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Future hybrid Vehicles with advanced 48V electrified drive train technology to reduce Co2 emission

Mercedes-Benz R&D India Pvt Ltd-Chandrakant Palve, Pushkaraj Tilak
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2487
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Future hybrid vehicles with advanced 48V electrified drive train technology to reduce CO2 emission. Chandrakant Palve* Pushkaraj Tilak * * Mercedes-Benz Research & Development India Pvt. Ltd. Bangalore. India. Key Words: 48V, CO2, P3 Hybrid, Electrified powertrain, AMT, emission, shift comfort, motor Research and/or Engineering Questions/Objective Global automotive industry is putting effort in moving from conventional powertrain technology to hybrid & electric powertrains. This efforts plays a vital role to achieve cleaner environment, improved performance, reduced fossil-fuel dependency, low noise for meeting regulatory & customer requirements. Automotive industry is facing a challenge of meeting stringent CO2 emission targets of 95g & 175g per kilometer for passenger cars & light commercial vehicles respectively. 48V is an important stepping stone in this direction. By taking motivation from this strategic challenge, advanced 48V P3 electrified powertrain technology has been proposed. The objective of this research is a novel electrified powertrain which offers Dual Clutch Transmission (DCT) level of shift comfort in combine with CO2 benefit without additional cost and weight penalty. Methodology The present study describes a unique…
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Electric hybrid system Architecture & Functional component selection criteria for application based Off-Highway segment

Ajay Nain, Devendra Nene
Hybrid Vehicle-Jaipal Singh
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2495
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Hybridization continues to be growing trend in vehicular applications. Current study shows a holistic system approach for the design & integration of the powertrain in Off-Highway tractor applications. It includes study & benchmarking of system architecture of an all-electric and diesel-electric drive systems as per application requirement. Further comprehensive study was done on functional components for an electric powertrain, which includes electric drives, batteries & controllers. Selection & design of these components was studied & component selection approach was developed for typical Off-Highway tractor application. Current study was divided into three parts. 1.Study of different Off-Highway tractor applications & selection of all-electric, series & parallel hybrid architectures as per application requirement. For Parallel hybrid configuration, Comprehensive approach was developed for selection & optimization of degree of hybridization required as per Off-Highway tractor application requirement. Architecture selection approach considers the way to take care of % increase of cost price with conventional tractor, market availability of components, Integration constraints, fuel consumption, and efficiency of transmission & smooth delivery of power as required by operator. 2.For above…
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Coupled Electro-Chemical and Thermal Modeling for Cylindrical Lithium-ion Batteries

Automotive Research Association of India-Ravindra Kumar, Prashant Pathare, Shantanu Waman, Gargi Moharil
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2488
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
The shift over of the automobile sector from the ICE to the electric drives is imminent due to arising global issues of pollution and ever rising pressure on the demand of the natural resources due to lower efficiency of the ICE drives. This has led to uprising of the Lithium-ion batteries, with addition of the burden of living to expectation of clean energy and higher efficiencies. Alongside, with limitation in the availability of the lithium-ion batteries they carry a hefty price tag with them, hence causing huddles in the research. Lack of research leads to failure of batteries and may cause life threatening situations when operating in the vehicle. In order to insight the working of the cylindrical lithium-ion batteries under different driving and environmental conditions a methodology is developed for the coupled electro-chemical and thermal phenomenon. This allows anticipating the behaviour of the battery under different conditions that influence its performance. The 18650 battery with three different chemistries i.e. Lithium Nickel Cobalt Aluminium Oxide (NCA), Lithium Nickel Manganese Cobalt Oxide (NMC) and Lithium Iron…
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Design and Analysis of Sigma Z-Source Inverter for PV Applications

SRM Institute Of Science And Technology-Kalaiarasi Nallathambi, Uthra Rangarajan, Anitha Daniel
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-0123
To be published on 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
Traditional Voltage Source Inverter (VSI) produces lesser output voltage than the input and causes shoot-through due to the gating of the semiconductor device connected in same leg. The ZSI is used to overcome the inadequacies of VSI. The ZSI has been extensively used in electric drives, PV system and UPS. The conventional ZSI suffers some disadvantages like restricted boost capability, discontinuity in input current and large inrush current. These limitations are overcome by using a transformer which replaces the inductor in the impedance source network. In high-voltage gain applications, the single transformer-based ZSI topologies requires more turns ratio which requires large size transformer. For improving the boost capability, the TZSI is used. The Z-source network of the TZSI constitutes two transformers with low turns ratio. TZSI has certain demerits such as restricted boost capability, high inrush current and discontinuity in the input current. However, TZSI requires high turns ratio to increase the boost capability. Thus, the modified ZSI, i.e. sigma ZSI is investigated in this paper. The sigma ZSI has the advantage of having reduced…
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Performance Evaluation of an Electric Vehicle with Multiple Electric Machines for Increased Overall Drive Train Efficiency

University of Ljubljana-Mario Vukotić, Damijan Miljavec
University of Rome Niccolò Cusano-Laura Tribioli, Daniele Chiappini
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-24-0247
To be published on 2019-10-07 by SAE International in United States
Proposed solutions for electric vehicles range from the simple single-motor drive coupled to one axle through a mechanical differential, to more complex solutions, such as four in-wheel motors, which ask for electronic torque vectoring. Main reasons for having more than one electric machine are: reduction of the rated power of each motor, which most likely leads to simplification and cost reduction of all the electric drive components; increased reliability of the overall traction system, enhancing fault tolerance ability; increase of the degrees of freedom which allows for control strategy optimization and efficiency improvement. In particular, electrical machines efficiency generally peaks at around 75% of load and this usually leads to machine oversizing to avoid operation in low efficiency regions. The same output performance can be achieved by using two or more electrical machines, rather than only one, of smaller size and running them at partial load. In this paper, the performance of an electric vehicle with multiple electric machines is analyzed to assess the potential of overall drive train efficiency increase. In particular, the powertrain…
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Energetic Costs of ICE Starts in (P)HEV - Experimental Evaluation and Its Influence on Optimization Based Energy Management Strategies

Daimler AG-Lukas Engbroks, Pascal Knappe, Daniel Goerke, Stefan Schmiedler, Tobias Goedecke
Vienna University of Technology-Bernhard Geringer
Published 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
The overall efficiency of hybrid electric vehicles largely depends on the design and application of its energy management system (EMS). Despite the load coordination when operating the system in a hybrid mode, the EMS accounts for state changes between the different driving modes. Whether a transition between pure electric driving and internal combustion engine (ICE) powered driving is beneficial depends, among others, on the respective operation point, the route ahead as well as on the energetic expense for the engine start itself. The latter results from a complex interaction of the powertrain components and has a tremendous impact on the efficiency and quality of EMSs. Optimization based methods such as dynamic programming serve as benchmark for the design process of rule based control strategies. In case no energetic expenses are assigned to a state change, the resulting EMS suffers from being sub-optimal regarding the fuel consumption. However, an exact determination of such engine start costs has hardly been researched, yet leads to a more efficient EMS.This paper focuses on the experimental evaluation of the energetic…
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Structural Vibration and Acoustic Analysis of a 3-Phase AC Induction Motor

Peyman Poozesh
Kettering University-Anand Krishnasarma, Allan Taylor, Javad Baqersad
Published 2019-06-05 by SAE International in United States
This paper aims to study the NVH and acoustic performance of a 3-phase AC induction motor in order to develop an approach to reduce the magnetic component of noise from an electric motor in an electric vehicle (EV). The final goal of this project is to reduce the magnetic component of sound from the motor by making modifications to the end bracket of the motor housing.EVs are being considered the future of mobility mainly due to the fact that they are environment-friendly. As many companies are already investing in this technology, electric drives are set to become extremely popular in the years to come. The heart of an EV is its motor. Modern electric vehicles are quiet, furthermore with the lack of an IC engine to mask most sounds from other components, the sound from the electric motor and other auxiliary parts become more prominent. The primary source of electromagnetic noise in a motor arises from magnetic flux variations in the air gap which interfere with the resonant frequencies of the stator core. These flux…
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Target Setting Process for Hybrid Electric Drives Using TPA, Jury Study, and Torque Management

FCA US LLC-Vinod Singh, Anil Charan
InDepth Engineering Solutions-Aniket Parbat
Published 2019-06-05 by SAE International in United States
The idea of improved efficiency without compromising the “fun to drive” aspect has renewed the auto industry’s interest toward electrification and hybridization. Electric drives gain from having multiple gear ratios which can use advantageous operating set points thus increasing range. Furthermore, they benefit significantly from frequent decelerations and stopping as is experienced in city driving conditions. To recuperate as much energy as possible, deceleration is done at high torque. This presents an interesting but serious sound quality issue in the form of highly tonal whine harmonics of rapidly changing gears that do not track with vehicle speed thus being objectionable to the vehicle occupants. This paper presents an NVH target setting process for a hybrid electric transmission being integrated into two existing vehicles, one belonging to the premium segment and another aimed at enthusiasts with off-road applications. The demand for power has shifted from mechanical domain into electrical domain, and as such, the solution to electric drive NVH issues also lay partly, in the way these drive systems are calibrated. A time-domain Transfer Path Analysis…
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Test and Analysis of Electromagnetic Noise of an Electric Motor in a Pure Electric Car

Geely Automoile Research Institute-Qiang Kang, Perry Gu, Chao Gong
Tongji University-Shuguang Zuo
Published 2019-06-05 by SAE International in United States
Compared with the low-frequency ignition order of mechanical and combustion noise of an internal combustion engine, the noise of electric drive assembly of electric vehicles is mainly the high-frequency whining noise generated by electromagnetic forces of motors and gear meshing of reducers, as well as the high-frequency umbrella-shape noise generated by DC/AC pulse width modulation. Although the radiated sound power of these high frequency noise is far less than that of an internal combustion engine, the high frequency noise of the motor and the reducer is subjectively quite annoying. This paper studies the characteristics of electromagnetic noise of a permanent magnet synchronous motor in an electric car. By testing and analyzing of noise sources of an electric motor in the car and on a test rig, the spatial order characteristics and amplitude-frequency characteristics of the electromagnetic forces are revealed. The noise orders are multiples of the number of motor poles. The most critical order is 48th order, and its spatial order is 0th order. The peak of this 48th order is due to the stator’s…
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NVH Aspects of Electric Drive Unit Development and Vehicle Integration

FEV Europe GmbH-Christoph Steffens, Peter Janssen
FEV North America, Inc.-Thomas Wellmann, Todd Tousignant, Kiran Govindswamy, Dean Tomazic
Published 2019-06-05 by SAE International in United States
The automotive industry continues to develop new powertrain and vehicle technologies aimed at reducing overall vehicle-level fuel consumption. Specifically, the use of electrified propulsion systems is expected to play an increasingly important role in helping OEM’s meet fleet CO2 reduction targets for 2025 and beyond. This will also include a strong growth in the global demand for electric drive units (EDUs).The change from conventional vehicles to vehicles propelled by EDUs leads to a reduction in overall vehicle exterior and interior noise levels, especially during low-speed vehicle operation. Despite the overall noise levels being low, the NVH behavior of such vehicles can be objectionable due to the presence of tonal noise coming from electric machines and geartrain components as well as relatively high shares of road/wind noise. In order to ensure customer acceptance of electrically propelled vehicles, it is imperative that these NVH challenges are understood and solved.This paper discusses various aspects of the EDU NVH development process. This will include a discussion of the NVH target cascading methodologies for EDUs, followed by a description of…
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