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Feedback Control of Synchronizers for Reducing Impacts during Sleeve to Gear Engagement

CEVT China Euro Vehicle Technology-Johan Hellsing
Chalmers University of Technology-Muddassar Zahid Piracha, Anders Grauers
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0960
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
This paper presents a feedback control strategy aimed to reduce noise and wear during gearshifts in conventional and hybrid Dual Clutch Transmissions (DCT and DCTH) and Automated Manual Transmissions (AMT). The control strategy is based on a new dog teeth position sensor developed by China Euro Vehicle Technology AB and existing speed sensors in the transmission. During gear shifting, noise is generated by impacts between the sleeve teeth and the idler gear dog teeth after speed synchronization. Besides noise, these impacts are also responsible for delaying the completion of shift and contribute to wear in the dog teeth, hence reducing the lifespan of the transmission. The presented control strategy controls speed synchronization such that the impact between sleeve and idler gear dog teeth, before the start of torque ramp up, is avoided. Since drag torque is an important factor in speed synchronization, this paper also contains an algorithm to identify friction torque coefficient in the transmission. The identification method ensures that the controller adapts to varying conditions without the need for offline calibration. The control…
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Modeling, Validation and Control Strategy Development of a Hybrid Super Sport Car Based on Lithium Ion Capacitors

Automobili Lamborghini Spa-Riccardo Parenti, Maurizio Reggiani
University of Bologna-Alessandro Franceschi, Nicolo Cavina, Enrico Corti
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0442
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Today, the contribution of the transportation sector on greenhouse gases is evident. The fast consumption of fossil fuels and its impact on the environment have given a strong impetus to the development of vehicles with better fuel economy. Hybrid electric vehicles fit into this context with different targets, starting from the reduction of emissions and fuel consumption, but also for performance and comfort enhancement.Lamborghini has recently invested in the development of a hybrid super sport car, due to performance and comfort reasons. Aventador series gearbox is an Independent Shift Rod gearbox with a single clutch and during gear shifts, as all the single clutch gearbox do, it generates a torque gap. To avoid the additional weight of a Dual Clutch Transmission, a 48V Electric Motor has been connected to the wheels, in a P3 configuration, to fill the torque gap, and to habilitate regenerative braking and electric boost functions.This paper discusses the usage of a control-oriented vehicle and powertrain model to analyze the performance of the first Lithium Ion Capacitor-based hybrid V12 by Automobili Lamborghini.…
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Dynamics and Control of Gearshifts in Wet-Type Dual Clutch Transmission for BEVs

Huazhong University of Science and Technology-Zhenxiong Lou, Yupeng Duan, Yunqing Zhang
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0767
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The dual clutch transmission is one of the possible choices for electric vehicle drivelines. The basic principle and control mode of shifting of wet dual clutch transmission are introduced, and the dynamic process of shifting of wet double clutch transmission is studied. Combined with the dynamic model of the wet clutch engagement process, the difference between the dynamic characteristics of the dual clutch transmission modeling using the Coulomb friction model and the dual-clutch transmission model using the average flow model and the micro-convex contact theory is analyzed. The shift control strategy of the dual clutch transmission proposes a correction method to improve the shifting smoothness. Studies have shown that the torque response of the wet clutch has significant hysteresis, and the improved control algorithm can significantly improve the shifting smoothness of the wet dual clutch transmission. Based on the dynamic model of the wet clutch, the torque interruption of the shift control strategy of the dual clutch transmission is studied, and the method of improving the shift smoothness by the correction of the shift control…
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Automatic Transmissions - Schematic Diagrams

Automatic Transmission and Transaxle Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J647_201911
  • Current
Published 2019-11-19 by SAE International in United States
The following schematic diagrams reflect various methods of illustrating automotive transmission arrangements. These have been developed to facilitate a clear understanding of the functional interrelations of the gearing, clutches, hydrodynamic drive unit, and other transmission components. Two variations of transmission diagrams are used: in neutral (clutches not applied), and in gear. For illustrative purposes, some typical transmissions are shown.
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Dual Clutch Transmission Vibrations during Gear Shift: A Simulation-Based Approach for Clunking Noise Assessment

Politecnico di Torino-Enrico Galvagno, Luca Dimauro, Gianluca Mari, Mauro Velardocchia, Angelo Domenico Vella
Published 2019-06-05 by SAE International in United States
A novel methodology, for the assessment of Dual Clutch Transmission vibrations during gear shifts, is proposed in this paper. It is based on the capability to predict through numerical simulation a typical dynamic quantity used to objectively evaluate the vibrational behavior of a gearbox during experimental tests, i.e. the acceleration of a point on the external surface of the gearbox housing. To achieve this result, a two-step approach is proposed: an accurate simulation of the internal transmission dynamics and an offline uncoupled computation of the gearbox housing acceleration from the output of the simulation. The first step required the definition of a suitable nonlinear lumped parameter model of the car equipped with a DCT that was implemented in Amesim software. The second step, developed as a post processing tool in Matlab, is based on the knowledge of the inertance Frequency Response Functions (FRFs) between a single component of force applied in a bearing and a single component of acceleration in the measurement point. The indices used to assess the clunk severity are peak to peak…
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Model Based Control of Synchronizers for Reducing Impacts during Sleeve to Gear Engagement

CEVT China Euro Vehicle Technology-Eva Barrientos, Henrique Budacs, Johan Hellsing
Chalmers University of Technology-Anders Grauers
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
This paper presents a model based control strategy aimed to reduce noise and wear during gearshifts in conventional and hybrid Dual Clutch Transmissions (DCT and DCTH) and Automated Manual Transmissions (AMT). The control strategy is based on a newly developed dog teeth position sensor layout at China Euro Vehicle Technology AB (CEVT), a detailed simulation model for gear engagement and already existing speed sensors in the transmission. The details of dog teeth position sensor and simulation model are also presented in this paper. During gear shifting, noise is generated because of impacts between the sleeve teeth and the idler gear dog teeth after speed synchronization. Besides noise, these impacts are also responsible for delaying the completion of shift and contribute to wear in the dog teeth, hence reducing the lifespan of the transmission. The simulation model for gear engagement can simulate these impacts. Based on the simulation model and optimal control theory, an ideal dog teeth position trajectory is formulated that avoids the impact between sleeve and idler gear dog teeth, before the start of…
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In-Gear Slip Control Strategy of Dry-Clutch Systems Using a Sliding Mode Control

Hyundai Motor Co.-Jinsung Kim, Juhyun Nam
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
This paper proposes a clutch control strategy during in-gear driving situations for Dual Clutch Transmissions (DCTs). The clutch is intentionally controlled to make small amount of a slip to identify the torque transfer capacity. The control objective of this phase is to ensure the clutch slip fairly remaining the specified value. To achieve this, the micro-slip controller is designed based on sliding mode control theory. Experimental verifications performed on onboard control system of the DCT equipped vehicle demonstrate that the proposed controller good tracking performance of the desired slip speed.
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Control Strategy and Energy Recovery Potential for P2 Parallel Hybrid Step Gear Automatic Transmissions

SAE International Journal of Advances and Current Practices in Mobility

Michigan Technological University-Darrell Robinette, Joshua Orlando
  • Journal Article
  • 2019-01-1302
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
The purpose of this investigation is to present a control strategy and energy recovery potential for P2 parallel hybrid step gear automatic transmissions. The automatic transmission types considered for the investigation are rear wheel drive 8 speed dual clutch transmission and 8 speed planetary automatic equipped each equipped with an electric motor between the engine and transmission. The governing equations of clutch-to-clutch upshift controls are presented and are identical for each transmission type. Various strategies are explored for executing the upshift under a range of input torques, shift times and engine torque management approaches. The differences in energy recovery potential based upon control strategy is explored piecewise as well as through a DFSS study. On a comprehensive drive cycle consisting of FTP 75, US06 and HWFET test cycles, it is shown that upshift regen torque management can be equivalent to approximately 0.8% of the total fuel energy used. Additionally, it is shown that the utilization of the P2 electric motor is a further enabler to reduced shift times and improved shift quality at part throttle…
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Design and Analysis of a Novel Magnetorheological Fluid Dual Clutch for Electric Vehicle Transmission

Shanghai Jiao Tong University-Yafei Wang
University of Wollongong-Huan Zhang, Haiping Du, Shuaishuai Sun, Weihua Li
Published 2019-02-18 by SAE International in United States
A novel magnetorheological fluid dual clutch (MRFDC) for electric vehicle transmission is proposed in this article. The structure was based on the MR fluid clutch and traditional dual clutch equipped on internal combustion engine vehicle. Therefore the MRFDC combines the advantages of MR fluid clutch and dual clutch transmission (DCT) to achieve high control accuracy and fast response. The structure of MRFDC was designed by Unigraphics (UG) three-dimensional (3D) modeling software. Then, finite element analysis (FEA) for magnetic field was conducted by ANSYS under different applied currents from 0.1A to 1A with 0.1A space to obtain the relation between the applied current and magnetic field. In this article, Herschel-Bulkley model is used to predict the MR fluid behavior because of the high shear rate of MR fluid. Finally, output torque of MRFDC can be estimated by calculus with geometric dimensions of MRFDC structure and rheological properties of MR fluid dependent on the magnetic field generated by the applied current. Finally the relation between the applied current and output torque of the internal clutch and external…
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A Guide to Handle Dry DCT (Dual Clutch Transmission) Motor

Hyundai Autron-Jeehoon Kim, Seonmi Han, Seungman Choi
Infineon Technologies Korea-Haram Kim
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
These days, the usage of Dual Clutch Transmission (DCT) system is increasing in the transmission systems according to Strategy Analytics [1]. The reason is mainly due to its quicker and smoother transition of gear shifting than conventional single clutched transmissions. Among two main types of DCTs, dry DCT is more beneficial in reducing fuel consumption than wet DCT due to the lack of hydraulic structure. However, dry DCT requires highly precise control due to its mechanical structure. Therefore, the main focus in this paper will be on dry DCT as the main idea of this paper was found during developing its particular control algorithm. Due to this reason, where DCT is mentioned later in this paper, it means “dry” type of DCT.When a conventional hydraulic automatic transmission with single clutch fails, the system simply locks at the third speed gear mechanically. However, the failure modes can vary numerously in DCT systems where several moving parts should be controlled simultaneously. However, in the authors’ opinion, the current criteria of failure mode detection are so broad that…
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