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Characterization and Durability of Mold-In-Color Engineering Plastics

Mahindra & Mahindra, Ltd.-Sandeep Kumar Shukla
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2542
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Plastics are prone to photo oxidative and thermal oxidative degradation under usage conditions due to their chemical nature. From sustainability and cost standpoint, there is an increasing focus on Mold-In-Color (MIC) plastic materials. Simultaneously customer’s expectations on the perceived quality of these MIC parts has been increasing with attractive color and glossy appearance. A study was conducted to analyze the product quality and durability aspects over a prolonged exposure to accelerated weathering condition. Material selected for this study were injection molded specimens of ABS and PC/ABS used in automotive passenger vehicles. Comparative analysis was conducted before and after weathering exposure at defined intervals by using the various tools like Fourier Transform infra-red spectrometer (FTIR), thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) and universal testing machine (UTM), Izod impact tester, dynamic mechanical analyzer (DMA) to understand the impact on their chemical and mechanical properties. This study will be useful in understanding material behavior, durability, performance and product quality.
 

Systematic work flow for fatigue life prediction of Automotive components

Mahindra & Mahindra, Ltd.-Nitin Kumar Khanna, Baskar Anthonysamy, Krishna Shettipally, Manohar Kalal
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-0021
To be published on 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
Fatigue life estimation of automotive components is a critical requirement for product design and development. Automotive companies are under tremendous pressure to launch new vehicles within short duration because of customer’s changing preferences. There is a necessity to have a comprehensive virtual simulation and robust validation process to evaluate durability of vehicle as per customer usage. Test track and field test, are two of the most time-consuming activities, so there is a need of simulation process to substitute these requirements. This paper summarizes the overall process of Accelerated Durability Test with measured road loads. Based on category of vehicle, type road profiles and the customer usage pattern, the wheel forces, strains and acceleration are measured which is used to derive the equivalent duty cycles on proving ground. The wheel force transducers (WFT) are used to derive loads for fatigue life estimation. A full vehicle model is prepared in ADAMS CAR and validated through Physical testing. The loads on suspension hard points extracted from the validated MBD model. These loads at various hard-point locations, are used…
 

Damage matching criterion for development of accelerated duty cycle from road load data, and achieving right duty cycle to determine gear and bearing durability.

Romax Solutions-Amol Korde
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-0121
To be published on 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
While designing the transmission, designer needs to have a duty cycle which is a set of load cases against which he wants to confirm the durability of the same. This is done through data acquisition by running a vehicle on various terrains and converting those data points to a concise set of load cases which we term as duty cycle. This is required because data acquired has millions of data points giving value of torque and RPM at every millisecond which cannot be directly used to assess the fatigue durability of gears and bearings. Converting these millions of road load data points into fewer number of load cases is always a challenge. For a transmission designer, it is being a major hurdle to determine as what is the scientific way of converting these millions of data points into a concise duty cycle. The road load data is taken for few hundred or few thousand kilometres covering enough types of terrains on which vehicle is expected to run. But the methods available with todays engineers does…
 

Development of Methodology to Determine Toe Geometry of any Vehicle at its Early Design Stage for Optimum Tyre Life

Mahindra & Mahindra, Ltd.-Nitin Kumar Khanna, Karthik Senthi, Vignesh Natarajan
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-0105
To be published on 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
Toe setting, or the Vehicle geometry is one of the major wheel alignment parameters which directly effects handling of a vehicle. Correct toe setting ensures desired dynamic behavior of an automobile like straight line stability, cornering behavior, handling and tire durability. Incorrect setting of toe during design stage significantly deteriorates tire durability and leads to uneven tire wear. Within the current scenario in the Automotive Industry, the toe setting is majorly an iterative or a trial and error process which is both time consuming and involves higher development cost as there may be instances where 2 to 3 sets of iterations are needed before specification is finalized for production. Therefore, determining optimum toe setting at an early stage of a product development will not only save significant development time but it will also benefit in reducing product validation time and cost. Through this paper, an attempt has been made to develop a methodology for deciding toe setting for any vehicle as a First Time Right (FTR) approach to cut down on conventional, expensive & time-consuming…
 

Thumb Design and Optimization for Backhoe Loader

John Deere C&F-Kurtis Langner
John Deere India Pvt. Ltd.-Sandeep Dhotre, Surya Pratap Ponnana, Amit Ghate
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-0109
To be published on 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
Product Engineering organizations are committed to provide solutions with right quality and value to customers. Value improvement and efficient product improvement are key considerations for product engineering. In this paper, Author outlines the summary of Thumb Design and Optimization for Backhoe Loader. This project goal was to come up with own thumb design. The Backhoe thumb attachment was previously a Proprietary Design of the supplier which had two major limitations, limited opportunity of design improvements for resolving customer issues and higher total cost. The paper covers details about overcoming these limitations. In Backhoe loaders, for multiple variants of machines, four different thumbs are used. Small and mid-backhoe machine classes use 4-tine and 2-tine thumb depending upon customer applications. The design team targeted an external customer requirement of a more compact design and internal requirement of accelerating design improvement cycle time. To overcome these concerns, along with few more constraints, a full study of new thumb design was conducted. Key constraints included compatibility to current design, maintain tip forces, and optimize for a compact design. The…
 

Exploration of Cavitation-suppressing Orifice Designs for a Heavy-duty Diesel Injector Operating with Straight-Run Gasoline

Aramco Research Center - Detroit-Yuanjiang Pei, Michael L. Traver
Argonne National Laboratory-Roberto Torelli, Gina M. Magnotti, Sibendu Som
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-24-0126
To be published on 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
The occurrence of cavitation inside injectors is generally undesirable since it can cause material erosion and result in deviations from the expected operating conditions and performance. Previous numerical work employing an injector geometry measured with x-ray diagnostics and operating with a high-volatility straight-run gasoline has shown that: (1) most of the cavitation is generally observed at low needle lifts, (2) needle motion is responsible for asymmetric structures in the internal flow as well as large pressure and velocity gradients that trigger phase transition at the orifice inlets, and (3) cavitation affects the injector discharge coefficient and distribution of injected fuel. To explore the potential for material damage within the injector orifices due to cavitation cloud collapse, the cavitation-induced erosion risk assessment (CIERA) tool has been applied for the first time to the realistic geometry of a heavy-duty injector using the CONVERGE software. Critical locations with high erosive potential matched qualitatively well with x-ray scans of an eroded injector sample that underwent a durability test with straight-run gasoline. This motivated a CFD exploration of a series…
 

INSTALLING AND REMOVAL TOOLS, CONNECTOR ELECTRICAL CONTACT, TYPE I, CLASS 1, COMPOSITION A

AE-8C2 Terminating Devices and Tooling Committee
  • Aerospace Standard
  • AS81969/33
  • Current
Published 2019-06-14 by SAE International in United States
No Abstract Available.
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INSTALLING AND REMOVAL TOOLS, CONNECTOR ELECTRICAL CONTACT, TYPE II, CLASS 1, COMPOSITION A (FOR MIL-DTL-28840 CONNECTORS)

AE-8C2 Terminating Devices and Tooling Committee
  • Aerospace Standard
  • AS81969/34
  • Current
Published 2019-06-14 by SAE International in United States
No Abstract Available.
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Manufacturers’ Identification of Aerospace Electrical and Electronic Wiring Devices and Accessories

AE-8C2 Terminating Devices and Tooling Committee
  • Aerospace Standard
  • AIR1351J
  • Current
Published 2019-06-13 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) covers the general requirements for, and the listing of, manufacturers’ identification markings, names, symbols or trademarks, and CAGE codes that appear on electrical and electronic wiring devices and accessories as required by individual product specifications. Supplier markings from previous submitted listings are maintained for component traceability.
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A Novel Heating-Coating Hybrid Strategy for Wind Turbine Icing Mitigation

Iowa State University-Linyue Gao, Liqun Ma, Yang Liu, Hui Hu
Published 2019-06-10 by SAE International in United States
The electro-thermal method is most commonly used for wind turbine anti-/de-icing. The upmost drawback of such systems is the high power consumption. In the present study, we proposed to use a durable slippery liquid-infused porous surface (SLIPS) to effectively reduce the power requirement of the heating element during the anti-/de-icing process. The explorative study was conducted in the Icing Research Tunnel at Iowa State University (ISU-IRT) with a DU91-W2-250 wind turbine blade model exposed under severe icing conditions. During the experiments, while a high-speed imaging system was used to record the dynamic ice accretion process, an infrared (IR) thermal imaging system was also utilized to achieve the simultaneous surface temperature measurements over the test model. In comparison to the traditional electrical heating strategies to brutally heat massive area of entire turbine blades, a novel heating-coating hybrid strategy, i.e., combining a leading-edge (LE) heating element to cover the first 30% of the chord length (C) along with using SLIPS to coat entire blade surface, was found to be able to keep the entire blade surface completely…
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