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A Technical Review on Performance and Emissions of Compressed Natural Gas – Diesel Dual Fuel Engine

Indian Oil Corp Ltd-M. Muralidharan, M Subramanian
University of Petroleum and Energy Studi-Ajay Srivastava
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2390
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
In view of the depletion of energy and environmental pollution, dual fuel technology has caught the attention of researchers as a viable technology keeping in mind the increased availability of fuels like Compressed Natural Gas (CNG). It is an ecologically friendly technology due to lower PM and smoke emissions and retains the efficiency of diesel combustion. Generally, dual fuel technology has been prevalent for large engines like marine, locomotive and stationary engines. However, its use for automotive engines has been limited in the past due to constraints of the limited supply of alternative fuels. CNG is a practical fuel under dual-fuel mode operation, with varying degree of success. The induction method prevents a premixed natural gas-air mixture, minimizes the volumetric efficiency and results in a loss of power at higher speeds. Under lower engine operating temperatures, at low-intermediate loads, the NOx emissions reduces however HC and CO emissions are significantly increased. This paper reviews the performance and emissions of compressed natural gas (CNG) – diesel dual fuel engine.
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Literature Review on Dual-Fuel Combustion Modelling

Lund University-Menno Merts, Sebastian Verhelst
Published 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
In the search for low greenhouse gas propulsion, the dual fuel engine provides a solution to use low carbon fuel at diesel-like high efficiency. Also a lower emission of NOx and particles can be achieved by replacing a substantial part of the diesel fuel by for example natural gas. Limitations can be found in excessively high heat release rate (combustion-knock), and high methane emissions. These limitations are strongly influenced by operating parameters and properties of the used (bio)-gas. To find the dominant relations between fuel properties, operating parameters and the heat release rate and methane emissions, a combustion model is beneficial. Such a model can be used for optimizing the process, or can even be used in real time control. As precursor for such a model, the current state of art of dual fuel combustion modelling is investigated in this work.The focus is on high speed dual fuel engines for heavy duty and marine applications, with a varying gas/diesel ratio. Modelling is limited to the closed part of the 4-stroke engine cycle. A methodology part…
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Experimental and Numerical Analysis of a Dual Fuel Operation of Turbocharged Engine at Mid-High Load

Univ. of Zagreb-Darko Kozarac, Mladen Bozic, Ante Vucetic, Josip Krajnovic, Momir Sjeric
Published 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
In the paper the operation of a turbocharged dual fuel engine at mid-high load is investigated on a single cylinder experimental engine complemented by a full 0D/1D simulation model that provides boundary conditions for the experiment and full engine system results. When duel fuel combustion mode is used on a turbocharged engine with the variable geometry turbocharger, the mid-high load operating points can be obtained with number of different combinations of intake pressure and excess air ratio. Besides the impact on combustion, the specific combination of intake pressure - excess air ratio has also impact on the exhaust back pressure caused by the turbocharger and consequently on the obtained brake efficiency. Additionally, the dual fuel combustion is influenced by natural gas mass fraction and start of injection of diesel fuel and the search for the optimal solution could be a challenging task. The method presented here enables the use of a single cylinder experimental engine in this search, while simultaneously taking into account the influences of the effects of a full engine system. The results…
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Investigation of the Ignition Process of Pilot Injections Using CFD

ETH Zurich-Christophe Barro, Omar Seddik, Yuri M. Wright, Sushant Pandurangi, Konstantinos Boulouchos
Vir2sense GmbH-Panagiotis Kyrtatos
Published 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
State of the art high-pressure fuel injectors offer the ability to inject multiple times per cycle, and can reach very low fuel amounts per injection event. This behaviour allows the application of pilot injections in diesel engine applications or dual fuel engines. In both diesel and dual fuel engines, the amount of pilot fuel affects the engine efficiency. The understanding of the underlying ignition mechanism of the pilot fuel is required to optimize injection parameters and the engines’ fuel consumption.The present work focuses on the differences of ignition mechanisms between long and short injections. The investigation has been performed numerically, using CFD with a well-proven combustion model. The setup used employs a well characterized single orifice injector, injecting into a high temperature, pressurized environment with a composition of 15% oxygen. The duration of injection (DOI) has been gradually decreased form 1.5 ms to 0.3 ms, while a square mass flow rate profile has been employed.The analysis distinguishes between long, medium and short DOIs: the reference ignition delay is defined by the long DOIs, for which…
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Process for Study of Micro-pilot Diesel-NG Dual Fuel Combustion in a Constant Volume Combustion Vessel Utilizing the Premixed Pre-burn Procedure

Michigan Technological University-Xuebin Yang, Vinicius Bonfochi Vinhaes, Jeffrey Naber, Mahdi Shahbakhti, Henry Schmidt, William Atkinson
Westport Fuel Systems-Marco Turcios, Gordon McTaggart-Cowan
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
A constant volume spray and combustion vessel utilizing the pre-burn mixture procedure to generate pressure, temperature, and composition characteristic of near top dead center (TDC) conditions in compression ignition (CI) engines was modified with post pre-burn gas induction to incorporate premixed methane gas prior to diesel injection to simulate processes in dual fuel engines. Two variants of the methane induction system were developed and studied. The first used a high-flow modified direct injection injector and the second utilized auxiliary ports in the vessel that are used for normal intake and exhaust events. Flow, mixing, and limitations of the induction systems were studied. As a result of this study, the high-flow modified direct injection injector was selected because of its controlled actuation and rapid closure.Further studies of the induction system post pre-burn were conducted to determine the temperature limit of the methane auto-ignition. It was found that for sufficient induction and mixing time determined from experimental observations and CFD modeling studies, a maximum core temperature of 750 K at the time of micro-pilot diesel injection can…
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The Performance and Emissions of a Conventional Natural Gas/Diesel Dual Fuel Engine at Various Operating Conditions

University of Zagreb-Darko Kozarac, Mario Sremec, Mladen Bozic, Ante Vucetic
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
The dual fuel combustion mode, the use of bi-fueled natural gas and diesel fuel, is an attractive alternative to standard spark ignition or compression ignition combustion modes due to potential benefits of lower CO2 emissions, lower fuel costs and the use of a fuel with an alternative supply chain. Besides the potential benefits, the dual fuel combustion mode also has its challenges. There is limited data available in the literature that illustrates how the performance of a dual fuel engine changes over the entire engine map at various operating conditions; this paper presents a comprehensive set of experimental results obtained with the conventional dual fuel operation (diesel/natural gas) at ambient intake conditions to help fill this knowledge gap. In the current experiments, methane from gas cylinders is substituted for natural gas and is injected into the intake port, while standard diesel is directly injected and used as an ignition source on a single cylinder experimental engine. The presented results are obtained at optimized operating points in terms of start of injection timing, where the criterion…
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Optical Investigation of the Impact of Pilot Ratio Variations on Natural Gas Diesel Dual-Fuel Combustion

University of Wisconsin - Madison-Keith R. Dahl, Jaal Ghandhi, David Rothamer
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Experiments were performed on a small-bore optically accessible engine to investigate diesel pilot ignition (DPI) and reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI) dual-fuel combustion strategies with direct injection of natural gas and diesel. Parametric variations of pilot ratio were performed. Natural luminosity and OH chemiluminescence movies of the combustion processes were captured at 28.8 and 14.4 kHz, respectively. These data were used to create ignition maps, which aided in comparing the propagation modes of the two combustion strategies. Lower pilot ratios resulted in lower initial heat release rates, and the initial ignition sites were generally smaller and less luminous; for increased pilot ratios the initial portion of the heat release was larger, and the ignition sites were large and bright. Comparisons between diesel pilot ignition and reactivity controlled compression ignition showed differences in combustion propagation mechanisms. DPI displayed a steady combustion propagation speed with regularly sized ignition sites. These sites grow into wedges that follow the shape of the diesel jets. From there, the combustion spreads to the spaces between the wedges and fills the field…
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Analysis of Dual Fuel Combustion in Single Cylinder Research Engine Fueled with Methane and Diesel by IR Diagnostics

Istituto Motori CNR-Ezio Mancaruso, Bianca Maria Vaglieco
University Parthenope & Istituto Motori-Michele Todino
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
In the present study, dual fuel mode is investigated in a single cylinder optical compression ignition (CI) research engine. Methane is injected in the intake manifold while the diesel is delivered via the standard injector directly into the engine. The aim is to study by non-intrusive diagnostics the effect of increasing methane concentration at constant injected diesel amount during the combustion evolution from start of combustion.IR imaging is applied in cycle resolved mode. Three filters are adopted to detect from injection to combustion phase with high spatial and temporal resolution: OD1.45 (3-5.5 μm), band pass 3.3 μm (hydrocarbons) and band pass 4.2 μm (CO2).Using the band pass IR imaging qualitative information about fuel-vapor distribution and ignition locations during low and high temperature combustion have been provided.The detected combustion emission both in the visible and IR wavelength range is measured by the images and compared with the in-cylinder pressure measurements and the ROHR. It was observed that the ignition delay is not affected by the premixed charge of methane and the combustion duration increases adding higher…
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Data Driven Modeling of In-Cylinder Pressure of a Dual Fuel Compression Ignition Engine Operated with Renewable Fuels Using State Space Approach

Hindustan Institute ofTechnology&Science-Sasikumar Nandagopal
MIT Campus Anna University-Senthil Kumar Masimalai, Kamalanand Krishnamurthy
Published 2018-07-09 by SAE International in United States
This research work is about the development of a data-driven model of a dual fuel diesel engine fuelled with renewable fuels (waste cooking oil and ethanol). In the first phase of the work, test engine was modified to operate in a dual fuel mode with ethanol as primary fuel and waste cooking oil as pilot fuel. It is followed by the development of the algebraic model comprising of sub-models like gas exchange process, charge compression process, combustion and expansion process. Wiebe’s function was used to develop the combustion model. In the second phase of the work a data driven model was developed using state space approach. Engine power output, mass of air, mass of waste cooking oil, mass of ethanol, in-cylinder volume and experimental pressure data were feed as the input to the model. Model is solved for in-cylinder pressure data. It was trained until the output of the model matches the experimental pressure data. Prediction error method was used to estimate outputs of the state space model. Further, the performance and prediction capability of…
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In-Use Efficiency of Oxidation and Three-Way Catalysts Used in High-Horsepower Dual Fuel and Dedicated Natural Gas Engines

SAE International Journal of Engines

West Virginia University-Derek Johnson, Mahdi Darzi, Nigel Clark, Andrew Nix, Robert Heltzel
  • Journal Article
  • 03-11-03-0026
Published 2018-07-01 by SAE International in United States
Directional drilling rigs and hydraulic stimulation equipment typically use diesel fueled compression ignition (CI) engines. The majority of these engines are compliant with US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Tier 2 standards. To reduce fuel costs, industry is investing in dual fuel (DF) and dedicated natural gas (DNG) engines. DF engines use diesel oxidation catalysts (DOCs) to reduce CO and NMHC emissions. DNG engines may be either lean-burn or rich-burn and the latter uses three-way catalysts (TWC) to reduce CO, NMHC, and NOx emissions. This research presents in-use catalyst efficiency data collected pre- and post-catalyst for three DF engines and two DNG engines. One DF engine was converted earlier and did not include a DOC. Data were collected from six Tier 2 engines, two CI drilling engines converted to operate as DF, two CI hydraulic fracturing engines converted to operate as DF, and two SI DNG drilling engines. DF engines with DOCs were able to reduce CO and NMHC during DF operation by >90 and >50%, respectively. The DOCs did not reduce methane and NOx emissions.…
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