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Fatigue Evaluation of Flow Drill Screw Joints Using the Equilibrium-Based Structural Stress Method

Engineering Mechanics Corp. of Columbus-Jeong Hong, Gery Wilkowski
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0189
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
According to the increasing demands for light-weight design in the automotive industry, the use of thinner and lighter materials such as aluminum alloys for automotive parts has led to significant weight reduction. The joining of these materials has required development of new technologies in joining/fastening rather than welding. Flow drill screwing is one of the latest technologies created to fasten sheet metal panels.This paper discusses results of an evaluation of fatigue characteristics of flow drill screw (FDS) joints based on experimental data and observations from the literature. It was observed that the important fatigue-related geometric parameters of FDS joints were the gap between sheets and the extruded (or bulged) zone during screwing. Major failure modes were observed such as sheet failures where cracks grow from the inner surface of the sheet and around the extruded zone.In this paper, the fatigue evaluation procedure for FDS joints using the mesh-insensitive equilibrium-based structural stress (ESS) method was used. The ESS-based simplified modeling procedure was used for the fatigue-evaluation procedure for FDS joints. The effectiveness and applicability of the…
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Advances in Drilling with PCD (Polycrystalline Diamond)

Facet Precision Tool GmbH-Jeremy Bunting, John Bunting
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0035
Published 2020-03-10 by SAE International in United States
PCD properties were optimized to drill stacks of CFRP/Ti using an accelerated wear test milling gray cast iron. The optimized PCD was then used to prepare PCD drills. Tests were made to determine the best drilling conditions for the optimized PCD. The results yielded a significant improvement in cycle times as compared to earlier studies using PCD drills. Notched PCD cutting edges were found to eliminate oversizing of the CFRP near the interface of the two materials.
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Case Study on the Challenges and Responses of a Large Turnkey Assembly Line for the C919 Wing

Electroimpact Inc.-Mark Forbes
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0010
Published 2020-03-10 by SAE International in United States
Design and production of an assembly system for a major aircraft component is a complex undertaking, which demands a large-scale system view. Electroimpact has completed a turnkey assembly line for producing the wing, flap, and aileron structures for the COMAC C919 aircraft in Xi’an, China. The project scope includes assembly process design, material handling design, equipment design, manufacture, installation, and first article production support. Inputs to the assembly line are individual component parts and small subassemblies. The assembly line output is a structurally completed set of wing box, flaps, and ailerons, for delivery to the Final Assembly Line in Shanghai. There is a trend toward defining an assembly line procurement contract by production capacity, versus a list of components, which implies that an equipment supplier must become an owner of production processes. The most significant challenge faced was the amount of front end engineering work required to develop detailed assembly processes and reconcile them with the customer, who remains the actual process owner. Other challenges include aircraft maturity delays, design changes due to process definition…
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Improving Robotic Accuracy through Iterative Teaching

The University of Sheffield - AMRC-Daniela Sawyer, Lloyd Tinkler, Nathan Roberts, Ryan Diver
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0014
Published 2020-03-10 by SAE International in United States
Industrial robots have been around since the 1960s and their introduction into the manufacturing industry has helped in automating otherwise repetitive and unsafe tasks, while also increasing the performance and productivity for the companies that adopted the technology. As the majority of industrial robotic arms are deployed in repetitive tasks, the pose accuracy is much less of a key driver for the majority of consumers (e.g. the automotive industry) than speed, payload, energy efficiency and unit cost. Consequently, manufacturers of industrial robots often quote repeatability as an indication of performance whilst the pose accuracy remains comparatively poor. Due to their lack in accuracy, robotic arms have seen slower adoption in the aerospace industry where high accuracy is of utmost importance. However if their accuracy could be improved, robots offer significant advantages, being comparatively inexpensive and more flexible than bespoke automation. Extensive research has been conducted in the area of improving robotic accuracy through re-calibration of the kinematic model. This approach is often highly complex, and seeks to optimise performance over the whole working volume or…
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Tool Wear Analysis on Drilling Process of Inconel 718 Superalloy

Federal University of Sao Carlos-Pedro Cabegi Barros, Gustavo Franco Barbosa, Carlos Eiji Hirata Ventura
OSG Sulamericana-Gustavo Roberto Santos
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0034
Published 2020-03-10 by SAE International in United States
The Inconel 718 is an alloy based on nickel of high thermal and mechanical resistance, which allows its wide application in the aerospace industry, being generally implemented in aircraft tail cone and engine components. On the other hand, these features become a recurring problem when the machining of this material is performed. For example, in the drilling process of this superalloy, the cutting tools used exhibit excessive wear due to the high temperature and pressure at the cutting edge. However, there are numerous parameters that can influence the cutting tool life, and when analyzed and well defined, determine the types of modifications needed to enable less wear, and consequently an increase of its useful life in service. Given this context and knowing that the study of tool life in the Inconel 718 drilling process is extremely relevant in the aerospace sector, this paper presents a wear study in order to evaluate the behavior of different types of cutting tools used to drill the Inconel 718. It was accomplished by the combination of different cutting parameters…
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In-Process Hole and Fastener Inspection Using a High-Accuracy Laser Sensor

Electroimpact Inc.-Zachary Luker, Erin Stansbury
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0015
Published 2020-03-10 by SAE International in United States
Electroimpact has produced a new in-process inspection system for use on drilling and fastening systems. The system uses a high-accuracy, non-contact, laser system to measure the flushness of installed fasteners. The system is also capable of measuring part normality and providing feedback to the machine for correction. One drawback to many automatic inspection systems is measurement error. Many sources of measurement error exist in a production environment, including drilling chips, lubrication, and fastener head markings. Electroimpact’s latest system can create a visualization of the measured fastener for the operator to interpret. This allows the operator to determine the cause of a failed measurement, thus reducing machine downtime due to false negatives.Electroimpact created a custom C# WPF application that queries the point-cloud data and analyzes the raw data. A custom “circle Hough transform” scoring algorithm is used to find the center of the nosepiece (pressure foot). A best fit plane is calculated from the point cloud data to find the panel surface. This plane is then used to output panel normality in the A and B…
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NASA's Thirst for Water on Mars Quenched by Student Innovators

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-35794
Published 2020-01-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

Protolabs Maple Plain, MN

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Unsettled Technology Domains in Robotics for Automation in Aerospace Manufacturing

Muelaner Engineering, Ltd.-Jody Muelaner
  • Research Report
  • EPR2019010
Published 2019-12-20 by SAE International in United States
Cost reduction and increasing production rates are driving automation of aerospace manufacturing. Articulated serial robots may replace bespoke gantry automation or human operations. Improved accuracy is key to enabling operations such as machining, additive manufacturing (AM), composite fabrication, drilling, automated program development, and inspection. New accuracy standards are needed to enable process-relevant comparisons between robotic systems.Accuracy can be improved through calibration of kinematic and joint stiffness parameters, joint output encoders, adaptive control that compensates for thermal expansion, and feedforward control that compensates for hysteresis and external loads. The impact of datuming could also be significantly reduced through modeling and optimization. Highly dynamic end effectors compensate high-frequency disturbances using inertial sensors and reaction masses. Global measurement feedback is a high-accuracy turnkey solution, but it is costly and has limited capability to compensate dynamic errors. Local measurement feedback is a mature, affordable, and highly accurate technology where the robot is required to position or align relative to some local feature. Locally clamped machine tools are an alternative approach that can utilize the flexibility of industrial robots while…
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Refrigeration Tube Fittings—General Specifications

Air Brake Tubing and Tube Ftg Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J513_201912
  • Current
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Standard covers complete general and dimensional specifications for refrigeration tube fittings of the flare type specified in Figures 1 to 42 and Tables 1 to 15. These fittings are intended for general use with flared annealed copper tubing in refrigeration applications. Dimensions of single and double 45 degree flares on tubing to be used in conjunction with these fittings are given in Figure 2 and Table 1 of SAE J533. The following general specifications supplement the dimensional data contained in Tables 1 to 15 with respect to all unspecified details.
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Multi Characteristics Optimization of Treated Drill Tool in Drilling Operation Key Process Parameter Using TOPSIS and ANOVA Technique

SRM Institute of Science and Technology-Sundar Singh Sivam Sundarlingam Paramasivam, Aishik Banerjee, Avanti Kulkarni
Published 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
To survive in the present global competitive world, the manufacturing sectors have been making use of various tools to achieve the high quality products at a comparatively cheaper price. Appropriate cutting set up must be used to further better the machinability of a work piece material. A longer life of the tools and equipment’s are important factors in any industry. Since the inception of the machine tool industry, cutting tool life and tool wear remain a subject of deep interest to study its failure and improvement. The present study finds out the optimum cutting results in drilling of AM60 magnesium alloy using different cryogenically treated cutting inserts. The Utility concept coupled with Taguchi with Multi response approach (TOPSIS) was employed. According to Analysis of variance (ANOVA) results, the feed was the major dominating factor followed by the cutting speed. This work deals with optimization approaches for the determination of the optimum process parameters by cryogenically treated drill HSS tools which minimizes surface roughness, torque, tool life, entry burr and tool cost, and maximizes material removal…
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