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Development of Hydrogen Powered Fuel Cell e-Snowmobiles

BRP-Rotax GmbH & Co KG-Walter Hinterberger, Nigel Foxhall
HyCentA Research GmbH-Patrick Pertl, Martin Aggarwal, Alexander Trattner
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-32-0555
To be published on 2020-01-24 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
In the highly innovative and holistic flagship project HySnow (Decarbonisation of Winter Tourism by Hydrogen Powered Fuel Cell Snowmobiles), funded by the Austrian Climate and Energy Fund, the decarbonization of winter tourism is being demonstrated. Within this project, two prototype e-snowmobiles have been developed including the adaption of a Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell (PEM-FC) system for the low temperature and high-performance targets and the integration of the drivetrain into the vehicle.In this paper the drivetrain development process of the prototype e-snowmobiles will be presented with the aim to derive specifications for the drivetrain components as PEM-FC system, hydrogen storage system, electric drive, battery and power electronics. Based on typical use cases for snowmobiles overall vehicle specifications and requirements are defined. Associated driving cycles are investigated and used as input for the development process. Subsequently, analyses regarding possible drivetrain topologies based on technical and economical vehicle requirements are carried out. In parallel, vehicle implementation concepts based on standardized development processes are performed. The development and the design process are verified by verification and optimization loops.The…
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Brake System Thermal Performance for Brazil Market Battery Electric Vehicles

General Motors, LLC-David Antanaitis
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0019
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
The discussion in the braking industry that has been ongoing for over a decade now on how to specify brake systems for regenerative-brake intensive vehicle applications has intensified considerably in the past few years as the automotive industry ponders a future where electric vehicles become predominant. Major automotive manufactures have announced plans to create dedicated electric-only vehicle architectures, from which to offer a full range of electric vehicle configurations. The time to really figure out the translation of Voice of the Electric Vehicle Customer to technical requirements and brake system content is approaching very rapidly. One of the major design decisions in the brake system is the sizing of foundation brake components for thermal performance. There is no question that regenerative brakes can significantly reduce the demand on the friction brakes in normal usage, sometimes by a full order of magnitude or more. Brakes no longer need to be sized for everyday use, rather, the sizing is driven by “limit cases” such as failure of the regen system, a full state of charge in the…
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Optimal Energy Management for Variable Fuel Quality in Hybrid Electric Vehicles

Institute for Powertrains and Automotive Technology, Vienna-Bastian Beyfuss, Peter Hofmann, Bernhard Geringer
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2219
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
Efficiency of Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEV) strongly depends on the implemented energy management strategy (EMS) that splits the drivers torque request onto internal combustion engine (ICE) and electric machine (EM). While in conventional vehicles overall efficiency decreases by using low quality fuel (in terms of octane rating), in HEV this effect can amplify itself. This is due to the restricted ICE operation to higher load areas, where the risk of engine-knock is increased.Since the EMS can set the ICE operation point flexible, the author suggests consideration of fuel quality (Research Octane Number RON) within the EMS to exploit the full fuel saving potential of HEV.This paper examines three different fuel qualities, with varying octane rating, on the engine test bench. Results show that the operation range of optimal ICE efficiency varies significantly between them. While high octane fuel allows a broader usable area for ICE operation in HEV, low octane fuel has a negative impact in knock relevant areas. However, this peril can be avoided by adapting the EMS.Test bench data is used to generate…
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Prediction Model of Driving Range of Electric Vehicle Based on Driver’s Driving Behavior

Tongji University-He Ying, GenPeng Zhong, Chen Yi
Published 2019-11-04 by SAE International in United States
Aiming at the problem of "mileage anxiety" caused by the inaccurate estimation of vehicle owners due to the complicated and changeable actual driving conditions, the current study of electric driving range prediction focuses on exploring the battery parameters or fitting the linear relationship between electric vehicle SOC (state of charge) and driving range under ideal conditions of experiments or software simulation, which ignores the actual vehicle driving conditions and the difference in driving range due to differences in driver's driving behaviors. This paper puts forward an innovative prediction model of the driving mileage of pure electric vehicles based on driver's driving behavior. Firstly, taking the driver's real vehicle operation data as the object, the model extracts 2,412 kinematics driving fragments according to the short trip segmentation method, then carries on the PCA(Principal Component Analysis) to the 18 characteristic parameters of the kinematics driving fragments which reflects the driver's driving behaviors, and performs the FCM (Fuzzy C Means) clustering analysis to obtain the clustering center. Secondly, based on the comparison between the drivers’ historical driving fragments…
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Design and Analysis of Sigma Z-Source Inverter for PV Applications

SRM Institute Of Science And Technology-Kalaiarasi Nallathambi, Uthra Rangarajan, Anitha Daniel
Published 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
Traditional Voltage Source Inverter (VSI) produces lesser output voltage than the input and causes shoot-through due to the gating of the semiconductor device connected in same leg. The ZSI is used to overcome the inadequacies of VSI. The ZSI has been extensively used in electric drives, PV system and UPS. The conventional ZSI suffers some disadvantages like restricted boost capability, discontinuity in input current and large inrush current. These limitations are overcome by using a transformer which replaces the inductor in the impedance source network. In high-voltage gain applications, the single transformer-based ZSI topologies requires more turns ratio which requires large size transformer. For improving the boost capability, the TZSI is used. The Z-source network of the TZSI constitutes two transformers with low turns ratio. TZSI has certain demerits such as restricted boost capability, high inrush current and discontinuity in the input current. However, TZSI requires high turns ratio to increase the boost capability. Thus, the modified ZSI, i.e. sigma ZSI is investigated in this paper. The sigma ZSI has the advantage of having reduced…
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Performance Evaluation of an Electric Vehicle with Multiple Electric Machines for Increased Overall Drive Train Efficiency

University of Ljubljana-Mario Vukotić, Damijan Miljavec
University of Rome Niccolò Cusano and S.C.I.R.E. Consortium-Laura Tribioli, Daniele Chiappini
Published 2019-10-07 by SAE International in United States
Proposed solutions for electric vehicles range from the simple single-motor drive coupled to one axle through a mechanical differential, to more complex solutions, such as four in-wheel motors, which ask for electronic torque vectoring. Main reasons for having more than one electric machine are: reduction of the rated power of each motor, which most likely leads to simplification and cost reduction of all the electric drive components; increased reliability of the overall traction system, enhancing fault tolerance ability; increase of the degrees of freedom which allows for control strategy optimization and efficiency improvement. In particular, electrical machines efficiency generally peaks at around 75% of load and this usually leads to machine downsizing to avoid operation in low efficiency regions. The same output performance can be achieved by using two or more electrical machines, rather than only one, of smaller size and running them at unequal load - one of the machines at higher load and the other(s) at lower load.In this paper, the performance of an electric vehicle with multiple electric machines is analyzed to…
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A New Parallel Hybrid Concept for Microcars: Propulsion System Design, Modeling and Control

ENEA-Fernando Ortenzi
Positech Consulting s.r.l.-Erminio Maria Ursitti
Published 2019-10-07 by SAE International in United States
Technological and commercial development of vehicles specifically conceived for urban use would certainly be a crucial aspect in making mobility sustainable in urban contexts thanks to their limited in size and low fuel consumption and emissions. Hybrid drive trains are particularly suited to this purpose: if properly designed, very small-sized thermal engines can give all the energy and power required for the application, also making pure electric driving possible when required. The authors are involved since a decade in proposing new low-cost solutions to address this market sector. Market itself explored these possibilities and nowadays offers some BEV solutions in this market share, but it is still lacking in proposing solutions for a parallel full hybrid drive. The main reason must be searched in the complexity of normally applied parallel-hybrid propulsion systems which is not compatible with the limited costs of the application.Taking the lead from these considerations, the authors here propose a simple concept for a parallel-hybrid kit for quadricycles called Hybrid Power Pack (HPP) which is now installed and under long-range testing on…
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Energetic Costs of ICE Starts in (P)HEV - Experimental Evaluation and Its Influence on Optimization Based Energy Management Strategies

Daimler AG-Lukas Engbroks, Pascal Knappe, Daniel Goerke, Stefan Schmiedler, Tobias Goedecke
Vienna University of Technology-Bernhard Geringer
Published 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
The overall efficiency of hybrid electric vehicles largely depends on the design and application of its energy management system (EMS). Despite the load coordination when operating the system in a hybrid mode, the EMS accounts for state changes between the different driving modes. Whether a transition between pure electric driving and internal combustion engine (ICE) powered driving is beneficial depends, among others, on the respective operation point, the route ahead as well as on the energetic expense for the engine start itself. The latter results from a complex interaction of the powertrain components and has a tremendous impact on the efficiency and quality of EMSs. Optimization based methods such as dynamic programming serve as benchmark for the design process of rule based control strategies. In case no energetic expenses are assigned to a state change, the resulting EMS suffers from being sub-optimal regarding the fuel consumption. However, an exact determination of such engine start costs has hardly been researched, yet leads to a more efficient EMS.This paper focuses on the experimental evaluation of the energetic…
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Structural Vibration and Acoustic Analysis of a 3-Phase AC Induction Motor

Peyman Poozesh
Kettering University-Anand Krishnasarma, Allan Taylor, Javad Baqersad
Published 2019-06-05 by SAE International in United States
This paper aims to study the NVH and acoustic performance of a 3-phase AC induction motor in order to develop an approach to reduce the magnetic component of noise from an electric motor in an electric vehicle (EV). The final goal of this project is to reduce the magnetic component of sound from the motor by making modifications to the end bracket of the motor housing.EVs are being considered the future of mobility mainly due to the fact that they are environment-friendly. As many companies are already investing in this technology, electric drives are set to become extremely popular in the years to come. The heart of an EV is its motor. Modern electric vehicles are quiet, furthermore with the lack of an IC engine to mask most sounds from other components, the sound from the electric motor and other auxiliary parts become more prominent. The primary source of electromagnetic noise in a motor arises from magnetic flux variations in the air gap which interfere with the resonant frequencies of the stator core. These flux…
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Target Setting Process for Hybrid Electric Drives Using TPA, Jury Study, and Torque Management

FCA US LLC-Vinod Singh, Anil Charan
InDepth Engineering Solutions-Aniket Parbat
Published 2019-06-05 by SAE International in United States
The idea of improved efficiency without compromising the “fun to drive” aspect has renewed the auto industry’s interest toward electrification and hybridization. Electric drives gain from having multiple gear ratios which can use advantageous operating set points thus increasing range. Furthermore, they benefit significantly from frequent decelerations and stopping as is experienced in city driving conditions. To recuperate as much energy as possible, deceleration is done at high torque. This presents an interesting but serious sound quality issue in the form of highly tonal whine harmonics of rapidly changing gears that do not track with vehicle speed thus being objectionable to the vehicle occupants. This paper presents an NVH target setting process for a hybrid electric transmission being integrated into two existing vehicles, one belonging to the premium segment and another aimed at enthusiasts with off-road applications. The demand for power has shifted from mechanical domain into electrical domain, and as such, the solution to electric drive NVH issues also lay partly, in the way these drive systems are calibrated. A time-domain Transfer Path Analysis…
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