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Experimental Study on Static and Fatigue Behavior of a Short Glass Fiber Reinforced Polypropylene

FCA US LLC-Mingchao Guo, Congyue Wang, Jian Tao, Ramchandra Bhandarkar
InDepth Engineering Solutions-Johnson Joseph
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0190
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
One approach of reducing vehicle weight is using composite materials. Fiber reinforced polypropylene is one of the most popular composite materials. To improve accuracy in prediction of durability performance of structures made of this kind of composite material, static and fatigue properties of a 30% fiber reinforced polypropylene have been physically studied. This paper describes details of test coupon design, fabrication and test setup of both quasi static and fatigue tests. In this study, various fiber orientation (0, 20, 90 degrees & knit line), temperature (-40, 23 and 80 degree C), mean stress (R=-1.0, -0.5, -0.2, 0.1 and 0.4) have been considered and the result of the tests discussed.
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Fatigue life Prediction of HVAC pipe assembly for measured powertrain load by virtual simulation

FCA Engineering India Pvt., Ltd.-Sathish Kumar Pandi, C Elango, Kameswara Rao Appana, Roshan N. Mahadule, DivaKaruni Murali Krishna
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0188
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Structural durability of automotive components is one of the key requirements in design and development of today’s automobiles. Virtual simulations are used to estimate component durability to save the cost and time required to build the components and testing. The objective of this work is to find the service life of automotive HVAC pipe assembly by calculating cumulative fatigue life for operation under actual powertrain load conditions. Modal transient response analysis is performed using MSC-Nastran with the measured powertrain load time history. Strain based fatigue life analysis is carried out in n-code using modal superposition method (MSM). The estimated fatigue life was compared with the physical test results. This paper also explains the root cause of low fatigue life on pipe assembly and provide the solution. Keywords: Durability, HVAC Pipe, Powertrain, Modal Transient, Fatigue Life
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Design of the powder metal shift fork and sleeve

Czech Technical University-Gabriela Achtenova, Jiri Pakosta
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1322
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The paper will present the design of shift fork for automotive manual gearbox dedicated for the manufacturing with help of powder metal technology. Based on limitations and requirements of new production technology of shifting sleeve, a new prototype of shifting sleeve is created, for which are new shifting forks then designed. The form of the prototype of the shift sleeve respected the requirements of the new technology, but from cost reason, it was manufactured from steel. The shift fork was changed accordingly to the new form of the shift sleeve. The functionality of several forks with different tolerances was tested. Prototypes were put through functional and durability tests on testing bench in real automotive gearbox. The test were accomplished on the inertia test stand. Drawings and CAD models of tested prototypes, custom tools and designed shift forks will be described.
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Frame structure durability development methodology for various design phases

FCA Engineereing India Pvt., Ltd.-Raghavendra Byali, Venkatesh Naik
FCA US LLC-Chandra Thandhayuthapani, Barry Lin, Jianghui Mao
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0196
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
It is a challenging task to find an optimal design concept for a truck frame structure given the complexity of loading conditions, vehicle configurations, packaging and other requirements. In addition, there is a great emphasis on light weight frame design to meet stringent emission standards. This paper provides a framework for fast and efficient development of a frame structure through various design phases, keeping durability in perspective while utilizing various weight reduction techniques. In this approach frame weight and stiffness are optimized to meet strength and durability performance requirements. Fast evaluation of different frame configurations during the concept phase (I) was made possible by using DFSS (Design For Six Sigma) based system synthesis techniques. This resulted in a very efficient frame ladder concept selection process. Frame gauge optimization during the subsequent development phase (II) utilizing a newly developed damage based approach greatly reduced the number of design iterations relative to a typical stress based approach. In the light weighting phase(III) that followed, a method was established to effectively locate and optimize lightening holes using fatigue…
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N&V Component Structural Integration and Mounted Component Durability Implications

General Motors LLC-Mark Stebbins, Joseph Schudt
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1396
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Exterior component integration has presented competing integration challenges for suitable exterior styling, safety, N&V structural feel and component durability balanced performances. Industry standard practice of N&V vehicle mode mapping uses vehicle source, path and receiver considerations for component mode frequency placement. Mounted component mode frequency performance can have an influence on structural feel and durability performances. Component integration headwinds have increased with additional nonstructural component styling content, component size, component mass and added sensor modules. Based on first principles, the effective mass of exterior mounted components are increased due to the geometric overhang from structure. Component input vibration levels are compounded due to the cantilevered nature as well as relative positioning to the suspension and propulsion vehicle source inputs locations. Examples of vehicle end mounted components include but are not limited to headlamps, side mirrors, end gates, bumpers and fascia. Our goal is to establish basic expectations for the behavior of these systems, and ultimately to consolidate our existing rational and approaches that can be applied to such integrated systems. The focus of this paper…
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A Robust Methodology for Predicting the Fatigue Life of an Automotive Closures System Subjected to Hinge and Check Link Load

Ford India Pvt., Ltd.-Nirmal Puthuvayil, Sivasankari S
RLE India Pvt., Ltd.-Thoheer Zaman
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0599
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Quality in the automotive industry symbolizes the development and the manufacturing of vehicles whose specifications meet customer requirements. Among the quality issues, opening and closing effort of any closures in a vehicle is a characteristic that strongly affects the customer first opinion about vehicle design. The closure opening and closing effort is affected by different uncertainties like opening angle, load to the check-link, hinge stoppage, materials and manufacturing process. A check stop & hinge stop load durability cycle occurs when a customer opens the closures beyond the closure detent position with a force applied on the check link or hinge check stops. Due to few uncertainties like abuse opening, manufacturing imperfections, weak mounting locations, the closures will be subjected to fatigue failure. The present study is aimed to introduce a probabilistic frame-work for fatigue life reliability analysis that addresses the uncertainties associated with door opening-closing effort due to check-hinge loads, door closure opening angles and hinge stop tolerance. A fatigue life probabilistic model of various closure systems was developed using Monte-Carlo simulation, where the stress…
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ANALYSIS BASIC DURECTIONS OF ACCELERATED TESTING DEVELOPMENT

Sohar Inc.-Lev Klyatis
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0533
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
This paper is discussing the author’s classification of accelerated testing development. It considers analysis of four basic directions of this development: 1) field accelerated testing; 2) laboratory testing using computer (software) simulation; 3) laboratory or proving ground testing with physical simulation of high stress inputs; 4) accelerated reliability/durability testing (ART/ADT) as a component of system for successful prediction of product efficiency.
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DFD Stratagem Investigation on Suspension Subframe Durability Test with Spindle Coupled Road Test Simulator

F.tech R&D North America Inc.-Jianghua Gao, Matt Guo, Xin Zhang, Xiao Yu
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0992
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
In order to replicate the vehicle chassis proving ground (PG) durability test on the laboratory half vehicle spindle coupled Road Test Simulator (RTS), a drive file which can excite the actuators of the RTS to duplicate the chassis component stress state need to be developed. Traditionally the Drive File Development (DFD) aims to match the spindle forces and moments in addition with some supplement channels such as the tierod axial forces and the spring travels. However the suspension subframe which was connected to the vehicle body may particularly experience a different stress state on the RTS due to the boundary condition discrepancy between the vehicle PG test and the laboratory RTS test. In this paper, the investigation of the different boundary conditions impact on the chassis structures’ stress state is conducted both physically and virtually. It’s proved that the subframe stress state has a non-negligible difference from full vehicle PG test to the half vehicle spindle coupled RTS test using the conventional DFD stratagem. Thus, a special DFD stratagem which employees the subframe strain road…
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Frequency Domain Analysis of 2-Wheeler Systems

CAEfatigue Ltd.-Neil Bishop, Harsha Kolar
Hero MotoCorp Ltd.-Mohit Sethi
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0476
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Two-wheeler vehicles (motor bikes & Scooters) are complex mechanical systems. The design of such systems requires sophisticated analysis and test techniques to be used in an integrated durability process. Traditionally, analysis techniques for such systems have focused on time-based methods primarily because no viable alternatives existed. However, it has been known since the 1960's that the frequency domain method for structural analysis offers superior qualitative information about structural response. This paper will present new methodologies which have been implemented by HeroMotoCorp for fatigue analysis, collision (gap) detection, and component load development (loads Enveloping) of such systems.
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Durability study of automotive additive manufactured specimens

Colorado Photopolymer Solutions-Amelia Davenport, Neil Cramer
Eastern Michigan University-Forough Zareanshahraki
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0957
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The long term weathering behavior of three different 3D printable, non-stabilized UV cure resin formulations (A and B with thiol-ene, and C with acrylate chemistry) was studied using tensile testing, nano-indentation, and photoacoustic infrared (PAS-FTIR) spectroscopy. To this end, type IV tensile bars were printed from each resin system using a DLP 3D printer, and were post UV-cured under a broad spectrum source. Systems A and C showed a similar trend after weathering - they first experienced an increase in modulus and tensile strength, likely due to additional crosslinking of the residual unreacted species. This increase in mechanical properties was followed by a drop in modulus, tensile strength, and percent elongation due to the over-crosslinking and consequent embrittlement. Sample B, however, showed remarkable retention of the mechanical properties before/after weathering. Nano-indentation results were in good agreement with the tensile properties, showing a similar trend in hardness variations. Although systems A and C outperformed system B in photooxidation performance, all three systems demonstrated promising results considering no hindered amine light stabilizers (HALS) were used in the…