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Evaluating the Performance of a Conventional and Hybrid Bus operating on Diesel and B20 Fuel for Emissions and Fuel Economy

US Environmental Protection Agency-Matthew Brusstar, Scott Ludlam
University of Michigan-Rinav Pillai, Andre Boehman
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1351
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
With ongoing concerns about the elevated levels of ambient air pollution in urban areas and the contribution from heavy-duty diesel vehicles, hybrid electric buses are considered as a potential solution as they are perceived to be less polluting and more fuel-efficient than their conventional engine counterparts. However, recent studies have shown that real-world emissions may be substantially higher than those measured in the laboratory, mainly due to operating conditions that are not fully accounted for in dynamometer test cycles. At the U.S. EPA National Fuel and Vehicle Emissions Laboratory (NVFEL), the in-use criteria emissions and energy efficiency of heavy-duty class 8 vehicles (up to 80,000 lbs) may be evaluated under controlled conditions in the heavy-duty chassis dynamometer test. The present study evaluated the performance of a conventional bus and hybrid bus for emissions and fuel economy under representative test cycles (including cold start and hot start conditions) with Diesel (#2) and Biodiesel (B20) fuel. The conventional bus was equipped with a Cummins ISL 8.3L engine and a Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) and Diesel Oxidation Catalyst…
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Ramped Versus Square Injection Rate Experiments in a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

DAF Trucks NV-Bogdan Albrecht
Delphi Technologies-Tony Simpson
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0300
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
CO2 regulations on heavy-duty transport are introduced in essentially all markets within the next decade, in most cases in several phases of increasing stringency. To cope with these mandates, developers of engines and related equipment are aiming to break new ground in the fields of combustion, fuel and hardware technologies. In this work, a novel diesel fuel injector, Delphi’s DFI7, is utilized to experimentally investigate and compare the performance of ramped injection rates versus traditional square fueling profiles. The aim is specifically to shift the efficiency and NOx tradeoff to a more favorable position. The design of experiments methodology is used in the tests, along with statistical techniques to analyze the data. Results show that ramped and square rates - after optimization of fueling parameters - produce comparable gross indicated efficiencies. For the highest engine speed tested, ramped profiles attain these efficiency values at considerably lower NOx levels. Particulate matter emissions, on the other hand, are generally lower with the use of square profiles. Heat release analysis further reveals that ignition delays in ramped rate…
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Combustion Characterization of Neat n-Butanol in an SI Engine

Shanghai Jiao Tong University-Tie Li
University of Windsor-Navjot Singh Sandhu, Xiao Yu, Simon Leblanc, Ming Zheng, David Ting
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0334
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Increasingly stringent emission standards have promoted the interest in alternative fuel sources. Because of the comparable energy density to the existing fossil fuels and renewable production, alcohol fuels may be a suitable replacement or an additive to the gasoline/diesel fuels to meet the future emission standards with minimal modification to current engine geometry. Extensive research is published on n-Butanol and gasoline fuel blends in a spark-ignition (SI) engine operation. In this research, the combustion characteristics of neat n-Butanol are analyzed under spark ignition operation using a single cylinder SI engine. The fuel is injected into the intake manifold using a port-fuel injector. Two modes of charge dilution were used in this investigation to test the limits of stable engine operation, namely lean burn using excess fresh air and exhaust gas regeneration (EGR). The in-cylinder pressure measurement and subsequently, heat release analysis are used to investigate the combustion characteristics of the fuel under low load SI engine operation. Additionally, a comprehensive emission analysis is performed using the Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy technique to study the…
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Combustion and Emission Characteristics of SI and HCCI Combustion Fueled with DME and OME

Ford Motor Company-Jimi Tjong
University of Windsor-Simon Leblanc, Xiao Yu, Navjot Singh Sandhu, Meiping Wang, Ming Zheng
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1355
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
DME has been considered an alternative fuel to diesel fuel with promising benefits because of its high reactivity and volatility. Research shows that an engine fueled with DME will produce zero smoke emissions. However, the storage and the handling of the fuel are underlying difficulties owing to its high vapour pressure (530 kPa @ 20 °C). In lieu, OME fuel, a derivate of DME, offers advantages exhibited with DME fuel, all the while being a liquid fuel for engine application. In this work, engine tests are performed to realize the combustion behaviour of DME and OME fuel on a single-cylinder research engine with a compression ratio of 9.2:1. The dilution ratio of the mixture is progressively increased in two manners, allowing more air in the cylinder and applying exhaust gas recirculation. The high reactivity of DME suits the capability to be used in compression ignition combustion whereas OME must be supplied with a supplemental spark to initiate the combustion. The results indicate that a low-temperature heat release (LTHR) is present during the combustion of DME…
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Development of a method to measure soft particles in drop-in fuels

KTH Royal Institute of Technology-Botond Csontos, Shriharsha Swarga, Hanna Bernemyr
Scania CV AB-Mayte Pach, Henrik Hittig
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0344
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Renewable fuels have an important role to create sustainable energy systems. In this paper the focus is on biodiesel, which is a fuel produced from vegetable oils or animal fats. Today biodiesel is mostly used as drop-in fuel, mixed into conventional diesel fuels to reduce their environmental impact. Drop-in fuels in case of low fuel qualities can lead to deposits throughout the fuel systems of heavy duty vehicles. In a previous study fuel filters from the field were collected and analyzed with the objective to determine the main components responsible for fuel filter plugging. The identified chemicals were characterized as soft particles. In the current study, the focus was on metal carboxylates, since metal carboxylates were found to be one of the components of soft particles and it is associated with other engine malfunctioning as well. Hence the measurement of metal carboxylates in the fuel is important for future studies regarding the fuels effect on engines. The first aim of this study was to create synthetic soft particles from biodiesel. Accelerated aging of fuels with…
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A Vehicle Level Transient Thermal Analysis of Automotive Fuel Tanks

FCA US LLC-Alaa El-Sharkawy, Dipan Arora
Optumatics LLC-Yehia Mazen, Amr Sami
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1342
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Maintaining the fuel temperature and fuel system components below certain values is an important design objective. Predicting these temperature is therefore one of the key parts of the vehicles thermal management process. One of the physical processes affecting fuel tank temperature is fuel vaporization, which is controlled by the vapor pressure in the tank, fuel composition and fuel temperature. Models are developed to enable the computation of the fuel temperature, fuel vaporization rate in the tank, fuel temperatures along the fuel supply lines, and follows its path to the charcoal canister and into the engine intake. For Diesel fuel systems where a fuel return line is used to return excess fluid back to the fuel tank, an energy balance will be considered to calculate the heat added from the high-pressure pump and vehicle under-hood and underbody. In this work, a transient heat transfer model is developed to compute the heat transfer between the in-tank fuel and the vehicle under-hood or underbody where the effect of exhaust and convection are considered. A fuel vaporization model is…
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Under-expanded Gaseous Jets Characterization for Application in Direct Injection Engines: Experimental and Numerical Approach

Istituto Motori CNR-Luigi Allocca, Alessandro Montanaro, Giovanni Meccariello
Università degli Studi de L'Aquila-Francesco Duronio, Stefano Ranieri
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0325
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
In the last years, increasing concerns about environmental pollution and fossil sources depletion led transport sector’s research and development towards the study of new technologies capable to reduce vehicle’s emissions and fuel consumption. Direct-injection systems (DI) for internal combustion engines propose as an effective way to achieve these goals. This technology has already been adopted in gasoline engines (GDI) and, lately, a great interest is growing for its use in natural gas fuelling engines, so increasing efficiency with respect to port-fuel injection engines. Alone or in combination with other fuels, compressed natural gas (CNG) represents an attractive way to reduce exhaust emission (high H/C ratio), can be produced in renewable ways, and is more widespread and cheaper than gasoline or diesel fuels. Gas direct-injection process involves the occurrence of under-expanded jets in the combustion chamber. An accurate characterization of such phenomena is crucial for a consequent application in DI-CNG engines. In this paper an experimental and numerical analysis of methane under-expanded jets (as surrogate of CNG) has been carried out. The fuel has been injected…
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Trade-off Analysis and Systematic Optimization of Heavy-Duty Diesel Hybrid Powertrain

FEV North America Inc.-Satyum Joshi, Mufaddel Dahodwala, Erik W. Koehler, Michael Franke, Dean Tomazic
Michigan Technological University-Jeffrey Naber
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0847
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
In recent years, while significant progress has been made in development of hybrid and battery electric vehicles for passenger car and light-duty applications to meet future fuel economy targets, application of hybrid powertrains to heavy-duty truck applications has been very limited. The relatively lower energy and power density of batteries in comparison to diesel fuel as well as the operating profiles of most of the heavy-duty trucks make the application of hybrid powertrain for these applications more challenging. The high torque and power requirements of heavy-duty trucks over a long operating range, the majority of which is at constant cruise point, along with a high payback period, complexity, cost, weight and range anxiety, make the hybrid and battery electric solution less attractive than a conventional powertrain. However, certain heavy-duty applications, such as class 6-7 urban vocational trucks, can benefit from hybridization due to their transient operating profiles and relatively lower vehicle weight. While many studies have quantified the fuel consumption benefits of hybridization in this segment, very few studies have outlined the arduous process of…
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Compatibility of Elastomers with Oxymethylene Ethers and Blends with Diesel Fuel

Oak Ridge National Laboratory-Michael Kass, Martin Wissink, Chris Janke, Raynella Connatser, Scott Curran
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0620
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Oxymethylene ethers (OMEs) have shown promise as candidates for diesel fuel blendstocks due to their low sooting tendency, high cetane number, and diesel-comparable boiling point range. However, there is a lack of literature regarding compatibility of OMEs with common automotive elastomers, which would be a prerequisite to their adoption into the marketplace. To address this need, an exposure study and complementary solubility analysis were undertaken. A commercially available blend of OMEs with polymerization degree ranging from 3 to 6 was blended with diesel certification fuel at 0, 33, 67, at 100% by volume. Elastomer coupons were exposed to the various blends for a period of 4 weeks and evaluated for volume swell. The elastomer materials included multiple fluoroelastomers (Viton and fluorosilicone) and acrylonitrile butadiene rubbers (NBR), as well as neoprene, polyurethane, epichlorohydrin (ECO), PVC-nitrile blend (OZO), ethylene propylene diene monomer (EPDM), styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR), and silicone. The exposure results indicated overall poor compatibility for OME, with every elastomer except for fluorosilicone exhibiting greater than 30% volume swell at the 33% blend level. The general trend…
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Use of Butanol Blend Fuels on Diesel Engines – Effects on Combustion and Emissions

Berner Fachhochschule TI AFHB-Danilo Engelmann
University of Applied Sciences, Biel-Bienne-Jan Czerwinski, Hervé Nauroy lng, Pierre Comte, Andreas Hüssy lng
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0333
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Butanol, a four-carbon alcohol, is considered in the last years as an interesting alternative fuel, both for Diesel and for Gasoline application. Its advantages for engine operation are: good miscibility with gasoline and diesel fuels, higher calorific value than Ethanol, lower hygroscopicity, lower corrosivity and possibility of replacing aviation fuels. Like Ethanol, Butanol can be produced as a biomass-based renewable fuel or from fossil sources. In the research project, DiBut (Diesel and Butanol) addition of Butanol to Diesel fuel was investigated from the points of view of engine combustion and of influences on exhaust aftertreatment systems and emissions. One investigated engine (E1) was with emission class “EU Stage 3A” for construction machines, another one, engine (E2) was HD Euro VI. The operation of engine (E1) with Bu30 was instable at lower part load due to the lower Cetane Number of the blend fuel. The electronic control system of the engine (E2) compensated very well the varying properties of fuels. With higher Butanol content, there is a lower heat value of the fuel and there is…