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CAE Support to Vehicle Audio Installation Issues

Volvo Car Corporation-Andrzej Pietrzyk
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1575
To be published on 2020-06-03 by SAE International in United States
Audio CAE is an emerging area of interest for a vehicle OEM, despite the fact that the development of the audio system is often left to a specialized supplier. Especially the questions regarding early stages of the vehicle design, like choosing the possible positions for speakers, deciding the installation details that can influence the visual design, and integration of the low frequency speakers with the body & closures structure, are of interest. Therefore, at VCC, the development of the CAE methodology for audio applications has been undertaken. The long term goal is to enable performing subjective evaluation of sound in a virtual car, and integrating audio evaluation in the NVH simulator. The key to all CAE applications is the loudspeaker model made available in the vibro-acoustic software used within the company. Such a model has been developed, implemented and verified in different frequency ranges and different applications. The applications can be divided into the low frequency ones (concerning the installation of woofers and subwoofers), and the middle/high frequency ones (concerning the installation of midrange and…
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3D Audio Reproduction via Headrest equipped with Loudspeakers – Investigations on Acoustical Design Criteria

AUDIO MOBIL Elektronik GmbH-Thomas Hatheier
Inst. of Electronic Music and Acoustics-Manuel Brandner, Alois Sontacchi
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1567
To be published on 2020-06-03 by SAE International in United States
This paper focuses on the analysis and evaluation of acoustical design criteria to produce a plausible 3D sound field solely via headrest with integrated loudspeakers at the driver/passenger seats in the car cabin. Existing audio systems in cars utilize several distributed loudspeakers to support passengers with sound. Such configurations suffer from individual 3D audio information at each position. Therefore, we present a convincing minimal setup focusing sound solely at the passenger’s ears. The design itself plays a critical role for the optimal reproduction and control of a sound field for a specific 3D audio application. Moreover, the design facilitates the 3D audio reproduction of common channel-based, scene-based, and object-based audio formats. In addition, 3D audio reproduction enables to represent warnings regarding monitoring of the vehicle status (e.g.: seat belts, direction indicator, open doors, luggage compartment) in spatial accordance. Furthermore, individual sound zones enable superior in-car communication between seats regardless of the current driving situation. An often overlooked topic is the acoustical privacy of in-car systems towards the exterior especially during telephony which is also tackled…
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A Development and Evaluation of Optimal Fingerprint Authentication Algorithm in Vehicle Use Environment

Hyundai Motor Co & KIA Motors Corp.-Dae Sung Jin, Jungduck Son, Sangwoo Jeon
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0723
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Hyundai Motor Company mass-produced the world's first fingerprint entry and start system. This paper is a study on the evaluation method to develop and verify the optimal fingerprint authentication algorithm for vehicle usage conditions. Currently, fingerprint sensors and algorithms in the IT industry have been developed for the electronic devices, and are not suitable for the harsh environment of the vehicle and the vehicle life cycle for more than 10 years. In order to optimize the fingerprint sensor and algorithm for the vehicle, this study consisted of 3way test methods. As a result, the fingerprint system could be optimized for the vehicle and the recognition rate and security could be optimized according to the sensor authentication level. Through this study, the fingerprint entry and start system achieved the recognition rate development goal (door handle sensor recognition rate: 85% or more, start button sensor recognition rate: 90% or more) and achieved security that meets European immobilizer regulation
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An Analysis of the Effects of Ventilation on Burn Patterns Resulting from Passenger Compartment Interior Fires

Ford Motor Company-James J. Engle, Jennifer L. Buckman, Jeff Williams, Erich Kemnitz, Eric Kalis
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0923
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Vehicle fire investigators often use the existence of burn patterns, along with the amount and location of fire damage, to determine the fire origin and its cause. The purpose of this paper is to study the effects of ventilation location on the interior burn patterns and burn damage of passenger compartment fires. Four similar Ford Fusion vehicles were burned. The fire origin and first material ignited were the same for all four vehicles. In each test, a different door window was down for the duration of the burn test. Each vehicle was allowed to burn until the windshield, back glass, or another window, other than the window used for ventilation, failed, thus changing the ventilation pattern. At that point, the fire was extinguished. Temperatures were measured at various locations in the passenger compartment. Video recordings and still photography were collected at all phases of the study. Although the fire origin and source were known, the vehicle burn patterns were analyzed and conclusions drawn based on the post-fire evidence regarding: ability to determine a window was…
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Impact of Different Types of Glazing on Thermal Comfort of Vehicle Occupants

Maruti Suzuki India, Ltd.-Akshay Bhateja
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1249
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Due to intense peak summer temperatures and sunny summers in tropical countries like India etc., achieving the required thermal comfort of car occupants without compromising on fuel efficiency is becoming increasingly challenging. The major source of heat load on vehicle is Solar Load. Therefore, a study has been conducted to evaluate the heat load on vehicle cabin due to solar radiations and its impact on vehicle air-conditioning system performance with various combinations of door glasses and windscreen. The glasses used for this study are classified as green, dark green, dark gray, standard PVB (Polyvinyl Butyral) windscreen and PVB windscreen having infrared cut particles. For each glass, part level evaluation was done to find out the percentage transmittance of light of different wavelengths and heat flux through each glass. To verify the effectiveness of each glass, vehicle level air-conditioning system performance test was done in All Weather Chassis Dyno Facility for each retrofitted vehicle. To eliminate the effect of manufacturing variance while evaluating each retrofitted vehicle, only door glasses and windscreen were changed in the same…
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A Research on Kinematic Optimization of Auto Flush Door Handle System

Hyundai Motor Group-Jungho Han, Kyoungtaek Kwak, Jinwoo Nam, Oktae Jung, Jinsang Chung
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0623
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Today, many car manufacturers and their suppliers are very interested in power-operated door handles, known as auto flush door handles. These handles have a distinguishing feature in terms of the way they operate. They are hidden in door skins and deployed automatically when users need to open the door. It is obvious that it is a major exterior styling point that makes customers interested in the vehicles that apply it. To make this auto flush door handle, however, there lie difficulties. First, because there is no sufficient space inside a door, applying these handles can be a constraint in exterior design unless the structures of them are kinematic optimized. The insufficient space can also cause problems in appearance of the handles when they are deployed. The purpose of this study is to establish the kinematic system of auto flush door handle to overcome the exterior handicaps such as the excessive exposure of the internal area on the deployed position. In order to resolve these issues, the Scott-Russell mechanism is applied to the auto flush handle…
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A Study on Optimization of the Cross-Section of Door Impact Beam for Weight Reduction

Hyundai Motor Company-Heejin Im
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0631
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
This paper focuses on the optimization of the cross-section of a panel type impact door beam. The key parameters of the cross-section of the beam were artificially changed by using a geometry morphing tool FCM (Fast Concept Modeler), which is plugged in to CATIA. Then, the metamodel of FE (Finite Element) analysis results was created and optimized using LS-OPT. The ANOVA (Analysis of Variance) analysis of results was carried out to find the factor of weight reduction. Finally, a new cross section concept was proposed to overcome the limitation of old structure. The optimization was carried out for the beam with the final cross-section to have 10 % or more reduction in total weight.
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A Robust Methodology to Predict the Fatigue Life of an Automotive Closures System Subjected to Hinge and Check Link Load

Ford India Pvt., Ltd.-Nirmal Puthuvayil, Sivasankari S
RLE India Pvt., Ltd.-Thoheer Zaman
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0599
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
In order to provide an accurate estimation of fatigue life of automotive door hinges and check strap mounting location, it is crucial to understand the loading conditions associated with opening and closing the door. There are many random factors and uncertainties that affect the durability performance of hinge and check strap mount structures in either a direct or indirect way. Excessive loads are generated at the hinge and check arm mounting region during abuse conditions when opening the door. Repeating the abuse conditions will lead to fatigue failures in these components. Most influencing parameter affecting the fatigue performance for the door was the loads due to hinge-check arm sensitivity stoppage and the distance between hinge and check strap attachments. However, the probability of occurrences was low, but the impact is high. In this proposed investigation, Monte Carlo simulation methodology is applied on the randomly selected samples with predicted distribution of all dependent factors to know the fatigue life variations in the hinge mount structure. Weibull distribution is the most efficient way of estimating the fatigue…
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Robust Assessment of Automotive Door Structure by Considering Manufacturing Variations

FCA Engineering India Pvt. Ltd.-Roshan N. Mahadule
FCA US LLC-Raj Namineni, Parag Nittur
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0910
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The automotive door structure experience various static and dynamic loading conditions while going through an opening and closing operation. A typical swing door is attached to the body with two hinges and a check strap. These mechanisms carry the loads while the door is opened. Similarly, while closing the door, the latch/striker mechanism along with the seal around the periphery of the door react all loads. Typically, computer aided engineering (CAE) simulations are performed considering a nominal manufacturing (or build) tolerance condition, that results in one loading scenario. But while assembling the door with the body, the build variations in door mechanisms mentioned above can result in different loading scenarios and it should be accounted for design evaluation.This paper discusses various build tolerances and its effect on door durability performances to achieve a robust door design.
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Evaluation of Functional Performance of Mechanism using Multi Body Dynamics Simulation

CAE, VE Commercial Vehicles Ltd.-Tanmay Jain
VE Commercial Vehicles Ltd.-Srinivas Kurna
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0474
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Functional performance of mechanism plays a vital role in attracting the customer concentration towards the product. It is first interface for interaction with customer. Hence it is important to evaluate the functional performance at the time of design phase itself in order to eliminate the possibility of increase in proto-builds. Functional performance of a mechanism comprises of:- • Mechanism should perform its function for which it is designed. • Effort required to perform the function • Ease of functionality. Evaluation of such parameter at the design stage involves many assumptions and this brings chance variables in the methodology. In order to eliminate these assumptions we have developed a methodology using the multi body dynamic model of mechanisms like gear shifting mechanism and cabin door outer handle mechanism. We have evaluated the effort and displacement required to drive the mechanism and correlated the results with the practical testing about 90%. We have also utilized this methodology to quickly optimize the existing design and reduced the effort and displacement