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Virtual Switches and Indicators in Automotive Displays

General Motors LLC-Scott Rush
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1362
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Over the last decade, graphical and touch displays have become commonplace in automobile cockpits. Such displays have been used mainly for convenience functions such as navigation, radio, driver information, and vehicle settings. Automakers are now using these displays to generate “virtual” indicators that replace regulated and/or safety-critical physical indicators, such as gear position indication or the Malfunction Indicator Light [MIL]. Automakers are also replacing physical switches and controls, such as heating, ventilation, and air conditioning [HVAC] controls, with “virtual” controls rendered on the cockpit touch-screen. Many of these indicators and controls have regulatory and/or functional safety requirements that have been met using such methods as redundant terminals in a safety-critical switch, or by monitoring the electrical State-of-Health [SOH] of discrete LED indicators. Meeting these requirements with “virtual” graphical elements requires new electronic hardware and software technologies. This paper discusses recent advances in electronic hardware and System-on-Chip [SoC] solutions, operating systems, and supporting software architecture implementation of regulatory and/or functional safety graphics within cockpit displays. Application of the ISO 26262 standard, particularly section 5, and considerations…
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Research on Correction Algorithm of Head-up Display System in Vehicle Vibration

Wuhan Univ. of Technology-Jianjie Kuang
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1368
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The HUD(Head Up Display) system can superimpose the driving assistance information on the reality to assist the driver in driving. However, when the road conditions are quite bad, the driving assistance information could not coincide well with the reality. This paper presents a correction algorithm for a heads up display system. The algorithm calculates the offset between the driving assistance information and the reality according to the unevenness of the road and the inclination of the vehicle, and then adjusts the position of the driving assistance information. In this paper, according to the unevenness of the road, the algorithm could confirm the tilt state of the vehicle and calculate the tilt angle of the vehicle. The offset of the driving assistance information is calculated according to the inclination angle of the vehicle, and then the position of the driving assistance information is adjusted to coincide with the reality. Finally, a mathematical simulation model is established to verify the reliability of the correction algorithm by inputting the unevenness of the road and the position of the…
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Lookie Here! Designing Directional User Indicators Across Displays in Conditional Autonomous Vehicles

Georgia Institute of Technology-Hongnan Lin, Wei Wang
Harman Connected Services-Pranav Nair
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1201
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Based on the SAE’s classification (J3016), drivers’ attention will be gradually released from the driving task as the level of automation in the vehicle increases. It allows drivers to complete more non-driving related tasks in information and entertainment system. The trigger point for the major transition in driver control happens in the progression from level 2 to level 3 when the automated driving system (ADS) starts to perform a major part of the dynamic driving task (DDT) in the allowed conditions, but meanwhile it still needs the drivers are ready for takeover control or other interventions in a short time. In this paper, we investigated whether providing directional alerts to a user’s active screen with non-driving related tasks can augment their ability in regaining situational awareness on road hazard when traveling in a conditional autonomous vehicle. A user study (N=15) was conducted to compare solutions between the central and peripheral field across displays where subjects were seated in an autonomous vehicle simulator and distracted by playing a game on a tablet screen (iPad). With different…

How Augmented Reality Can Modernize Aerospace And Defense Manufacturing

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-35685
Published 2019-12-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

You've probably heard about augmented reality (AR) in the context of consumer entertainment: video gaming, virtual tours, or interactive displays. But AR for enterprise business is here. It's no longer an emerging technology, or a novelty; businesses are using AR to overhaul processes, drive efficiencies, reduce manufacturing errors, and improve their bottom line.

Camera Enables Surgeons to More Easily Identify Cancerous Tissue

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-35429
Published 2019-11-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

Many surgeons rely on sight and touch to find cancerous tissue during surgery. Large hospitals or cancer treatment centers may also use experimental near-infrared fluorescent agents that bind to tumors so surgeons can see them on specialized displays. These machines are costly, making them difficult for smaller hospitals to procure. They also are very large, making them difficult to fit into an operating suite and integrate smoothly into surgery, and they require the lights to be dimmed so the instruments can pick up the weak fluorescent signal, making it difficult for the surgeons to see.

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Crew Station Lighting - Commercial Aircraft

A-20A Crew Station Lighting
  • Aerospace Standard
  • ARP1161B
  • Current
Published 2019-10-18 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice covers the recommended requirements for the lighting and characteristics of instruments; information plates and displays, emergency, cautionary, advisory and status displays; circuit breaker and toggle switch positions; and the recommended requirements for the utility lighting system.
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Mobile Rugged Displays for Situational Awareness

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-35280
Published 2019-10-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

With the constant emergence of new display technologies in the consumer sector, it is important for program managers and engineers in the military markets to be aware of how several of these advances can be incorporated into new military programs to achieve maximum benefit. Additionally, as older programs present themselves for technological refreshes, it is imperative to understand the difference in display specifications from previous decades and how updated technology provides avenues for their evolution and continued progress.

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How HMI displays impact operator productivity in industrial vehicles

SAE Truck & Off-Highway Engineering: October 2019

Markus Wallmyr, head of UX at CrossControl and a researcher with Mälardalen University, wrote this article for Truck & Off-Highway Engineering magazine.-Markus Wallmyr
  • Magazine Article
  • 19TOFHP10_11
Published 2019-10-01 by SAE International in United States

The latest research indicates that well-integrated HMI (human-machine interface) systems lead to more attentive users that better retain task-related information and stay focused for longer with less reported effort. These systems also fit into the wider development trends in off-highway machines that affect operator fatigue in day-to-day tasks.

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Air Conditioning Systems for Subsonic Airplanes

AC-9 Aircraft Environmental Systems Committee
  • Aerospace Standard
  • ARP85G
  • Current
Published 2019-09-25 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) contains guidelines and recommendations for subsonic airplane air conditioning systems and components, including requirements, design philosophy, testing, and ambient conditions. The airplane air conditioning system comprises that arrangement of equipment, controls, and indicators that supply and distribute air to the occupied compartments for ventilation, pressurization, and temperature and moisture control. The principal features of the system are: a A supply of outside air with independent control valve(s). b A means for heating. c A means for cooling (air or vapor cycle units and heat exchangers). d A means for removing excess moisture from the air supply. e A ventilation subsystem. f A temperature control subsystem. g A pressure control subsystem. Other system components for treating cabin air, such as filtration and humidification, are included, as are the ancillary functions of equipment cooling and cargo compartment conditioning. The interface with the major associated system, the pneumatic system (Chapter 36 of ATA 100) is at the inlet of the air conditioning shutoff valves. This boundary definition aligns with that in the…
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Photometric and Colorimetric Measurement Procedures for Airborne Electronic Flat Panel Displays

A-20A Crew Station Lighting
  • Aerospace Standard
  • ARP4260B
  • Current
Published 2019-09-17 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) contains methods used to measure the optical performance of airborne electronic flat panel display (FPD) systems. The methods described are specific to the direct view, liquid crystal matrix (x-y addressable) display technology used on aircraft flight decks. The focus of this document is on active matrix, liquid crystal displays (LCD). The majority of the procedures can be applied to other display technologies, however, it is cautioned that some techniques need to be tailored to different display technologies. The document covers monochrome and color LCD operation in the transmissive mode within the visual spectrum (the wavelength range of 380 to 780 nm). These procedures are adaptable to reflective and transflective displays paying special attention to the source illumination geometry. Photometric and colorimetric measurement procedures for airborne direct view CRT (cathode ray tube) displays are found in ARP1782. Optical measurement procedures for airborne head up displays (HUDs) can be found in ARP5287. Generally, the procedures describe manual single point measurements. The individual procedures may be readily incorporated into automated testing equipment…
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