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Evaluating the Performance of a Conventional and Hybrid Bus Operating on Diesel and B20 Fuel for Emissions and Fuel Economy

US Environmental Protection Agency-Matthew Brusstar, Scott Ludlam
University of Michigan-Rinav Pillai, Andre Boehman
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1351
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
With ongoing concerns about the elevated levels of ambient air pollution in urban areas and the contribution from heavy-duty diesel vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles are considered as a potential solution as they are perceived to be more fuel efficient and less polluting than their conventional engine counterparts. However, recent studies have shown that real-world emissions may be substantially higher than those measured in the laboratory, mainly due to operating conditions that are not fully accounted for in dynamometer test cycles. At the U.S. EPA National Fuel and Vehicle Emissions Laboratory (NVFEL) the in-use criteria emissions and energy efficiency of heavy-duty class 8 vehicles (up to 36280 kg) can be evaluated under controlled conditions in the heavy-duty chassis dynamometer test. The present study evaluated the performance of a conventional bus and a hybrid bus for emissions and fuel economy under representative test cycles (including cold start and hot start conditions) with Diesel (#2) and Biodiesel (B20) fuel. The conventional bus was equipped with a Cummins ISL 8.3L engine and a Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) and Diesel…
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Advanced Diesel Particulate Filter Technologies for Next Generation Exhaust Aftertreatment Systems

Corning, Inc.-Sandeep Viswanathan, Sam George, Mahesh Govindareddy, Achim Heibel
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1434
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The regulative environment is poised for ultra-low emissions in the 2024+ time frame with ultra-low NOx proposals from CARB and PN PEMS testing requirements from EU. GHG emissions limits are starting to get tighter in the next few years along with extended warranty and full useful life requirements. Diesel Particulate Filters (DPF) will be an integral part of all diesel exhaust aftertreatment systems for the next several years and will need advanced technology solutions to meet the aforementioned challenges, without compromising on high performance requirements, namely, low lifetime pressure drop, high filtration efficiency, high durability (extended warranty), increased service intervals or lifetime filter solutions (high ash storage capacity). This paper discusses the primary challenges associated with meeting these future demands and possible technological solutions to address them. Data from on-road vehicle testing and impact of duty cycle (vocational / line haul) on lifetime aftertreatment performance has been discussed. Key drivers for pressure drop reduction over product lifetime are illustrated and used to develop the next generation of diesel particulate filters. The complex relationship between filter…
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Evaluation of an On-Board, Real-Time Electronic Particulate Matter Sensor Using Heavy-Duty On-Highway Diesel Engine Platform

EmiSense Technologies LLC-Patrick Thompson, Leta Woo
Southwest Research Institute-Vinay Premnath, Imad Khalek
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0385
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
California Air Resources Board (CARB) has instituted requirements for on-board diagnostics (OBD) that makes a spark-plug sized exhaust particulate matter (PM) sensor a critical component of the OBD system to detect diesel particulate filter (DPF) failure. Currently, non-real-time resistive-type sensors are used by engine OEMs onboard vehicles. Future OBD regulations are likely to lower PM OBD thresholds requiring higher sensitivity sensors with better data yield for OBD decision making. The focus of this work was on the experimental evaluation of a real-time PM sensor manufactured by EmiSense Technologies, LLC that may offer such benefits. A 2011 model year on-highway heavy-duty diesel engine fitted with a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and a catalyzed DPF followed by urea-based selective catalytic reducer (SCR) and ammonia oxidation (AMOX) catalysts was used for this program. With the aid of an exhaust bypass, sensors were examined for their accuracy and variability at emission level of ~ 0.02 g/hp-hr (mid-way between Laboratory and OBD thresholds) using multiple repeats of various transient drive cycles. Seven sensors were benchmarked simultaneously against state-of-the-art laboratory particle…
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Calibration and Parametric Investigations on Lean NOx Trap and Particulate Filter Models for a Light Duty Diesel Engine

IIT Madras-A Ramesh, Anand Krishnasamy
Mahindra & Mahindra, Ltd.-S. Suresh Bagavathy
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0657
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
To comply with the stringent future emission mandates of light-duty diesel engines, it is essential to deploy a suitable combination of emission control devices like diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC), diesel particulate filter (DPF) and DeNOx converter (LNT or SCR). Arriving at optimum size and layout of these emission control devices for a particular engine through experiments is both time and cost-intensive. Thus, it becomes important to develop suitable well-tuned simulation models that can be helpful to optimize individual emission control devices as well as arrive at an optimal layout for achieving higher conversion efficiency at a minimal cost.Towards this objective, the present work intends to develop a one-dimensional Exhaust After Treatment Devices (EATD) model using a commercial code. The model parameters are fine-tuned based on experimental data. The EATD model is then validated with experiment data that are not used for tuning the model. Subsequently, the model was used for studying the effects of geometrical parameters of the after-treatment devices like diameter and length on the conversion efficiency and the pressure drop. The experimental investigations…
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A two-layer soot model for hydrocarbon fuel combustion

Oakland University-Peng Zhao
Texas Tech University-Haiwen Ge, Rui He
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0243
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Emission of particular matter/soot is the major environmental drawback of all hydrocarbon fueled combustion system. Raman spectroscopy measurements of engine-out soot particles showed that the ratio of amorphous layer and graphite layer intensities is strongly correlated with oxidation reactivity of the soot particles, which is strongly depending on fuel type. Oxidation reactivity of the soot particles is a critical parameter for the regeneration of the DPF (diesel particulate filter) and GPF (gasoline particulate filter). Inspired by the Raman spectroscopy, a novel two-layer soot model has been developed for diesel combustion. The model considers the soot particles consisting of two different layers: amorphous layer and graphite layer. Different reaction paths of these two layers have been taken into account in the new soot model. The model was implemented into CONVERGE using user defined functions. A diesel engine case was simulated using the new soot model. The predicted ratio of amorphous layer and graphite layer were compared with the measurements of Raman spectroscopy, which shows good agreement.
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Review of Nitrous Oxide (N2O) Emissions from Motor Vehicles

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Desert Research Institute, USA-S. Kent Hoekman
  • Journal Article
  • 04-13-01-0005
Published 2020-02-27 by SAE International in United States
Nitrous oxide (N2O) is both an ozone depleting gas and a potent greenhouse gas (GHG), having a global warming potential (GWP) value nearly 300 times that of carbon dioxide (CO2). While long known to be a trace by-product of combustion, N2O was not considered a pollutant of concern until the introduction of the three-way catalyst (TWC) on light-duty gasoline vehicles in the 1980s. These precious metal-containing catalysts were found to increase N2O emissions substantially. Through extensive research efforts, the effects of catalyst type, temperature, air/fuel ratio, space velocity, and other factors upon N2O emissions became better understood. Although not well documented, N2O emissions from non-catalyst vehicles probably averaged 5-10 mg/mi (on the standard FTP test), while early generation TWC-equipped vehicles exceeded 100 mg/mi. As emissions control systems evolved to meet increasingly stringent criteria pollutant standards, N2O emissions also decreased. Today’s Tier 3 vehicles are required to meet a U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) N2O tailpipe standard of 10 mg/mi. N2O emissions from diesel engines and vehicles became of concern in the 2000s, when catalytic control…
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Advanced analytical methods for the study of lubricant-derived ash and associated impacts on engine aftertreatment components

Massachusetts Institute of Technology-Sujay Dilip Bagi
Massachusetts Institute of Technology Kymanetics, Inc.-Carl Justin Kamp
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2293
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
Catalytic and non-catalytic engine aftertreatment components, such as the diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC), selective catalytic reduction on filter (SCRF), the gasoline particulate filter (GPF) and the diesel particulate filter (DPF) are complex, multifunctional emissions control technologies that are robustly designed for extended use in harsh automotive exhaust environments. Over the useful component lifetime, lubricant-derived inorganic and incombustible ash accumulates in and/or on the surface of the aforementioned aftertreatment components, resulting in degraded performance and other potential problems. In order to better understand effects of ash in such components, a multiscale analytical approach is necessary, requiring a variety of experimental tools. This paper will briefly present a decade of analytical experience at the Sloan Automotive Laboratory at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and at Kymanetics, Inc., specific to the fundamental understanding of the accumulation of lubricant-derived ash in engine aftertreatment components. Several key experimental tools and techniques will be reviewed including focused ion beam milling (SEM), in-situ X- ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), ultra-high resolution X-ray computed tomography (CT), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), environmental scanning…
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Analysis of NH3 Diffusion Phenomena in a Selective Catalytic Reduction Coated Diesel Particulate Filter Catalyst Using a Simple One-Dimensional Core Model

Waseda University-Ken Sahara, Yoshihisa Tsukamoto, Akihisa Ishimaru, Takao Fukuma, Jin Kusaka
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2236
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
This paper describes a method for estimating constants related to NH3 gas diffusion phenomena to the active sites in a selective catalytic reduction diesel particulate filter (SCR/DPF) catalyst. A simple one-dimensional NH3 gas diffusion model based on the pore structure inside the catalyst was developed and used to estimate the intracrystalline diffusion coefficient. It was shown that the estimated value agreed well with experimental data.
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Direct Visualization of Soot and Ash Transport in Diesel Particulate Filters during Active Regeneration Process

Japan Automobile Research Institute-Mayumi Matsuno, Takaaki Kitamura
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2287
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
This study employed a diesel particulate generator (DPG), with an installed engine oil injector for soot and ash accumulation in a diesel particulate filter (DPF). Ash was generated by engine oil injection into the diesel burner flame. The amount of soot accumulation per loading varied from 0.5 g/L to 8 g/L while ash accumulation amount per loading was maintained at 0.5 g/L.Initially, ash accumulation distribution in the DPF was visualized using X-ray computed tomography (CT). It was revealed that the form of ash accumulation changed depending on the amount of soot accumulation before active regeneration, i.e., a large amount of soot accumulation resulted in plug ash, whereas a small amount of soot accumulation resulted in wall ash.To clarify ash accumulation mechanisms, soot and ash transport behavior in DPF during active regeneration process was directly observed using a high-speed camera through an optically accessible D-shaped cut DPF covered with a quartz glass plate.From the results, it was found that for larger amounts of soot accumulation, the lump of soot in the soot cake layer was transported…
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Study for Effects of Bio-Diesel Fuel and After-Treatment Systems on Formation and Reduction of Particles from Diesel Engines

TOKYO DYLEC Corp., and Pollars Laboratory Co., Ltd.-Jun Kawase, Ryuichi Suzuki
Teikyo University-Kazutoshi Mori
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2290
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
Diesel engines are highly potential for better fuel economy due to a high thermal efficiency and fuel diversity. They are largely expected to contribute to a low carbon society in the future. Diesel engines have been developed for the purpose of controlling global warming and improving the air quality and health effects in the world. Although particles produced by combustion in cylinders of the diesel engines are emitted to the air, they are dramatically reduced by beyond 99.9% after being trapped by a diesel particulate filter (DPF) and a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) of the after-treatment systems. However phenomena of the formation of the particles in the cylinders and exhaust behaviors of the particles after being trapped by the DPF are not clearly explained yet (1)-(6) and effects of the DOC on the formation and the reduction of the particles are still not clarified (7)(8). This study analyzed particle distributions, particle number (PN) and particle components with diesel and bio-diesel fuel (BDF). First, this paper describes that the BDF more reduced the engine out PN…
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