The SAE MOBILUS platform will continue to be accessible and populated with high quality technical content during the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic. x

Your Selections

Diesel particulate filters
Show Only

Collections

File Formats

Content Types

Dates

Sectors

Topics

Authors

Publishers

Affiliations

Committees

Events

Magazine

   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Evaluating the Performance of a Conventional and Hybrid Bus operating on Diesel and B20 Fuel for Emissions and Fuel Economy

US Environmental Protection Agency-Matthew Brusstar, Scott Ludlam
University of Michigan-Rinav Pillai, Andre Boehman
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1351
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
With ongoing concerns about the elevated levels of ambient air pollution in urban areas and the contribution from heavy-duty diesel vehicles, hybrid electric buses are considered as a potential solution as they are perceived to be less polluting and more fuel-efficient than their conventional engine counterparts. However, recent studies have shown that real-world emissions may be substantially higher than those measured in the laboratory, mainly due to operating conditions that are not fully accounted for in dynamometer test cycles. At the U.S. EPA National Fuel and Vehicle Emissions Laboratory (NVFEL), the in-use criteria emissions and energy efficiency of heavy-duty class 8 vehicles (up to 80,000 lbs) may be evaluated under controlled conditions in the heavy-duty chassis dynamometer test. The present study evaluated the performance of a conventional bus and hybrid bus for emissions and fuel economy under representative test cycles (including cold start and hot start conditions) with Diesel (#2) and Biodiesel (B20) fuel. The conventional bus was equipped with a Cummins ISL 8.3L engine and a Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) and Diesel Oxidation Catalyst…
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Advanced Diesel Particulate Filter Technologies for Next Generation Exhaust Aftertreatment Systems

Corning, Inc.-Sandeep Viswanathan, Sam George, Mahesh Govindareddy, Achim Heibel
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1434
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The regulative environment is poised for ultra-low emissions in the 2024+ time frame with ultra-low NOx proposals from CARB and PN PEMS testing requirements from EU. GHG emissions limits are starting to get tighter in the next few years along with extended warranty and full useful life requirements. Diesel Particulate Filters (DPF) will be an integral part of all diesel exhaust aftertreatment systems for the next several years and will need advanced technology solutions to meet the aforementioned challenges, without compromising on high performance requirements, namely, low lifetime pressure drop, high filtration efficiency, high durability (extended warranty), increased service intervals or lifetime filter solutions (high ash storage capacity). This paper discusses the primary challenges associated with meeting these future demands and possible technological solutions to address them. Data from on-road vehicle testing and impact of duty cycle (vocational / line haul) on lifetime aftertreatment performance has been discussed. Key drivers for pressure drop reduction over product lifetime are illustrated and used to develop the next generation of diesel particulate filters. The complex relationship between filter…
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Evaluation of an On-board, Real-time Electronic Particulate Matter Sensor Using Heavy-duty On-highway Diesel Engine Platform

EmiSense Technologies LLC-Patrick Thompson, Leta Woo
Southwest Research Institute-Vinay Premnath, Imad Khalek
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0385
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
California Air Resources Board (CARB) has instituted requirements for on-board diagnostics (OBD) that makes a spark-plug sized particulate matter (PM) sensor a critical component of the OBD system to detect diesel particulate filter (DPF) failure. Current PM OBD thresholds for heavy-duty on-highway vehicles is 0.03 g/hp-hr and for light-duty vehicles (2019+ Model Year LEV III) is 17.5 mg/mile. To meet these regulations, and more stringent future regulations, real-time PM sensors offer numerous benefits over traditional accumulation type resistive sensors. The focus of this work is on the experimental evaluation of such a real-time PM sensing technology manufactured by CoorsTek LLC. A 2011 model year on-highway heavy-duty diesel engine fitted with diesel oxidation catalyst/diesel particulate filter/selective catalytic reducer/ammonia oxidation catalyst (DOC/DPF/SCR/AMOX) was used for the evaluation program. Sensors were tested at an emission level of ~ 0.02 g/hp-hr using five repeats each of Federal Test Procedure (FTP), Non-road transient cycle (NRTC), world harmonized transient cycle (WHTC) and ramped modal cycle (RMC) drive cycles. Exhaust emission levels were tuned using a bypass DOC flow path fitted in…
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Development of a Burner-Based Test System to Produce Controllable Particulate Emissions for Evaluation of Gasoline Particulate Filters

Southwest Research Institute-Nishant Thakral, Vinay Premnath, Imad Khalek, Scott Eakle
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0389
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) engines have been widely adopted by manufacturers in the light-duty market due to their fuel economy benefits. However, several studies have shown that GDI engines have higher levels of particulate matter (PM) emissions relative to Port Fuel Injected (PFI) engines and diesel engines equipped with optimally functioning Diesel Particulate Filters (DPF). With stringent particle number regulations (PN) implemented in both the European Union and China, Gasoline Particulate Filters (GPF) are expected to be widely utilized to control particulate emissions. Currently, evaluating GPF technologies on a vehicle can be challenging due to a limited number of commercially available vehicles that are available, as well as the costs associated with vehicle procurement and evaluations utilizing a chassis dynamometer facility. To address these challenges, a gasoline fueled burner-based technology was retrofitted with unique hardware to replicate the engine-out emissions profiles observed with GDI applications. In the absence of a suitable vehicle, using a burner-based technology can prove to be a cost-efficient solution for rapid screening of various GPFs. This manuscript details the development of…
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Review of Vehicle Engine Efficiency and Emissions

Corning, Inc.-Ameya Joshi
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0352
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
This review paper covers major regulatory and technology developments in 2019 pertinent to tailpipe emissions of greenhouse gases and criteria pollutants. Europe has proposed ambitious reductions in CO2 limits for both light- and heavy-duty sectors. The challenge is compounded with changing measurement norms and a significant shift away from fuel efficient diesels in the light-duty (LD) space. Both incremental and step changes are being made to advance internal combustion. New studies show that in-use NOx emissions from diesels can be much lower than required by the Euro 6 regulation. Discussions have already started on Euro 7 regulations, and the leading regulatory concepts and proposed technical solutions are provided. In the heavy-duty (HD) sector, the progress is outlined in improving engine and vehicle fuel efficiency through the US Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) SuperTruck II program and other representative studies. Common approaches among the participants include hybridization, waste heat recovery, and both open- and closed cycle incremental improvements. Emissions control focus is on evaluating pathways to achieve California’s contemplated low-NOx standards, recently also supported by the US…
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Calibration and parametric investigations on Lean NOx Trap and Particulate Filter models for a light-duty diesel engine

IIT Madras-A Ramesh, Anand Krishnasamy
Mahindra & Mahindra, Ltd.-S. Suresh Bagavathy
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0657
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
To comply with the stringent future emission mandates of light duty diesel engines, it is essential to deploy a suitable combination of emission control devices like diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC), diesel particulate filter (DPF) and DeNOx converter (LNT or SCR). Arriving at an optimum size and layout of these emission control devices for a particular engine through experiments is both time and cost intensive. Thus, it becomes important to develop suitable well-tuned simulation models that can be helpful to optimize individual emission control devices as well as arrive at an optimal layout for achieving higher conversion efficiency at minimal cost. Towards this objective, the present work intends to develop a one dimensional Exhaust After Treatment Devices (EATD) model using a commercial code. The model parameters are fine-tuned based on experimental data. The EATD model is then validated with experiments data that are not used for tuning the model. Subsequently, the model was used for studying the effects of geometrical parameters of the after-treatment devices like diameter and length on the conversion efficiency and the pressure…
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

A two-layer soot model for hydrocarbon fuel combustion

Oakland University-Peng Zhao
Texas Tech University-Haiwen Ge, Rui He
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0243
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Emission of particular matter/soot is the major environmental drawback of all hydrocarbon fueled combustion system. Raman spectroscopy measurements of engine-out soot particles showed that the ratio of amorphous layer and graphite layer intensities is strongly correlated with oxidation reactivity of the soot particles, which is strongly depending on fuel type. Oxidation reactivity of the soot particles is a critical parameter for the regeneration of the DPF (diesel particulate filter) and GPF (gasoline particulate filter). Inspired by the Raman spectroscopy, a novel two-layer soot model has been developed for diesel combustion. The model considers the soot particles consisting of two different layers: amorphous layer and graphite layer. Different reaction paths of these two layers have been taken into account in the new soot model. The model was implemented into CONVERGE using user defined functions. A diesel engine case was simulated using the new soot model. The predicted ratio of amorphous layer and graphite layer were compared with the measurements of Raman spectroscopy, which shows good agreement.
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
new

Review of Nitrous Oxide (N2O) Emissions from Motor Vehicles

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Desert Research Institute, USA-S. Kent Hoekman
  • Journal Article
  • 04-13-01-0005
Published 2020-02-27 by SAE International in United States
Nitrous oxide (N2O) is both an ozone depleting gas and a potent greenhouse gas (GHG), having a global warming potential (GWP) value nearly 300 times that of carbon dioxide (CO2). While long known to be a trace by-product of combustion, N2O was not considered a pollutant of concern until the introduction of the three-way catalyst (TWC) on light-duty gasoline vehicles in the 1980s. These precious metal-containing catalysts were found to increase N2O emissions substantially. Through extensive research efforts, the effects of catalyst type, temperature, air/fuel ratio, space velocity, and other factors upon N2O emissions became better understood. Although not well documented, N2O emissions from non-catalyst vehicles probably averaged 5-10 mg/mi (on the standard FTP test), while early generation TWC-equipped vehicles exceeded 100 mg/mi. As emissions control systems evolved to meet increasingly stringent criteria pollutant standards, N2O emissions also decreased. Today’s Tier 3 vehicles are required to meet a U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) N2O tailpipe standard of 10 mg/mi. N2O emissions from diesel engines and vehicles became of concern in the 2000s, when catalytic control…
This content contains downloadable datasets
Annotation ability available
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

A Modeling Study of an Advanced Ultra-low NOx Aftertreatment System

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Michigan Technological University, USA-Venkata Rajesh Chundru, John H. Johnson, Gordon G. Parker
  • Journal Article
  • 04-13-01-0003
Published 2020-01-09 by SAE International in United States
The 2010 Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Emission Standard for heavy-duty engines required 0.2 g/bhp-hr over certification cycles (cold and hot Federal Test Procedure [FTP]), and the California Air Resources Board (CARB) standards require upto 90% reduction of overall oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions. Similar reductions may be considered by the EPA through its Cleaner Trucks Initiative program. In this article, aftertreatment system components consisting of a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC); a selective catalytic reduction catalyst on a diesel particulate filter (DPF), or SCR-F; a second DOC (DOC2); and a SCR along with two urea injectors have been analyzed, which could be part of an aftertreatment system that can achieve the 0.02 g/bhp-hr standard. The system performance was evaluated using validated one-dimensional (1D) DOC, two-dimensional (2D) SCR-F, and 1D SCR models at various combinations of inlet ammonia (NH3)-to-NOx ratio (ANR) values for the SCR-F and the SCR to determine the injection rates required to achieve an optimum nitrogen dioxide (NO2)/NOx ratio at the inlets of both the SCR-F and the SCR. A strategy was developed that…
This content contains downloadable datasets
Annotation ability available
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Advanced analytical methods for the study of lubricant-derived ash and associated impacts on engine aftertreatment components

Massachusetts Institute of Technology-Sujay Dilip Bagi
Massachusetts Institute of Technology Kymanetics, Inc.-Carl Justin Kamp
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2293
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
Catalytic and non-catalytic engine aftertreatment components, such as the diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC), selective catalytic reduction on filter (SCRF), the gasoline particulate filter (GPF) and the diesel particulate filter (DPF) are complex, multifunctional emissions control technologies that are robustly designed for extended use in harsh automotive exhaust environments. Over the useful component lifetime, lubricant-derived inorganic and incombustible ash accumulates in and/or on the surface of the aforementioned aftertreatment components, resulting in degraded performance and other potential problems. In order to better understand effects of ash in such components, a multiscale analytical approach is necessary, requiring a variety of experimental tools. This paper will briefly present a decade of analytical experience at the Sloan Automotive Laboratory at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and at Kymanetics, Inc., specific to the fundamental understanding of the accumulation of lubricant-derived ash in engine aftertreatment components. Several key experimental tools and techniques will be reviewed including focused ion beam milling (SEM), in-situ X- ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), ultra-high resolution X-ray computed tomography (CT), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), environmental scanning…
This content contains downloadable datasets
Annotation ability available