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Design of an Electric Drive Transmission for a Formula Student Race Car

Gavin White, Geoffrey Cunningham, Darryl Doyle
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1295
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
This paper presents a methodology used to configure an electric drive system for a Formula Student car and the detailed design of a transmission for in-hub motor placement. Various options for the size, number and placement of electric motors were considered and a systematic process was undertaken to determine the optimum configuration and type of motor required. The final configuration selected had four 38 kW in-hub motors connected through a 14.8:1 reduction transmission to 10” wheels. Preliminary design of the transmission design indicated that the overall gear ratio would be best achieved with a two-stage reduction, and in this work an offset primary spur stage coupled to a planetary second stage was chosen. Detailed design and validation of the transmission was conducted in Ricardo SABR and GEAR, using a duty cycle derived from an existing internal combustion Formula Student car. The analysis was conducted in line with ISO 6336 and permitted the examination of the stresses in gear teeth and the prediction of gear and bearing life. A detailed design was proposed with due regard…

Robot-Based Fast Charging of Electric Vehicles

Graz University of Technology-Bernhard Walzel, Mario Hirz, Helmut Brunner
representing BMW Group-Nico Kreutzer
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-0869
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Automated, conductive charging systems enable both the transmission of high charging power for long electric driving distances as well as comfortable and safe charging processes. Particularly in connection with autonomously driving and parking vehicles, new fields of application and opportunities are emerging. This paper deals with the definition of requirements for automated conductive charging stations and highlights the development and conception of a robot-based prototype for automated charging of electric and plug-in hybrid vehicles. In cooperation with the project partners BMW AG, Magna Steyr Engineering, KEBA AG and the Institute of Automotive Engineering of Graz University of Technology, the development and implementation of the prototype took place in the course of a governmental funded the research project titled “KoMoT”. In the presented approach, the entire docking and undocking process of the charging cable is performed completely autonomously by a robotic arm. An essential aim of the research activities was to design the sensor technology and the robot system control in such a way, that even when using different vehicle types and vehicle positions no adaptations…

The Coordinated Control of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle During Engine Starting in Driving Process

ASCL Jilin University-Yulong Lei, Pengxiang Song, Yao Fu, Fei Guo
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-0361
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
The number of internal combustion engine vehicles are growing rapidly, and the resulting energy crisis and air pollution are becoming more and more serious. Pure electric vehicles are subject to imperfect battery technology and infrastructure, the driving mileage and charging time will cause troubles to consumers. Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) incorporating the advantages of traditional internal combustion engine vehicles and pure electric vehicles, can achieve the purpose of energy conservation and emission reduction and has been the research hotspot in the field of new energy vehicles. PHEV has multiple operating modes, when operating mode switching, inadequate control could result in poor ride comfort. Therefore, the research on the smoothness control of the switching mode of the PHEV is crucial. In this paper, the plug-in hybrid electric vehicle with a Dual-Clutch Automatic Transmission (DCT) is taken as the research object, and the dynamic model of the process which the electric drive mode switching to the engine drive mode is established and analyzed. Aiming at the problem of the vehicle impact caused by the fluctuation of…

Modeling of Engine After Treatment System Cooling for Hybrid Vehicles

Linkoping Univ-Lars Eriksson
Linköping Univ.-Olov Holmer
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-0989
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
The medium and heavy duty transport industry is currently showing a growing interest in hybrid powertrains. Currently, this technology is mainly used in buses but distribution trucks, both heavy and medium duty, are expected to become growing market segments. Hybrid trucks are potentially superior to conventional internal combustion engine (ICE) propelled trucks in a wide range of environmental areas like noise, CO2 and NOx emissions. However, since the hybrid vehicle is still partially powered by an ICE, an engine after treatment system (EATS) is necessary. Traditionally, the EATS is heated by the waste heat entering the tail pipe after the turbo. This is the most fuel efficient and practical way of bringing the EATS up to and maintaining operating temperatures of about 200 - 400 ̊C, where it's most efficient. However, in hybrid vehicles the ICE can be shut off to a larger extent than in conventional vehicles, and when the engine is off the EATS cools down. Eventually the EATS will drop below the desired temperature range making the EATS ineffective when the ICE…

Analysis and Model Validation of the Toyota Prius Prime

Argonne National Laboratory-Jongryeol JEONG, Namdoo Kim, Kevin Stutenberg, Aymeric Rousseau
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-0369
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has researched about various types of electric vehicles such as hybrid electric vehicle (HEV), plug-in HEV (PEV), range-extedned electric vehicle (EREV), and so on. The research includes anlysis of operating and control characteristics, developments of components and vehicle models in Autonomie, a vehicle simulation software developed by ANL and validations with test data [1-5]. Argonne’s Advanced Powertrain Research Facility (APRF) is facilitated two-wheel and four-wheel drive dynamometers, of which environmental chamber temperature can be controlled [6]. Toyota Prius Prime is a new generation of Toyota PHEV of which electric drive range is 25 miles. The main improvement from the former PHEV system is the possibility of power support by generator in EV mode by adding one way clutch to engine side [7-8]. The powertrain and vehicle model were newly developed and implemented into Autonomie, a high-fidelity, forward-looking vehicle simulation tool that can estimate various types of vehicle performances especially fuel economy [9]. Especially engine, battery, wheel and chssis model were developed and validated by test data in a energy aspect as…

Energy-Efficient Traction Induction Machine Control

South Ural State University-Victor Smolin PhD, Elena Nikiforova, Nadezhda Sidorenko
Univ. of Michigan-Dearborn-Sergey Gladyshev
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-0598
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
The paper describes the new method of increasing the energy efficiency of the traction electric drive in the low load conditions. The objective achieved by analogy with internal combustion engines by decreasing the consumed energy using the amplitude control of the three-phase voltage of the induction machine. The basis of the amplitude control lies in criterion constancy of the overload ability with respect to the electromagnetic torque, which provides a reliable reserve from a "breakdown" of the induction machine mode in a wide range of speeds and loads. The control system of the traction electric drive contains a reference model of electro-mechanical energy conversion represented by the generalized equations of the instantaneous balance of the active and reactive power and the mechanical load. The induction machine controlled by two adaptive variables: the electromagnetic torque and the voltage amplitude. The synchronous frequency and angular speed of the rotor remain free coordinates depending on the load conditions. We considered general and private solutions for control variables obtained with the help of the energy model taking into account…

Simulation of Effect of Online Steering Ratio Calculating and Adjusting on Steering by Wire System

Hubei Univ. of Automotive Technology-Huiyong Zhao
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-0512
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
This paper aims to test the effects of variable transmission ratio on the steering performance of steering by wire(SBW) system with the method of Carsim and Simulink co-simulation. Firstly, an SBW model is built with components of the simscape library in Simulink, which consists of the online variable transmission ratio calculation model, the electric drive steering feel model, steering gear model and their PID control model. Then, this model is used to replace the steering system of Carsim vehicle model to achieve a new SBW vehicle model. Finally, the performance of this vehicle is simulated in double lane steering condition by setting the state of steering gear ratio into fixed value or online adjusting. The results indicate that the discrete control with the online steering ratio calculating and adjusting can reduce the lateral acceleration of the vehicle at the cost of the increase of the ascending of lateral displacement error.

Coordinated Mode Transition Control for a Novel Compound Power-Split Hybrid Electric Vehicle

Corun CHS Tech. Co., Ltd.-Tong Zhang
Technische Universität Berlin-Dengfeng Shen, Clemens Guehmann
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1306
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Because of the direct connection between the compound power split hybrid transmission (CPSHT) and the engine in hybrid electric vehicle (HEV), engine ripple torque can lead to obvious jerks when the mode transition from electric driving mode to hybrid driving mode occurs. In order to enhance the riding comfort, two additional wet clutches are mounted in this novel CPSHT and the relevant coordinated control strategy is developed. Firstly, after the description of the mechanical and hydraulic parts of the novel CPSHT, the dynamic plant model including driveline model, engine ripple torque and clutch torque is deduced. Secondly, the mode transition process in the original and current designs are compared and analyzed with the equivalent level diagram and the encountered problems are stated. Thirdly, a coordinated control strategy is designed to determine the target motor torque, clutch torque, engine torque, and the moment of fuel injection based on a second-order sliding mode control. A Kalman filter (KF) based estimator is deduced to estimate the clutch transmitted torque with the information of two electric motors. In addition,…


Czech Technical University in Prague-Jaroslav Kanera
Czech Technical University in Prague.-Gabriela Achtenova
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-0370
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
This work looks into the development of power-split planetary gear set for hybrid vehicle. The aim is to research possible solution of hybrid powertrain integrating DHT (Dedicated Hybrid Transmission), which will comply with demands of compact cars, where simplicity and low price is a primary focus. On the other hand, this solution must offer full-hybrid capability. The search of new solution is focused on the usage of one electric motor in combination with internal combustion engine, the planetary gear set and stepped transmission. For low forward speeds and reverse the electric drive can be used. The low forward speed can be ensured also by combination of electric motor and ICE, the medium speed range will be covered by powersplit or combination/addition of power of ICE and electric motor, for highway usage the direct drive from ICE via stepped transmission is envisaged. Most of the functional modes allow also the electric energy recuperation. The paper will present the overview of existing solutions; the literature survey will be dedicated for designs with single electric motor mainly. Further…

Engine Mounting System Design Approach for Electric Vehicles

Tata Motors, Ltd.-Sandip Hazra
Published 2019-01-09 by SAE International in United States
As we are moving towards complete electrification from combustion engine to electric motor, the system design approach also changes due to application. For a range of 100-150 kg EV powertrain weight, number of mounts as well as mount locations, orientations and stiffnesses plays a significant role during system design. The electric powertrains are usually lighter and their mounts are usually stiffer than the mounts for typical combustion engines, the static displacements at dead load are usually lower. However, currently it seems like there is no common direction of all OEM’s regarding the question of how stiff an e-motor mounting system should actually be. Due to the high torque of the EV’s one could even think about switching to a four point mounting instead of a pendulum mounting. That is actually something we observe in some benchmarks - that (modified) pendulum systems are used mainly for e-motors, which share a common vehicle platform with combustions engines, but if a vehicle is developed exclusively for electric drive, then the mounting system is a three or four point…
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