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Structural Vibration and Acoustic Analysis of a 3-Phase AC Induction Motor

Peyman Poozesh
Kettering University-Anand Krishnasarma, Allan Taylor, Javad Baqersad
Published 2019-06-05 by SAE International in United States
This paper aims to study the NVH and acoustic performance of a 3-phase AC induction motor in order to develop an approach to reduce the magnetic component of noise from an electric motor in an electric vehicle (EV). The final goal of this project is to reduce the magnetic component of sound from the motor by making modifications to the end bracket of the motor housing.EVs are being considered the future of mobility mainly due to the fact that they are environment-friendly. As many companies are already investing in this technology, electric drives are set to become extremely popular in the years to come. The heart of an EV is its motor. Modern electric vehicles are quiet, furthermore with the lack of an IC engine to mask most sounds from other components, the sound from the electric motor and other auxiliary parts become more prominent. The primary source of electromagnetic noise in a motor arises from magnetic flux variations in the air gap which interfere with the resonant frequencies of the stator core. These flux…
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Target Setting Process for Hybrid Electric Drives Using TPA, Jury Study, and Torque Management

FCA US LLC-Vinod Singh, Anil Charan
InDepth Engineering Solutions-Aniket Parbat
Published 2019-06-05 by SAE International in United States
The idea of improved efficiency without compromising the “fun to drive” aspect has renewed the auto industry’s interest toward electrification and hybridization. Electric drives gain from having multiple gear ratios which can use advantageous operating set points thus increasing range. Furthermore, they benefit significantly from frequent decelerations and stopping as is experienced in city driving conditions. To recuperate as much energy as possible, deceleration is done at high torque. This presents an interesting but serious sound quality issue in the form of highly tonal whine harmonics of rapidly changing gears that do not track with vehicle speed thus being objectionable to the vehicle occupants. This paper presents an NVH target setting process for a hybrid electric transmission being integrated into two existing vehicles, one belonging to the premium segment and another aimed at enthusiasts with off-road applications. The demand for power has shifted from mechanical domain into electrical domain, and as such, the solution to electric drive NVH issues also lay partly, in the way these drive systems are calibrated. A time-domain Transfer Path Analysis…
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Test and Analysis of Electromagnetic Noise of an Electric Motor in a Pure Electric Car

Geely Automoile Research Institute-Qiang Kang, Perry Gu, Chao Gong
Tongji University-Shuguang Zuo
Published 2019-06-05 by SAE International in United States
Compared with the low-frequency ignition order of mechanical and combustion noise of an internal combustion engine, the noise of electric drive assembly of electric vehicles is mainly the high-frequency whining noise generated by electromagnetic forces of motors and gear meshing of reducers, as well as the high-frequency umbrella-shape noise generated by DC/AC pulse width modulation. Although the radiated sound power of these high frequency noise is far less than that of an internal combustion engine, the high frequency noise of the motor and the reducer is subjectively quite annoying. This paper studies the characteristics of electromagnetic noise of a permanent magnet synchronous motor in an electric car. By testing and analyzing of noise sources of an electric motor in the car and on a test rig, the spatial order characteristics and amplitude-frequency characteristics of the electromagnetic forces are revealed. The noise orders are multiples of the number of motor poles. The most critical order is 48th order, and its spatial order is 0th order. The peak of this 48th order is due to the stator’s…
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NVH Aspects of Electric Drive Unit Development and Vehicle Integration

FEV Europe GmbH-Christoph Steffens, Peter Janssen
FEV North America, Inc.-Thomas Wellmann, Todd Tousignant, Kiran Govindswamy, Dean Tomazic
Published 2019-06-05 by SAE International in United States
The automotive industry continues to develop new powertrain and vehicle technologies aimed at reducing overall vehicle-level fuel consumption. Specifically, the use of electrified propulsion systems is expected to play an increasingly important role in helping OEM’s meet fleet CO2 reduction targets for 2025 and beyond. This will also include a strong growth in the global demand for electric drive units (EDUs).The change from conventional vehicles to vehicles propelled by EDUs leads to a reduction in overall vehicle exterior and interior noise levels, especially during low-speed vehicle operation. Despite the overall noise levels being low, the NVH behavior of such vehicles can be objectionable due to the presence of tonal noise coming from electric machines and geartrain components as well as relatively high shares of road/wind noise. In order to ensure customer acceptance of electrically propelled vehicles, it is imperative that these NVH challenges are understood and solved.This paper discusses various aspects of the EDU NVH development process. This will include a discussion of the NVH target cascading methodologies for EDUs, followed by a description of…
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Experimental PEM-Fuel Cell Range Extender System Operation and Parameter Influence Analysis

Vienna University of Technology-Johannes Höflinger, Peter Hofmann, Bernhard Geringer
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Fuel cells as alternative propulsion systems in vehicles can achieve higher driving ranges and shorter refueling times compared to pure battery-electric vehicles, while maintaining the local zero-emission status. However, to take advantage of pure battery electric driving, an externally rechargeable battery can be combined with a fuel cell range extender. As part of a research project, an efficient air supply system for a fuel cell range extender was developed. To this end, a 25 kW PEM fuel cell system test bench was set up. The different parameter influences of the test bench, in particular of the air supply system, were analyzed and evaluated in terms of stack/system efficiency and functionality. The control software of the test bench was specifically developed for the flexible operating parameter variation. All adjustable variables of the system (air ratio, stack temperature, pressure, etc.) were varied and evaluated at steady-state operating points. Likewise, the system was analyzed during dynamic operation and fault cases in adverse operating conditions (water condensation, oxygen deficiency) were identified. The system's warm-up process was also evaluated in…
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Design of an Electric Drive Transmission for a Formula Student Race Car

Gavin White, Geoffrey Cunningham, Darryl Doyle
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
This paper presents a methodology used to configure an electric drive system for a Formula Student car and the detailed design of a transmission for in-hub motor placement. Various options for the size, number and placement of electric motors were considered and a systematic process was undertaken to determine the optimum configuration and type of motor required. The final configuration selected had four 38 kW in-hub motors connected through a 14.8:1 reduction transmission to 10” wheels. Preliminary design of the transmission indicated that the overall gear ratio would be best achieved with a two-stage reduction, and in this work an offset primary spur stage coupled to a planetary second stage was chosen. Detailed design and validation of the transmission was conducted in Ricardo SABR and GEAR, using a duty cycle derived from an existing internal combustion Formula Student car. The analysis was conducted in line with ISO 6336 and permitted the examination of the stresses in gear teeth and the prediction of gear and bearing life. A detailed design was proposed with due regard to…
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Robot-Based Fast Charging of Electric Vehicles

Graz University of Technology-Bernhard Walzel, Mario Hirz, Helmut Brunner
representing BMW Group-Nico Kreutzer
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Automated, conductive charging systems enable both, the transmission of high charging power for long electric driving distances as well as comfortable and safe charging processes. Especially by the use of heavy and unhandy cables for fast charging, these systems offer user friendly vehicle charging - in particularly in combination with autonomously driving and parking vehicles. This paper deals with the definition of requirements for automated conductive charging stations with standard charging connectors and vehicle inlets and the development of a fully-automated charging robot for electric and plug-in hybrid vehicles.In cooperation with the project partners BMW AG, MAGNA Steyr Engineering, KEBA AG and the Institute of Automotive Engineering at Graz University of Technology, the development and implementation of the prototype took place in the course of a governmental funded research project titled “Comfortable Mobility by Technology Integration (KoMoT)”. The charging system basic design and experiments on sensor technologies were carried out as part of contract research commissioned by the Austrian Society of Automotive Engineers (ÖVK).In the present approach, the entire docking and undocking process of the…
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Analysis and Model Validation of the Toyota Prius Prime

Argonne National Laboratory-Jongryeol Jeong, Namdoo Kim, Kevin Stutenberg, Aymeric Rousseau
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-0369
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
The Toyota Prius Prime is a new generation of Toyota Prius plug-in hybrid electric vehicle, the electric drive range of which is 25 miles. This version is improved from the previous version by the addition of a one-way clutch between the engine and the planetary gear-set, which enables the generator to add electric propulsive force. The vehicle was analyzed, developed and validated based on test data from Argonne National Laboratory’s Advanced Powertrain Research Facility, where chassis dynamometer set temperature can be controlled in a thermal chamber. First, we analyzed and developed components such as engine, battery, motors, wheels and chassis, including thermal aspects based on test data. By developing models considering thermal aspects, it is possible to simulate the vehicle driving not only in normal temperatures but also in hot, cold, or warmed-up conditions. Next, we analyzed supervisory vehicle control to merge the separately developed vehicle component models in a vehicle simulation model. The supervisory vehicle control includes engine on/off, battery energy management, engine operating conditions, and so on. In particular, we analyzed the control…
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Energy-Efficient Traction Induction Machine Control

South Ural State University-Victor Smolin, Elena Nikiforova, Nadezhda Sidorenko
University of Michigan-Dearborn-Sergey Gladyshev
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
The article solves the problem of increasing the energy efficiency of the traction electric drive in the low load conditions. The set objective is achieved by analogy with internal combustion engines by decreasing the consumed energy using the amplitude control of the three-phase voltage of the induction machine. The basis of the amplitude control is laid by the constancy criterion of the overload capacity with respect to the electromagnetic torque, which provides a reliable reserve from a "breakdown" of the induction machine mode in a wide range of speeds and loads. The control system of the traction electric drive contains a reference model of electromechanical energy conversion represented by the generalized equations of the instantaneous balance of the active and reactive power and the mechanical load. The induction machine is controlled by two adaptive variables: the electromagnetic torque and the voltage amplitude. The synchronous frequency and angular speed of the rotor remain free coordinates depending on the load conditions. We considered general and private solutions for control variables obtained with the help of the energy…
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Optimal Energy Management Control of a Parallel Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle in the Presence of Low Emission Zones

University of Zagreb-Jure Soldo, Branimir Skugor, Josko Deur
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
In order to reduce air and noise pollution in urban environments, low emission zones (LEZ) are being introduced in many cities worldwide. This paper deals with design of a LEZ-anticipating control strategy for a Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) given in a P2-type parallel powertrain configuration. A control-oriented backward-looking model of the PHEV powertrain is used as a design basis. The core control strategy is based on combining a rule-based (RB) controller including an explicit battery state-of-charge (SoC) controller and an equivalent consumption minimization strategy (ECMS), and it is superimposed by generating an optimal SoC reference trajectory aimed at enabling pure electric driving through forthcoming LEZs and minimizing the overall fuel consumption. The optimal SoC reference trajectory is generated by minimizing its length over travelled distance. The proposed control strategy is verified by means of computer simulations and by comparing the corresponding simulation results against the dynamic programming-based globally optimal benchmark for several LEZ scenarios and various driving cycles.
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