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Ramped Versus Square Injection Rate Experiments in a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

DAF Trucks NV-Bogdan Albrecht
Delphi Technologies-Tony Simpson
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0300
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
CO2 regulations on heavy-duty transport are introduced in essentially all markets within the next decade, in most cases in several phases of increasing stringency. To cope with these mandates, developers of engines and related equipment are aiming to break new ground in the fields of combustion, fuel and hardware technologies. In this work, a novel diesel fuel injector, Delphi’s DFI7, is utilized to experimentally investigate and compare the performance of ramped injection rates versus traditional square fueling profiles. The aim is specifically to shift the efficiency and NOx tradeoff to a more favorable position. The design of experiments methodology is used in the tests, along with statistical techniques to analyze the data. Results show that ramped and square rates - after optimization of fueling parameters - produce comparable gross indicated efficiencies. Tests were carried out at 1200 and 1425 rpm; for the latter engine speed peak efficiency was attained at considerably lower NOx levels by applying a ramped injection rate. Particulate matter emissions, on the other hand, are generally lower with the use of square…
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Combustion Characterization of Neat n-Butanol in an SI Engine

Shanghai Jiao Tong University-Tie Li
University of Windsor-Navjot Singh Sandhu, Xiao Yu, Simon Leblanc, Ming Zheng, David Ting
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0334
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Increasingly stringent emission standards have promoted the interest in alternate fuel sources. Because of the comparable energy density to the existing fossil fuels and renewable production, alcohol fuels may be a suitable replacement, or an additive to the gasoline/diesel fuels to meet the future emission standards with minimal modification to current engine geometry. In this research, the combustion characteristics of neat n-butanol are analyzed under spark ignition operation using a single cylinder SI engine. The fuel is injected into the intake manifold using a port-fuel injector. Two modes of charge dilution were used in this investigation to test the limits of stable engine operation, namely lean burn using excess fresh air and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). The in-cylinder pressure measurement and subsequently, heat release analysis are used to investigate the combustion characteristics of the fuel under low load SI engine operation. Additionally, a comprehensive emission analysis is performed to study the combustion by-products. Furthermore, the combustion and emission characteristics of n-butanol fuel are compared to those of the gasoline fuel. Preliminary results highlight the effect…
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Combustion and Emission Characteristics of SI and HCCI Combustion Fueled with DME and OME

Ford Motor Company-Jimi Tjong
University of Windsor-Simon Leblanc, Xiao Yu, Navjot Singh Sandhu, Meiping Wang, Ming Zheng
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1355
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
DME has been considered an alternative fuel to diesel fuel with promising benefits because of its high reactivity and volatility. Research shows that an engine fueled with DME will produce zero smoke emissions. However, the storage and the handling of the fuel are underlying difficulties owing to its high vapour pressure (530 kPa @ 20 °C). In lieu, OME1 fuel, a derivate of DME, offers advantages exhibited with DME fuel, all the while being a liquid fuel for engine application. In this work, engine tests are performed to realize the combustion behaviour of DME and OME1 fuel on a single-cylinder research engine with a compression ratio of 9.2:1. The dilution ratio of the mixture is progressively increased in two manners, allowing more air in the cylinder and applying exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). The high reactivity of DME suits the capability to be used in compression ignition combustion whereas OME1 must be supplied with a supplemental spark to initiate the combustion. The results indicate that a low-temperature heat release (LTHR) is present during the combustion of…
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An Experimental Investigation of In-Cylinder Flow Motion Effect on Dual-Fuel Premixed Compression Ignition Characteristics

Hyundai Motor Group-Hyunsung Jung, Hyounghyoun Kim, Yohan Chi
Seoul National University-Sanghyun Chu, Hyungjin Shin, Kihong Kim, Sunyoung Moon, Kyoungdoug Min
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0306
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The combustion process using two fuels with different reactivity, known as dual-fuel combustion or RCCI is mainly studied to reduce emissions while maintaining thermal efficiency compared to the conventional diesel combustion. Many studies have proven that dual-fuel combustion has a positive prospect in future combustion to achieve ultra-low engine-out emissions with high indicated thermal efficiency. However, a limitation on high-load expansion due to the higher maximum in-cylinder pressure rise rate (mPRR) is a main problem. Thus, it is important to establish the operating strategy and study the effect of in-cylinder flow motion with dual-fuel combustion to achieve a low mPRR and emissions while maintaining high-efficiency.In this research, the characteristics of gasoline-diesel dual-fuel combustion on different hardware were studied to verify the effect of the in-cylinder flow motion on dual-fuel combustion. To see such an effect, different head types (swirl and tumble) were used with different combustion chamber shapes (conventional vs bathtub).The higher thermal efficiency with swirl motion on low load combustion was shown with stable combustion due to the faster combustion occurred by air-fuel mixing…
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Development of a Method to Measure Soft Particles from Diesel Type Fuels

KTH Royal Institute of Technology-Botond Csontos, Shriharsha Swarga, Hanna Bernemyr
Scania CV AB-Mayte Pach, Henrik Hittig
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0344
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Renewable fuels have an important role to create sustainable energy systems. In this paper the focus is on biodiesel, which is produced from vegetable oils or animal fats. Today biodiesel is mostly used as a drop-in fuel, mixed into conventional diesel fuels to reduce their environmental impact. Low quality drop-in fuel can lead to deposits throughout the fuel systems of heavy duty vehicles. In a previous study fuel filters from the field were collected and analyzed with the objective to determine the main components responsible for fuel filter plugging. The identified compounds were constituents of soft particles. In the current study, the focus was on metal carboxylates since these have been found to be one of the components of the soft particles and associated with other engine malfunctions as well. Hence the measurement of metal carboxylates in the fuel is important for future studies regarding the fuel’s effect on engines. The first aim of this study was to create synthetic soft particles from biodiesel. Accelerated aging of fuels with different contaminations such as engine oil…
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A Vehicle Level Transient Thermal Analysis of Automotive Fuel Tanks

FCA US LLC-Alaa El-Sharkawy, Dipan Arora
Optumatics LLC-Yehia Mazen, Amr Sami
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1342
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Maintaining the fuel temperature and fuel system components below certain values is an important design objective. Predicting these temperature is therefore one of the key parts of the vehicles thermal management process. One of the physical processes affecting fuel tank temperature is fuel vaporization, which is controlled by the vapor pressure in the tank, fuel composition and fuel temperature. Models are developed to enable the computation of the fuel temperature, fuel vaporization rate in the tank, fuel temperatures along the fuel supply lines, and follows its path to the charcoal canister and into the engine intake. For Diesel fuel systems where a fuel return line is used to return excess fluid back to the fuel tank, an energy balance will be considered to calculate the heat added from the high-pressure pump and vehicle under-hood and underbody. In this work, a transient heat transfer model is developed to compute the heat transfer between the in-tank fuel and the vehicle under-hood or underbody where the effect of exhaust and convection are considered. A fuel vaporization model is…
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Under-Expanded Gaseous Jets Characterization for Application in Direct Injection Engines: Experimental and Numerical Approach

Istituto Motori CNR-Luigi Allocca, Alessandro Montanaro, Giovanni Meccariello
Università degli Studi de L'Aquila-Francesco Duronio, Stefano Ranieri
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0325
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
In the last years, increasing concerns about environmental pollution and fossil sources depletion led transport sectors research and development towards the study of new technologies capable to reduce vehicles emissions and fuel consumption. Direct-injection systems (DI) for internal combustion engines propose as an effective way to achieve these goals. This technology has already been adopted in Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) engines and, lately, a great interest is growing for its use in natural gas fueling, so increasing efficiency with respect to port-fuel injection ones. Alone or in combination with other fuels, compressed natural gas (CNG) represents an attractive way to reduce exhaust emission (high H/C ratio), can be produced in renewable ways, and is more widespread and cheaper than gasoline or diesel fuels. Gas direct-injection process involves the occurrence of under-expanded jets in the combustion chamber. An accurate characterization of such phenomena is crucial for a consequent application in DI-CNG engines.In this paper an experimental and numerical analysis of methane under-expanded jets (as surrogate of CNG) has been carried out. The fuel has been injected…
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Trade-Off Analysis and Systematic Optimization of a Heavy-Duty Diesel Hybrid Powertrain

FEV North America Inc.-Satyum Joshi, Mufaddel Dahodwala, Erik W. Koehler, Michael Franke, Dean Tomazic
Michigan Technological University-Jeffrey Naber
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0847
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
While significant progress has been made in recent years to develop hybrid and battery electric vehicles for passenger car and light-duty applications to meet future fuel economy targets, the application of hybrid powertrains to heavy-duty truck applications has been very limited. The relatively lower energy and power density of batteries in comparison to diesel fuel and the operating profiles of most heavy-duty trucks, combine to make the application of hybrid powertrain for these applications more challenging. The high torque and power requirements of heavy-duty trucks over a long operating range, the majority of which is at constant cruise point, along with a high payback period, complexity, cost, weight and range anxiety, make the hybrid and battery electric solution less attractive than a conventional powertrain. However, certain heavy-duty applications, such as Class 6-7 urban vocational trucks, can benefit from hybridization due to their transient operating profiles and relatively lower vehicle weight. While many studies have quantified the fuel consumption benefits of hybridization in this segment, very few studies have outlined the arduous process of selection and…
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Compatibility of Elastomers with Oxymethylene Ethers and Blends with Diesel Fuel

Oak Ridge National Laboratory-Michael Kass, Martin Wissink, Chris Janke, Raynella Connatser, Scott Curran
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0620
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Oxymethylene ethers (OMEs) have shown promise as candidates for diesel fuel blendstocks due to their low sooting tendency, high cetane number, and diesel-comparable boiling point range. However, there is a lack of literature regarding compatibility of OMEs with common automotive elastomers, which would be a prerequisite to their adoption into the marketplace. To address this need, an exposure study and complementary solubility analysis were undertaken. A commercially available blend of OMEs with polymerization degree ranging from 3 to 6 was blended with diesel certification fuel at 0, 33, 67, at 100% by volume. Elastomer coupons were exposed to the various blends for a period of 4 weeks and evaluated for volume swell. The elastomer materials included multiple fluoroelastomers (Viton and fluorosilicone) and acrylonitrile butadiene rubbers (NBR), as well as neoprene, polyurethane, epichlorohydrin (ECO), PVC-nitrile blend (OZO), ethylene propylene diene monomer (EPDM), styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR), and silicone. The exposure results indicated overall poor compatibility for OME, with every elastomer except for fluorosilicone exhibiting greater than 30% volume swell at the 33% blend level. The general trend…
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Use of Butanol Blend Fuels on Diesel Engines - Effects on Combustion and Emissions

Berner Fachhochschule TI AFHB-Danilo Engelmann
University of Applied Sciences, Biel-Bienne-Jan Czerwinski, Hervé Nauroy lng, Pierre Comte, Andreas Hüssy lng
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0333
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Butanol, a four-carbon alcohol, is considered in the last years as an interesting alternative fuel, both for Diesel and for gasoline application. Its advantages for engine operation are: good miscibility with gasoline and diesel fuels, higher calorific value than ethanol, lower hygroscopicity, lower corrosivity and possibility of replacing aviation fuels. Like ethanol, butanol can be produced as a biomass-based renewable fuel or from fossil sources.In the research project, DiBut (Diesel and butanol) addition of butanol to Diesel fuel was investigated from the points of view of engine combustion and of influences on exhaust aftertreatment systems and emissions. One investigated engine (E1) was with emission class “EU Stage 3A” for construction machines, another one, engine (E2) was HD Euro VI.The most important findings are: with higher butanol content, there is a lower heat value of the fuel and there is lower torque at full load. With Bu30 the conversion rates of CO and HC in the oxidation catalyst (DOC) are slightly lower, light-off temperatures are a little higher and NO2 production is lower. The PM-emissions with…