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Materials for DPF and its Cleaning Methodologies

ARAI Academy-Kamalkishore Vora, Kartik Gurnule
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2565
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Accumulation of ash in the Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) with engine operating over the time is a major concern for all vehicle manufacturers, with BS VI and BS VII emission norms mandating the use of DPF. Ash deposition leads to increase in pressure drop across the filter and more frequent regeneration pattern, which can lead to sintering. It can hamper the capacity of soot loading, properties of DPF substrate material and can lower catalyst activity in case of Catalysed-DPF. Hence, removal of ash is important by defining the DPF cleaning methods. Primary source of ash is lubricant oil, taking part in the combustion. Lubricant additives like detergents and anti-wear agents are responsible for formation of metallic ash inside the DPF. Secondary source of metallic ash is fuel and engine wear out. The present paper elucidates the preparation of DPF samples including coating and canning of DPF substrates, with proper GBD. Pressure drop and weight with and without coating is estimated and validated through actual measurement of fresh as well as soot loaded samples. Soot loading…
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Experimental Test on the Feasibility of Passive Regeneration in a Catalytic DPF at the Exhaust of a Light-Duty Diesel Engine

Universita Degli Studi Di Salerno-Bruno Rossomando, Ivan Arsie, Eugenio Meloni, Vincenzo Palma, Cesare Pianese
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-24-0045
Published 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
Diesel engines are attractive thanks to good performance in terms of fuel consumption, drivability, power output and efficiency. Nevertheless in the last years, increasing restrictions have been imposed to particulate emissions, concerning both mass (PM) and number (PN). Different technologies have been proposed to meet emissions standards and the wall-flow Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) is currently the most common after-treatment system used to trap PM from the exhaust gases. This technology exhibits good features such that it can be regenerated to remove any accumulation of PM. However, this process involves oxidation of the filtered PM at a high temperature through after and post fuel injection strategies, which results in an increase of fuel consumption and may lead to physical damages of the filter in the long term.This work deals with the experimental testing of a catalytic silicon carbide (SiC) wall flow DPF, aiming at decreasing the soot oxidation temperature. The catalyst (CuFe2O4) was deposited on the filter by means of an optimized procedure based on a preliminary controlled chemical erosion of the SiC porous structure.…
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Experimental and Numerical Analysis of Latest Generation Diesel Aftertreatment Systems

Cornaglia SpA-Alessio Tarabocchia
Politecnico di Torino-Francesco Sapio, Federico Millo, Debora Fino, Alessandro Monteverde, Enrico Sartoretti
Published 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
A comprehensive experimental and numerical analysis of two state-of-the-art diesel AfterTreatment Systems (ATS) for automotive applications is presented in this work.Both systems, designed to fulfill Euro 6 emissions regulations standards, consist of a closed-coupled Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC) followed by a Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalyst coated on a Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF), also known as SCR on Filter (SCRoF or SCRF). While the two systems feature the same Urea Water Solution (UWS) injector, major differences could be observed in the UWS mixing device, which is placed upstream of the SCRoF, whose design represents a crucial challenge due to the severe flow uniformity and compact packaging requirements.First, both the ATS were experimentally characterized to determine the physical-chemical properties of the catalysts, the UWS spray characteristics (i.e. liquid penetration, droplets size) and to evaluate the NOx conversion efficiency under steady state flow conditions, representative of type-approval operating conditions. The experiments highlighted significant differences in terms of NOx conversion efficiency between the two ATS, especially at low temperature operation.In order to highlight the root causes of these…
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Experimental and Computational Investigation of Particle Filtration Mechanisms in Partially Damaged DPFs

University of Thessaly-Onoufrios Haralampous, Marios Mastrokalos, Fotini Tzorbatzoglou, Chris Dritselis
Published 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
Understanding the filtration mechanisms in partially damaged Diesel Particulate Filters is very important for the design of exhaust systems with efficient On-Board Diagnosis functionality, especially as new threshold limits have been recently applied for particulate mass leakage. Two common types of DPF failure are included in this study, namely rear plug removal and internal failure due to uncontrolled regeneration with excessive deposit loading. Initially, the two respective filters were loaded on the engine bench with particle measurement upstream and downstream, and then they were disassembled and sectioned to study the deposit distribution. The analysis of the second filter revealed several modes of failure that should be expected under real-life conditions such as material accumulation in the inlet channels, substrate melting, and crosswise and diagonal crack development. Moreover, a computational model with the necessary adjustments is used to simulate the loading experiments and interpret the underlying filtration mechanisms. The processed results reveal small effects of temperature and mass flow rate on the filtration efficiency and a comparatively stronger impact of the total deposit loading. The local…
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Experimental High Temperature Analysis of a Low-Pressure Diesel Spray for DPF Regeneration

Continental Automotive Systems US Inc-Nic Van Vuuren
Universita degli Studi di Perugia-Lucio Postrioti, Gabriele Brizi
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-24-0035
Published 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
In the current automotive scenario, particulate filter technology is mandatory in order to attain emission limits in terms of particulate matter for diesel engines. Despite the fact that the Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) is often considered a mature technology, significant issues can result from the use of the engine fuel injectors to introduce into the exhaust pipe the fuel needed to ignite the particulate matter accumulated in the filter during its regeneration. The most important issue is lubricant oil dilution with fuel as a consequence of significant spray impact on the cylinder liner. As an alternative, the fuel required to start DPF regeneration can be introduced in the exhaust pipe by an auxiliary low-pressure injector spraying in the hot exhaust gas stream. In these conditions, the spray evolution and its possible interaction with the surrounding gas stream are relevant in order to better identify the overall layout of the system, so as to have the fuel vaporized at the DPF inlet section.In the present paper, a detailed spray analysis of a low pressure diesel spray…
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Diesel Vehicle with Ultra-Low NOx Emissions on the Road

AECC-Joachim Demuynck, Cecile Favre, Dirk Bosteels
IAV-Frank Bunar, Joachim Spitta, Andreas Kuhrt
Published 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
The gap between diesel vehicle emissions in laboratory tests compared to those in use has been addressed by the introduction of the Real Driving Emissions (RDE) requirements. Modern diesel technology now demonstrates low emissions on the road over a wide range of driving conditions. This paper further demonstrates that consistent low nitrogen oxide (NOx) and particle number (PN) emissions can be achieved over a wide range of driving conditions beyond Euro 6d RDE requirements, with emission control technologies combined in an integrated approach.An LNT (Lean NOx Trap) is combined with a dual-dosing SCR (Selective Catalytic Reduction) system. Low-load NOx control is achieved by the LNT in combination with a close-coupled SCR coated on the Diesel Particulate Filter (SDPF). High load conditions, on the other hand, are covered by the underfloor SCR system with a second AdBlue® injector. A P0 48V mild-hybrid system is also available to support the NOx control and to ensure good driving performance and fuel efficiency. An advanced control strategy is implemented to ensure optimal interaction between all emission control functionalities. The…
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Investigation of a Model-Based Approach to Estimating Soot Loading Amount in Catalyzed Diesel Particulate Filters

SAE International Journal of Engines

Chengdu WIT Electronic Fuel System Co. Ltd, China-Yuanxian Zhu
Southwest Jiaotong University, China-Tiexiong Huang, Guangdi Hu, Feng Guo
  • Journal Article
  • 03-12-05-0036
Published 2019-08-26 by SAE International in United States
In order to meet the worldwide increasingly stringent particulate matter (PM) and particulate number (PN) emission limits, the diesel particulate filter (DPF) is widely used today and has been considered to be an indispensable feature of modern diesel engines. To estimate the soot loading amount in the DPF accurately and in real-time is a key function of realizing systematic and efficient applications of diesel engines, as starting the thermal regeneration of DPF too early or too late will lead to either fuel economy penalty or system reliability issues. In this work, an open-loop and on-line approach to estimating the DPF soot loading on the basis of soot mass balance is developed and experimentally investigated, through establishing and combining prediction models of the NOx and soot emissions out of the engine and a model of the catalytic soot oxidation characteristics of passive regeneration in the DPF. The emission testing results under the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) show that the prediction errors of the engine-out NOx and soot emission models are 5.1% and 3.9%, respectively. Tests…
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Turbulent Flow Pressure Losses in Gasoline Particulate Filters

SAE International Journal of Engines

Coventry University, United Kingdom-Svetlana Aleksandrova, Jonathan Saul, Marco Prantoni, Humberto Medina, Mark Bevan, Stephen Benjamin
Jaguar Land Rover, United Kingdom-Oscar Garcia-Afonso
  • Journal Article
  • 03-12-04-0030
Published 2019-08-19 by SAE International in United States
Gasoline Particulate Filter (GPF) technology is the key method of meeting the new regulations for particulate matter emissions from gasoline cars. Computer-Aided Engineering is widely used for the design of such systems; thus the development of accurate models for GPFs is crucial. Most existing pressure loss models require experimental calibration of several parameters. These experiments are performed at room temperatures, or on an engine test bench, where gas properties cannot be fully controlled. This article presents pressure loss measurements for clean GPF cores performed with uniform airflow and temperatures up to 680°C. The flow regime in GPF is shown to be different to that in the Diesel Particulate Filters (DPF) due to high flow rates and temperatures. Therefore, most of the existing models are not suitable for design of the new generation of aftertreatment devices. To isolate pressure loss contributions from different sources, unplugged filter cores are tested. A new model to describe pressure losses in GPFs is proposed and validated, taking into account turbulent friction losses and pressure variation along the filter channels. It…
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JCB prepared to meet EU Stage V emissions

SAE Truck & Off-Highway Engineering: August 2019

Dan Gilkes
  • Magazine Article
  • 19TOFHP08_09
Published 2019-08-01 by SAE International in United States

JCB is preparing to offer Stage V compliant engines across its equipment lines, with updates to its own engine range and changes to supplier models. Group director of engines Alan Tolley said that the company has preferred to tackle emissions within the combustion system, rather than simply adding aftertreatment to the exhaust system; however, for Stage V, diesel particulate filters (DPFs) and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) will become necessary.

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The Effect of NO2/NOx Ratio on the Performance of a SCR Downstream of a SCR Catalyst on a DPF

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Michigan Technological University, USA-Venkata Rajesh Chundru, Gordon G. Parker, John H. Johnson
  • Journal Article
  • 04-12-02-0008
Published 2019-06-14 by SAE International in United States
Different aftertreatment systems consisting of a combination of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) and SCR catalyst on a diesel particulate filter (DPF) (SCR-F) are being developed to meet future oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions standards being set by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the California Air Resources Board (CARB). One such system consisting of a SCRF® with a downstream SCR was used in this research to determine the system NOx reduction performance using experimental data from a 2013 Cummins 6.7L ISB (Interact System B) diesel engine and model data. The contribution of the three SCR reactions on NOx reduction performance in the SCR-F and the SCR was determined based on the modeling work. The performance of a SCR was simulated with a one-dimensional (1D) SCR model. A NO2/NOx ratio of 0.5 was found to be optimum for maximizing the NOx reduction and minimizing NH3 slip for the SCR for a given value of ammonia-to-NOx ratio (ANR). The SCRF® + SCR system was simulated using the 2D SCR-F + 1D SCR system model. For all the…