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A Study of Paradrogue Aerodynamics

Forrest Jack Mobley
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0027
To be published on 2020-03-10 by SAE International in United States
Scaled paradrogue models were designed, built, and tested for the purpose of possible UAS aerial refueling application. Paradrogue chute gore patterns were changed between three models and studied using wind tunnel testing and computational fluid dynamics simulations. Drag coefficient values, as well as vortex shedding characteristics through POD and DMD analysis, were compared between the three models, with an emphasis on possible affects on flight stability.
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Development of High Productivity and Low Cost Card-Edge Type ECU for Motorcycles

Honda Motor Co., Ltd.-Yuichi TAKEDA, Daisuke SUGIO, Koji INOSE
Keihin Corporation-Syuichi TAKIOKA
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-32-0516
To be published on 2020-01-24 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
To reduce global warming, Honda has been worked on emission reduction and fuel efficiency enhancement by applying fuel injection systems. The productivity enhancement and cost reduction are strongly demanded in developing countries as the market is expanding. To enhance productivity and reduce cost of ECU, application of the semiconductor production method has been started for printed circuits with edge connectors. However, products that fully meet the requirements of us have not been realized so far. The ECU developed this time has a structure shielding the whole PCB package except the edge connector terminals. Thus, the waterproofness required for an ECU has realized, as a standalone component, as the first in the world (by Honda survey). To achieve that, we developed transfer molding dies equipped with a unique mechanism never been applied. Moreover, we developed an epoxy resin that eliminates the after cure process. Thus, productivity of 5 times over conventional was realized with a multi-cavity molding capable of moldings more than 10 pieces at a time. Furthermore, a new waterproof card-edge connector was developed, in…
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Experimental Study of Aerodynamic Drag Control on Bluff Body using Synthetic Jets

Utsunomiya University-Naoto Kato, Shunsuke Watanabe, Hiroaki Hasegawa
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-32-0538
To be published on 2020-01-24 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
Since flow separation causes increase of the drag on bluff bodies, its control method has been studied for many years. Active control methods are currently focused as an alternative to passive ones because they impose a larger drag penalty under certain conditions. Although the effectiveness of a steady jet using suction, blowing or pulsed jets has been demonstrated, it is difficult to obtain an effect commensurate with weight increase because the mechanism is complicated.One method of solving this problem is a synthetic jet. Synthetic jets are produced by periodic ejection and suction of fluid from an orifice induced by oscillation of a diaphragm inside a cavity. Small engine powered vehicles demand less drag, a compact package and light weight because the drivers expect fuel efficiency, load capacity and economy. Synthetic jets can supply them because they contribute drag reduction and require only simple components.In this study, the influence of synthetic jets on the drag of a simple bluff body representing a road vehicle is measured. Drag measurement was performed by varying synthetic jet parameters: jet…
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Basic technical requirements for ballistic safety to guarantee the quality of civilian automotive armoring services in Brazil

Polytechnic School of University of Sao Paulo-Guido Muzio Candido, Paulo Carlos Kaminski
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0329
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
Brazil is the largest civilian armored vehicle market in the world with more than 16,000 new protected units produced in 2018, followed by Mexico with 7,000 automobiles, according to Brazilian Army (BA) data. In this context, this paper presents an overview of Brazilian market for civilian vehicle armoring, definitions and characteristics of transparent and opaque ballistic resistance protective materials according to U. S. Department of Justice, the National Institute of Justice, NIJ Standard 0108.01. Based on this premises, the paper addresses basic technical requirements for ballistic safety in design and process to guarantee minimum quality of armoring services. The purpose of this paper is to safeguard the original features and functionality of the automotive components while simultaneously providing recommended ballistic protection of the vehicle with quality. The adoption of minimum automotive quality management system requirements from IATF 16949 International Automotive Task Force, in armoring services with different types of vehicle models and brands, will encourage to reduce tack time production, to improve vehicle armored quality, to reduce final reworks, to keep original equipment guarantees, to…
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Characterization of Titanium Alloy (Ti6Al4V) Obtained by Additive Manufacturing

Centro de Tecnologia da Informação Renato Archer-Jorge Vicente Lopes Da Silva
Universidade Federal do ABC-Reyolando Lopes Rebello Da Fonseca Brasil, Rafael Celeghini Santiago
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0112
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
The development of additive manufacturing processes (3D printing), applied to metal alloys, is in line with the industry's current need for optimization, cost and development time reduction, allowing the construction of representative prototypes with equivalent materials / mechanical characteristics and customized end products, such as prostheses and brake system calipers, for which Ti6Al4V alloy has wide application due to biocompatibility and resistance. In addition, the need for more resilient materials is becoming ever greater at same time that failures need to be avoided. The occurrence of failures in structural components generates consumer dissatisfaction, which can result in serious accidents and the use of numerical tools during the project contributes to its prediction. For this, it is necessary to know the structural characteristics of the material resulting from the printing processes to guarantee robust designs. Currently there are few available information regarding mechanical and micro-structural proprieties on titanium alloy Ti6Al4V obtained by 3D printing process compared with other process. Thus, through physical tests of specimens according to ASTM A370-08a and microstructural evaluations, became possible the alloy…
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CONTACTS, ELECTRICAL CONNECTOR, PIN, CRIMP REMOVABLE, SHIELDED (FOR MIL-DTL-28748/9 CONNECTORS)

AE-8C1 Connectors Committee
  • Aerospace Standard
  • AS39029/79A
  • Current
Published 2020-01-07 by SAE International in United States
No Abstract Available.
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CONTACTS, ELECTRICAL CONNECTOR, SOCKET, CRIMP REMOVABLE, SHIELDED (FOR MIL-DTL-28748/10 CONNECTORS)

AE-8C1 Connectors Committee
  • Aerospace Standard
  • AS39029/80A
  • Current
Published 2020-01-07 by SAE International in United States
No Abstract Available.
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Aerodynamic Effect of Aspect Ratio of Spherical Depressions on the Bonnet of Hatchback Cars

Delhi Technological University-Vishesh Kashyap, B.B. Arora, Sourajit Bhattacharjee, Priyanshu Mittal
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-5096
Published 2019-12-30 by SAE International in United States
Flow separation is one of the primary causes of increase in form drag in vehicles. This phenomenon is also visible in the case of lightweight vehicles moving at high speed, which greatly affects their aerodynamics. Spherical depressions maybe used to delay the flow separation and decrease drag in such vehicles. This study aims for optimization of aspect ratio (AR) of spherical depressions on hatchback cars. Spherical depressions were created on the bonnet of a generalized light vehicle Computer-Aided Design (CAD) model. The diameter of each spherical depression was set constant at 60 mm, and the center-to-center distance between consecutive spherical depressions is fixed at 90 mm. The AR of spherical depressions was taken as the parameter that was varied in each model. ARs 2, 4, 6, and 8 were considered for the current investigation. Three-dimensional (3D) CFD analyses were then performed on each of these models using a validated computational model. Vehicle travel velocities of 22, 24, 26, 28, and 30 m/s, which were nondimensionalized for scaling the results, were considered for analyses, in order…
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Optimization of Race Car Front Splitter Placement Using CFD

Delhi Technological University-Sourajit Bhattacharjee, B.B. Arora, Vishesh Kashyap
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-5097
Published 2019-12-30 by SAE International in United States
The behavior of flow over an automobile’s body has a large effect on vehicle performance, and automobile manufacturers pay close attention to the minimal of the details that affect the performance of the vehicle. An imbalance of downforce between the front and rear portion of the vehicle can lead to significant performance hindrances. Worldwide efforts have been made by leading automobile manufacturers to achieve maximum balanced downforce using aerodynamic elements of vehicle. One such element is the front splitter. This study aims to analyze the aerodynamic performance of automobile at various splitter overhang lengths using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). For the purpose of analysis, a three-dimensional (3D) CFD study was undertaken in ANSYS Fluent using the realizable k-ε turbulence model, based on the 3D compressible Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations. The National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) 4412 was taken as profile for the fixed-length splitter attached to a NASCAR 2019 model body. Vehicle speeds of 200, 250, and 300 km/h were considered in order to simulate the velocity of a race car. Drag coefficient, lift…
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Using RON Synergistic Effects to Formulate Fuels for Better Fuel Economy and Lower CO2 Emissions

ICARE-CNRS, INSIS-Andrea Comandini, Nabiha Chaumeix
IFP Energies nouvelles-David Serrano, Laurie Starck
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2155
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
The knock resistance of gasoline is a key factor to decrease the specific fuel consumption and CO2 emissions of modern turbocharged spark ignition engines. For this purpose, high RON and octane sensitivity (S) are needed.This study shows a relevant synergistic effect on RON and S when formulating a fuel with isooctane, cyclopentane and aromatics, the mixtures reaching RON levels well beyond the ones of individual components. The same is observed when measuring their knock resistance on a boosted single cylinder engine.The mixtures were also characterized on a rapid compression machine at 700 K and 850 K, a shock tube at 1000 K, an instrumented and an adapted CFR engine. The components responsible for the synergistic effects are thus identified. Furthermore, the correlations plotted between these experiments results disclose our current understanding on the origin of these synergistic effects.This study concludes that this synergistic effect encourages formulating highly paraffinic fuels for lower specific fuel consumptions and CO2 emissions. Thus, paraffins are still relevant compounds to formulate highly efficient gasolines, despite their low octane sensitivity when individually…
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