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Development of Dual Fuel Engine Fuelled with Used Cooking Oil Biodiesel and Ethanol-an Experimental Study on performance and combustion characteristics

Hindustan Institute of Technology & Science-Ramanathan Velmurugan, Jaikumar Mayakrishnan, Vijayabalan Palanimuthu, Sasikumar Nandagopal, Sangeethkumar Elumalai, Shridhar Anaimuthu, Vamshidhar Busireddy
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0803
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
This paper is to investigate the performance and combustion characteristics of compression ignition engine fuelled with ethanol enhanced used cooking oil biodiesel. In this study, used cooking oil biodiesel was injected through a regular fuel injection system and ethanol of various flow rates was inducted through the intake manifold to improve the air-fuel homogeneity in the cylinder. This injection flow rate was metered by an electronic control unit. The engine test was conducted in different load conditions from no load to full load in a fully instrumented direct injection water-cooled compression ignition engine. The results indicated that the engine produced higher brake thermal efficiency, exhaust gas temperature, carbon dioxide emissions, cylinder peak pressure, peak heat release rate, ignition delay and lower combustion duration at higher rated power condition. However, the combustion characteristics of ethanol enhanced used cooking oil biodiesel was found marginal decrease at low rated power conditions in comparison to that of diesel.
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Numerical Investigation of Diesel-Spray-Orientated Piston Bowls on Natural Gas and Diesel Dual Fuel Combustion Engine

Zhaojie Shen
Brunel University-Xinyan Wang, Hua Zhao
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0311
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Low combustion efficiency and high hydrocarbon emissions at low load are key issues of natural gas and diesel dual fuel engines. For better engine performance, two diesel-spray-orientated (DSO) bowls were developed based on the existing diesel injector of a heavy-duty diesel engine with the purpose of placing more combustible natural gas/air mixture around the diesel spray jets. A bulge-ring was designed at the rim of the piston bowl to enhance the in-cylinder flame propagation. Numerical simulations were conducted for a whole engine cycle by using STAR-CD 4.22 at engine speed of 1200 r/min and indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP) of 0.6 MPa. ECFM-3Z combustion model with built-in soot emissions model was employed. In this paper, natural gas was considered as a mixture of 95% methane and 5% ethanol. Simulation results of the original piston bowl agreed well with the experimental data, including in-cylinder pressure and heat released rate, as well as soot and methane emissions. Turbulence kinetic energy, combustion efficiency and methane emissions of the DSO piston geometries were compared with that of the original…
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Performance and Noise of Dual Fuel Engine Running on Cottonseed & Soybean Raw Oils and Their Methyl Esters as Pilot Fuels

Helwan University-Hosam E. Saleh
United Arab Emirates University-Mohamed Y. E. Selim
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0811
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The cottonseed oil, soybean oil and their methyl esters have been used as a pilot fuels for dual fuel engine running on the LPG as the main fuel. A variable compression research diesel engine has been converted to run on dual fuel of LPG and a pilot fuel derived from the renewable liquid fuels above. The engine has been instrumented to measure the combustion pressure, crank angles, exhaust temperature, flow rates of air, pilot fuel and gaseous fuel. The effects of changing the following parameters have been studied: the mass of pilot fuel, the mass of gaseous fuel, the pilot fuel injection timing, engine speed and the pilot fuel type. Five different pilot fuels has been tested here namely the cottonseed raw oil, the cottonseed methyl ester, the soybean raw oil, the soybean methyl ester and the diesel fuel as a reference fuel. The results presented included the combustion noise (as maximum pressure rise rate), the heat release rate, the maximum combustion pressure, the exhaust temperature, the brake and indicated mean effective pressures. It has…
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Experimental Comparison of Biogas and Natural Gas as Vibration, Emission, and Performance in a Diesel Engine Converted to a Dual Fuel

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Ege University, Turkey-Günnur Koçar, Abdulhalik Emre Teksan
Turkey-Emre Aytav
  • Journal Article
  • 04-13-01-0004
Published 2020-01-27 by SAE International in United States
Biogas, natural gas, and their usage in the diesel engine will be important in the future. For this purpose, the effects of biogas on engine performance, emissions, and engine vibrations of the diesel engines with dual fuel system are investigated in comparison with natural gas. It has also been included in evaluating the deformation of the engine oil due to hydrogen sulfide combustion reactions. In this study, a constant speed, naturally aspirated, and direct injection of the diesel engine with volume of 2.5 liter has been converted into a dual fuel system that can be included in gas fuels. In order to determine engine performance, exhaust emissions, engine vibration, and noise, the tests were carried out at load stages of 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 kW and at a constant speed of 1500 rpm. The experiments were first performed in a mono operation condition of the conventional diesel fuel. Subsequently, tests were repeated under natural gas/diesel and biogas/diesel dual fuel operation conditions, respectively. As a result of the tests, it was observed that the…
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Development of a 3D-CFD Model for a Full Optical High-Pressure Dual-Fuel Engine

SAE International Journal of Engines

Technical University of Munich, Germany-Stephanie Frankl, Stephan Gleis
  • Journal Article
  • 03-13-02-0017
Published 2020-01-27 by SAE International in United States
In times of ever stricter exhaust emission regulations, the importance of alternative combustion processes in internal combustion engines continues to grow. One approach to create a combustion progress which produces low CO2, soot, and methane emissions is the “High-Pressure Dual-Fuel” (HPDF)-combustion. Here, the direct-injected methane is ignited by a small amount of pilot-diesel and burns in a diffusive combustion mode. This study describes the development of a three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (3D-CFD) model for the HPDF-combustion. A Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) approach with k-epsilon modelling for turbulence was chosen for the calculation of the flow field. The pilot fuel injection is implemented by using Lagrangian Particle Methods, whereas the gas injection is a mass flow boundary which is derived from measurements of the injector. The model is validated using data from a fully optically accessible single-cylinder research engine. The flow field is compared with particle image velocimetry (PIV) data taken before the start of injection (SOI). Concerning pilot injection, a grid convergence study is conducted and an optimization is developed to reduce computational costs. The penetration…
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Reliability study of glow plug fixation of heated plastic fuel rail

Robert Bosch Ltda.-André Morais Ferreira, André Veras de Melo, Marcos Gomes Bissolatti
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0092
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
Cold start systems used on flex fuel engines to assist engine start are equipped with heated plastic fuel rails, which contain glow plugs to heat up injected fuel. The rail assembled on the engine is under cyclic and constant pressure caused by injectors activation and fuel feeding and is considered safety relevant due to risk of fuel leakage. This paper describes application of one comprehensive design for reliability (DfR) method called physics of failure (PoF) to predict product life. The method was applied on a plastic fuel rail design to understand failure mechanism, critical points and to model the stress-strength relationship. As outcome, it was possible to quantitatively determine the cause-effect relationship between design parameters and failure probability and to gain insights into design margins and limits. The predicted model was validated with actual stress tests.
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Effects of Piston Bowl Diameter on Combustion Characteristics of a Natural gas/Diesel Dual Fuel Engine

Kyoto University-Keigo Takizawa, Hidetake Tanaka, Naoto Horibe, Takuji Ishiyama
Osaka Gas Co., Ltd.-Takahiro Sako
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2173
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
Natural gas/diesel dual fuel engines have potential for a high thermal efficiency and low NOx emissions. However, they have the disadvantages of high unburned species emissions and lower thermal efficiencies at low loads (at low equivalence ratio). A way to solve this problem is to properly distribute the pilot fuel vapor in a natural-gas premixture. The combustion chamber geometry affects the combustion process since it influences the distribution of the pilot fuel vapor. This study investigates the influence of injection conditions and the piston bowl geometry on the performance and emissions of a dual fuel engine. Experiments were carried out using two pistons with different bowl diameters, 52 mm and 58 mm, at single-and two-stage diesel-fuel injection. The results show that the larger bowl provides lower hydrocarbon emissions at a lower equivalence ratio in the case of single-stage injection. For two-stage injection, the influence of the bowl diameter depends on the timing of the first injection. To elucidate the effects of pilot fuel distribution, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) calculations were conducted for non-reacting pilot fuel…
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A Technical Review on Performance and Emissions of Compressed Natural Gas - Diesel Dual Fuel Engine

Indian Oil Corp., Ltd.-M. Muralidharan, M Subramanian
University of Petroleum and Energy Studies-Ajay Srivastava
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2390
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
In view of the depletion of energy and environmental pollution, dual fuel technology has caught the attention of researchers as a viable technology keeping in mind the increased availability of fuels like Compressed Natural Gas (CNG). It is an ecologically friendly technology due to lower particulate matter (PM) and smoke emissions and retains the efficiency of diesel combustion. Generally, dual fuel technology has been prevalent for large engines like marine, locomotive and stationary engines. However, its use for automotive engines has been limited in the past due to constraints of the limited supply of alternative fuels. CNG is a practical fuel under dual-fuel mode operation, with varying degree of success. The induction method prevents a premixed natural gas-air mixture, minimizes the volumetric efficiency and results in a loss of power at higher speeds. Under lower engine operating temperatures, at low-intermediate loads, the oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions reduce however hydrocarbon (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions are significantly increased. This paper reviews the fuel properties of CNG comparison with diesel, methods available to use CNG…
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Effect of PODE-Diesel Blends as High-Reactivity Fuel in a Dual-Fuel RCCI Combustion

SAE International Journal of Engines

Anna University, India-Murugan Rangasamy, Ganesh Duraisamy, Nagarajan Govindan
  • Journal Article
  • 03-13-02-0011
Published 2019-11-14 by SAE International in United States
To overcome the limitations such as lower combustion efficiency (CE) and higher cyclic variability in methanol/diesel (M/D) reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI) combustion, a fuel having higher reactivity than diesel (i.e., polyoxymethylene dimethyl ethers, PODE) was used in our previous study. Methanol/PODE RCCI combustion resulted in improved CE and reduction in soot and unburned emissions compared to M/D RCCI combustion. However, it was noticed that the use of neat PODE as high-reactivity fuel had damaged the fuel line materials frequently due to its higher oxygen content and lower viscosity. In addition, Methanol/PODE RCCI has also resulted in higher NO emissions compared to M/D RCCI combustion. Hence to sort this out, an attempt is made in this study to investigate the effect of PODE-diesel blend on dual-fuel RCCI combustion in order to propose a suitable blend proportion which can tackle the fuel line material damage, increased NO emissions, CE, and cyclic variability. In the present investigation three PODE-diesel blends, namely, PODE10, PODE30, and PODE50, have been prepared and tested at 21 kW and 28 kW fuel…
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Literature Review on Dual-Fuel Combustion Modelling

Lund University-Menno Merts, Sebastian Verhelst
Published 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
In the search for low greenhouse gas propulsion, the dual fuel engine provides a solution to use low carbon fuel at diesel-like high efficiency. Also a lower emission of NOx and particles can be achieved by replacing a substantial part of the diesel fuel by for example natural gas. Limitations can be found in excessively high heat release rate (combustion-knock), and high methane emissions. These limitations are strongly influenced by operating parameters and properties of the used (bio)-gas. To find the dominant relations between fuel properties, operating parameters and the heat release rate and methane emissions, a combustion model is beneficial. Such a model can be used for optimizing the process, or can even be used in real time control. As precursor for such a model, the current state of art of dual fuel combustion modelling is investigated in this work.The focus is on high speed dual fuel engines for heavy duty and marine applications, with a varying gas/diesel ratio. Modelling is limited to the closed part of the 4-stroke engine cycle. A methodology part…
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