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Cost-efficient Cathode Air Path for PEM Fuel Cell systems

MANN+HUMMEL GmbH-Michael Harenbrock, Alexander Korn, Andreas Weber
MANN+HUMMEL Innenraumfilter GmbH & Co.KG-Eva Hallbauer
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1176
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Fuel cell technology will play a major role in reducing transportation-related emissions, especially in sectors where battery-electric powertrains will face severe challenges, e.g. in heavy-duty, long-haul applications, as it decouples system weight from electric driving range. To achieve the required fuel cell stack lifetime, the supply of clean air is essential, especially with low Platinum catalyst loads required to achieve the DOE cost targets. As gases as NOx, SO2 and NH3 can poison the catalyst, leading to - often irreversible - loss in power supply from the stack, these must be captured by use of tailor-made activated carbons. Research on real-life concentrations of these contaminants under different driving patterns and road profiles leads to the knowledge-based design of Cathode Air Filter elements. Cost-efficient Balance-of-Plant components are required to integrate the filter into the full Cathode Air path. To prevent flooding of components like air filter, humidifier, or the stack itself, water separators are integrated at different position inside the system. Air ducts are designed in a way to operate under the different temperature and pressure…
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Minimization of Electric Heating of the Traction Induction Machine Rotor

South Ural State University-Elena Nikiforova, Victor Smolin
Univ. of Michigan-Dearborn-Sergey Gladyshev
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0562
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The article solves the problem of reducing electric power losses of the traction induction machine rotor to prevent its overheating in nominal and high-load modes. Electric losses of the rotor power are optimized by the stabilization of the main magnetic flow of the electric machine at a nominal level with the amplitude-frequency control in a wide range of speeds and increased loads. The quasi-independent excitation of the induction machine allows us to increase the rigidity of mechanical characteristics, decrease the rotor slip at nominal loads and overloads and significantly decrease electrical losses in the rotor as compared to other control methods. The article considers the technology of converting the power of individual phases into a single energy flow using a three-phase electric machine equivalent circuit and obtaining an energy model in the form of equations of instantaneous active and reactive power balance. The quasi-independent excitation of the induction machine is performed according to the model by stabilizing the current of the magnetizing branch using the algorithms to control the voltage amplitude, synchronous frequency and electromagnetic…
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Water Injection System Application in a Mild Hybrid Powertrain

Chalmers University of Technology-Jayesh Khatri, Lucien Koopmans
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0798
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The potential of 48V Mild Hybrid is promising in meeting the present and future CO2 legislations. There are various system layouts for 48V hybrid system including P0, P1, P2. In this paper, P2 architecture is used to investigate the effects downsized SI engine equipped with water injection system, in a mild hybrid system. Electrification of the conventional powertrain uses the benefits of an electric drive in the low load-low speed region where the conventional SI engine is least efficient and as the load demand increases the IC Engine is used in its more efficient operating region. Engine downsizing and forced induction trend has gained popularity in a hybrid system architecture. However, the engine efficiency is limited by combustion knocking at higher loads, and fuel enrichment becomes must to operate the engine at MBT (Maximum Brake Torque) timing otherwise ignition retard is used to avoid knocking; in turn neutralize the benefits of fuel savings by electrification. Water injection suppresses engine knocking while operating at stoichiometric air-fuel ratio. Additionally, the injection of water reduces flame temperature, giving…
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Eco-vehicle Battery System Big-data Analysis and Fault Mode & Fault Tree Analysis Related Robust System Development

Hyundai & Kia Corp.-Jeong-Hun Seo
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0447
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
High-voltage battery system plays a critical role in eco-friendly vehicles due to its effect on the cost and the electric driving range of eco-friendly vehicles. In order to secure the customer pool and the competitiveness of eco-vehicle technology, vehicle electrification requires lowering the battery cost and satisfying the customer needs when driving the vehicles in the real roads, for example, maximizing powers for fun drive, increasing battery capacities for achieving appropriate trip distances, etc. Because, these vehicle specifications have a critical effect on the high-voltage battery specification, the key technology of the vehicle electrification is the appropriate decision on the specification of the high-voltage battery system, such as battery capacity and power.These factors affect the size of battery system and vehicle underfloor design and also the profitability of the eco-friendly vehicles. In this work, the big data of Sonata HEV/PHEV battery system has been analyzed in term of four categories: cell, thermal management, 12V battery, and power electronics part. Analysis results shows that the ratio of CD/CS mode driving in real roads well matches the…
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Efficient Thermal Electric Skipping Strategy applied to the Control of Series/Parallel Hybrid Powertrain

University of Naples Federico II-Vincenzo De Bellis, Enrica Malfi, Daniela Tufano, Fabio Bozza
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1193
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The optimal control of hybrid powertrains represents one of the most challenging tasks for the compliance with the legislation concerning CO2 and pollutant emission of vehicles. Most common off-line optimization strategies (Pontryagin minimum principle – PMP – or dynamic programming) allow to identify the optimal control along a predefined driving mission at the expense of a quite relevant computational effort. On-line strategies, suitable for on-vehicle implementation, involve a certain performance degradation depending on their degree of simplification and computational effort. In this work, a simplified control strategy is presented, where the conventional power-split logics, typical of the above-mentioned strategies, is here replaced with an alternative utilization of the thermal and electric units for the vehicle driving (Efficient Thermal Electric Skipping Strategy - ETESS). The choice between the units is realized at each time and is based on the comparison between the effective fuel rate of the thermal engine and an equivalent fuel rate related to the electrical power consumption. The equivalent fuel rate in a pure electric driving is associated to a combination of brake…
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Development of Hydrogen Powered Fuel Cell e-Snowmobiles

BRP-Rotax GmbH & Co KG-Walter Hinterberger, Nigel Foxhall
HyCentA Research GmbH-Patrick Pertl, Martin Aggarwal, Alexander Trattner
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-32-0555
To be published on 2020-01-24 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
In the highly innovative and holistic flagship project HySnow (Decarbonisation of Winter Tourism by Hydrogen Powered Fuel Cell Snowmobiles), funded by the Austrian Climate and Energy Fund, the decarbonization of winter tourism is being demonstrated. Within this project, two prototype e-snowmobiles have been developed including the adaption of a Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell (PEM-FC) system for the low temperature and high-performance targets and the integration of the drivetrain into the vehicle.In this paper the drivetrain development process of the prototype e-snowmobiles will be presented with the aim to derive specifications for the drivetrain components as PEM-FC system, hydrogen storage system, electric drive, battery and power electronics. Based on typical use cases for snowmobiles overall vehicle specifications and requirements are defined. Associated driving cycles are investigated and used as input for the development process. Subsequently, analyses regarding possible drivetrain topologies based on technical and economical vehicle requirements are carried out. In parallel, vehicle implementation concepts based on standardized development processes are performed. The development and the design process are verified by verification and optimization loops.The…
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Brake System Thermal Performance for Brazil Market Battery Electric Vehicles

General Motors, LLC-David Antanaitis
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0019
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
The discussion in the braking industry that has been ongoing for over a decade now on how to specify brake systems for regenerative-brake intensive vehicle applications has intensified considerably in the past few years as the automotive industry ponders a future where electric vehicles become predominant. Major automotive manufactures have announced plans to create dedicated electric-only vehicle architectures, from which to offer a full range of electric vehicle configurations. The time to really figure out the translation of Voice of the Electric Vehicle Customer to technical requirements and brake system content is approaching very rapidly. One of the major design decisions in the brake system is the sizing of foundation brake components for thermal performance. There is no question that regenerative brakes can significantly reduce the demand on the friction brakes in normal usage, sometimes by a full order of magnitude or more. Brakes no longer need to be sized for everyday use, rather, the sizing is driven by “limit cases” such as failure of the regen system, a full state of charge in the…
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Optimal Energy Management for Variable Fuel Quality in Hybrid Electric Vehicles

Institute for Powertrains and Automotive Technology, Vienna-Bastian Beyfuss, Peter Hofmann, Bernhard Geringer
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2219
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
Efficiency of Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEV) strongly depends on the implemented energy management strategy (EMS) that splits the drivers torque request onto internal combustion engine (ICE) and electric machine (EM). While in conventional vehicles overall efficiency decreases by using low quality fuel (in terms of octane rating), in HEV this effect can amplify itself. This is due to the restricted ICE operation to higher load areas, where the risk of engine-knock is increased.Since the EMS can set the ICE operation point flexible, the author suggests consideration of fuel quality (Research Octane Number RON) within the EMS to exploit the full fuel saving potential of HEV.This paper examines three different fuel qualities, with varying octane rating, on the engine test bench. Results show that the operation range of optimal ICE efficiency varies significantly between them. While high octane fuel allows a broader usable area for ICE operation in HEV, low octane fuel has a negative impact in knock relevant areas. However, this peril can be avoided by adapting the EMS.Test bench data is used to generate…
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Prediction Model of Driving Range of Electric Vehicle Based on Driver’s Driving Behavior

Tongji University-He Ying, GenPeng Zhong, Chen Yi
Published 2019-11-04 by SAE International in United States
Aiming at the problem of "mileage anxiety" caused by the inaccurate estimation of vehicle owners due to the complicated and changeable actual driving conditions, the current study of electric driving range prediction focuses on exploring the battery parameters or fitting the linear relationship between electric vehicle SOC (state of charge) and driving range under ideal conditions of experiments or software simulation, which ignores the actual vehicle driving conditions and the difference in driving range due to differences in driver's driving behaviors. This paper puts forward an innovative prediction model of the driving mileage of pure electric vehicles based on driver's driving behavior. Firstly, taking the driver's real vehicle operation data as the object, the model extracts 2,412 kinematics driving fragments according to the short trip segmentation method, then carries on the PCA(Principal Component Analysis) to the 18 characteristic parameters of the kinematics driving fragments which reflects the driver's driving behaviors, and performs the FCM (Fuzzy C Means) clustering analysis to obtain the clustering center. Secondly, based on the comparison between the drivers’ historical driving fragments…
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Design and Analysis of Sigma Z-Source Inverter for PV Applications

SRM Institute Of Science And Technology-Kalaiarasi Nallathambi, Uthra Rangarajan, Anitha Daniel
Published 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
Traditional Voltage Source Inverter (VSI) produces lesser output voltage than the input and causes shoot-through due to the gating of the semiconductor device connected in same leg. The ZSI is used to overcome the inadequacies of VSI. The ZSI has been extensively used in electric drives, PV system and UPS. The conventional ZSI suffers some disadvantages like restricted boost capability, discontinuity in input current and large inrush current. These limitations are overcome by using a transformer which replaces the inductor in the impedance source network. In high-voltage gain applications, the single transformer-based ZSI topologies requires more turns ratio which requires large size transformer. For improving the boost capability, the TZSI is used. The Z-source network of the TZSI constitutes two transformers with low turns ratio. TZSI has certain demerits such as restricted boost capability, high inrush current and discontinuity in the input current. However, TZSI requires high turns ratio to increase the boost capability. Thus, the modified ZSI, i.e. sigma ZSI is investigated in this paper. The sigma ZSI has the advantage of having reduced…
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