switch between Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) and Electric Motor (EM) at low speeds produces undesirable vibrations and a sudden raise of noise levels that affects the sound quality and passenger comfort achieved by the close-to-silent electric powertrain operation. Starting the ICE in the most suitable driving situation to create a seamless transition between driving modes can be the key to minimize the NVH quality impact in driver and passenger’s perception in HEVs. To integrate this important aspect in the early stages of the development and design phase, simulation technologies can be used to address the issue. By analyzing NVH measurements, the different noise components of the vehicle operation can be separated into ICE-related noise, EM-related noise and driving noise. To achieve highest system flexibility, these noise components can be synthesized, providing an integral NVH assessment tool that can be adapted to different driving conditions. ICE and EM noise are simulated using additive synthesis of an…