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Hybrid phenomenological and mathematical-based modeling approach for diesel engine emission predictio

IAV Automotive Engineering Inc.-Thaddaeus Delebinski
IAV GmbH-Reza Rezaei, Christopher Hayduk, Emre Alkan, Thomas Kemski, Christoph Bertram
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0660
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Due to the negative health effects associated with engine pollutants, environmental problems caused by combustion engine emissions and the current strict emission standards, it is essential to better understand and model the emission formation process in order to reduce them. Further development of emission models, improves the accuracy of the model-based optimization approach, which is used as a decisive tool for combustion system development and engine-out emission reduction. The numerical approaches for emission simulation are closely coupled to the combustion model. Using a detailed emission model, considering the 3D mixture preparation simulation incl. chemical reactions, demands high computational effort. Phenomenological models, used in 1-D approaches for model-based system optimization can deliver heat release rate and using a two-zone approach can estimate the NOx emissions. Due to the lack in modeling of 3D mixture preparation phenomena, such models are not capable to predict soot or HC emissions. However, employing physical-based air-path and combustion modeling, these models can predict the engine behavior outside of the training points. Mathematical models are very fast and accurate enough in the…
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Advanced Diesel Particulate Filter Technologies for Next Generation Exhaust Aftertreatment Systems

Corning, Inc.-Sandeep Viswanathan, Sam George, Mahesh Govindareddy, Achim Heibel
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1434
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The regulative environment is poised for ultra-low emissions in the 2024+ time frame with ultra-low NOx proposals from CARB and PN PEMS testing requirements from EU. GHG emissions limits are starting to get tighter in the next few years along with extended warranty and full useful life requirements. Diesel Particulate Filters (DPF) will be an integral part of all diesel exhaust aftertreatment systems for the next several years and will need advanced technology solutions to meet the aforementioned challenges, without compromising on high performance requirements, namely, low lifetime pressure drop, high filtration efficiency, high durability (extended warranty), increased service intervals or lifetime filter solutions (high ash storage capacity). This paper discusses the primary challenges associated with meeting these future demands and possible technological solutions to address them. Data from on-road vehicle testing and impact of duty cycle (vocational / line haul) on lifetime aftertreatment performance has been discussed. Key drivers for pressure drop reduction over product lifetime are illustrated and used to develop the next generation of diesel particulate filters. The complex relationship between filter…
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A case study of a Cu-SSZ-13 SCR catalyst poisoned by real-world high sulfur diesel fuel

Cummins Emission Solutions-Yuanzhou Xi, Nathan Ottinger, Christopher Keturakis, Z. Gerald Liu
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1319
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
To meet increasingly stringent diesel engine emission regulations, diesel engines are required to use ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD) and are equipped with advanced aftertreatment systems. Cu-SSZ-13 zeolite catalysts are widely used as selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts due to their high efficiency in NOx reduction and excellent hydrothermal stability. However, active Cu sites of Cu-SSZ-13 catalysts can be poisoned by exposure to engine exhaust sulfur species. This poison effect can be greatly mitigated with the use of ULSD and periodic high temperature regenerations of the aftertreatment system (e.g., for soot removal, diesel exhaust fluid (DEF) deposit removal, etc.). On the other hand, ULSD is still not universally available where regulations require it, and vehicles may inadvertently operate with high sulfur diesel fuel (HSD) in some locations. The high concentration of exhaust sulfur species resulting from HSD combustion may rapidly poison the Cu-SSZ-13 SCR catalyst. In this study, the catalytic performance of an HSD sulfur poisoned Cu-SSZ-13 SCR catalyst is analyzed. The results show that the as received SCR catalyst displays substantially low NOx conversion efficiency…
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An Experimental Study on the Effect of Exhaust Gas Recirculation on a Natural Gas-Diesel Dual-fuel Engine

National Research Council Canada-Shouvik Dev, Hongsheng Guo, Simon Lafrance, Brian Liko
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0310
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Natural gas (NG)-diesel dual-fuel combustion can be a suitable solution to reduce the overall CO2 emissions of heavy-duty vehicles using diesel engines. One configuration of such a dual-fuel engine can be port injection of NG to form a combustible air-NG mixture in the cylinder. This mixture is then ignited by a direct injection of diesel. Other potential advantages of such an engine include the flexibility of switching back to diesel-only mode, reduced hardware development costs and lower soot emissions. However, the trade-off is lower brake thermal efficiency (BTE) and higher hydrocarbon emissions, especially methane, at low load and/or high engine speed conditions. Advancing the diesel injection timing tends to improve the BTE but may cause the NOx emissions to increase. In this study, exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is used in combination with the diesel injection timing control to demonstrate the compromises between lowering NOx, soot, and methane emissions while maintaining diesel-like BTE. Determining such optimal operating conditions can not only reduce the consumption of diesel, NG and diesel exhaust fluid, but may also enhance the…
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Evaluation of Zero Oil Cooling for Improved BTE in a Compression Ignition Engine

Southwest Research Institute-Bradley Denton, Edward Smith, Jason Miwa, Daniel Christopher Bitsis
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0284
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
With increasing diesel engine emissions regulations and the desire to increase overall thermal efficiency of the engine, various combustion concepts have been explored. One of the potential pathways to higher efficiency is through reduction of in-cylinder heat transfer. In this paper, a concept aimed at decreasing in-cylinder heat transfer through increased piston temperature is explored. In order to increase piston temperature and ideally reduce in-cylinder heat transfer, a Zero-Oil-Cooling (ZOC) piston concept was explored. To study this concept, the test engine was modified to allow piston oil cooling to be deactivated so that its impact on parameters such as BTE, piston temperature, and emissions could be evaluated. The engine was equipped with in-cylinder pressure measurement for combustion analysis as well as a piston temperature telemetry system to evaluate piston crown temperature. This paper will discuss the process by which the engine was modified to achieve ZOC and tested. Engine and piston telemetry data with and without oil cooling will be shown to demonstrate the impact on brake thermal efficiency and piston temperatures.
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The Influence of the Operating Duty Cycles on the Composition of Exhaust Gas Recirculation Cooler Deposits of Industrial Diesel Engines

Industrial Power Alliance, Ltd.-Minato Tomuro
University of Michigan-Jason Hebert, John Hoard, André Boehman
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1164
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) coolers are commonly used in On-road and Off- road diesel engines to reduce the re-circulated gas temperature in order to reduce NOx emissions. One of the common performance behaviors for EGR coolers in use on diesel engines is a reduction of the heat exchanger effectiveness, mainly due to particulate matter (PM) deposition and condensation of hydrocarbons (HC) from the diesel exhaust on the inside walls of the EGR cooler. According to previous studies, typically, the effectiveness decreases rapidly initially, then asymptotically stabilizes over time. Prior work has postulated a deposit removal mechanism to explain this stabilization phenomenon. In the present study, five field aged EGR cooler samples that were used on construction machines for over 10000 hours were analyzed in order to understand the deposit structure as well as the deposit composition after long duration use. Three of them were disassembled from 15.2L off-road diesel engines, the rest of two were taken from 23.1L off-road diesel engines, then torn down to analyze the deposits. The duty cycle of each vehicle was…
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Study on Diesel Atomization Characteristics for Hot Exhaust Gas Burner

School of Automotive Studies, Tongji University-Mengdi Li, Shipeng Li, Liguang Li, Jun Deng
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2238
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
A hot exhaust gas burner system is applied to break through the limitations of the traditional diesel engine bench. Sufficient atomization is needed to realize spark ignition in a low-pressure burner system. Hence, the design of the atomization system is studied both experimentally and numerically. Through the reasonable optimization of the nozzle diameter, the air assist pressure, the angle among the four nozzles of four V-structures as well as the diameter and the angle of co-flow holes, an even distribution of small diesel droplets in the ignition area of the burner is realized. Consequently, diesel spray can be spark ignited in a low-pressure burner system, which can simulate the diesel exhaust. And the DPF can be installed downstream of the burner to quickly analyze the effect of ash accumulation on the DPF.
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Optimization of In-Cylinder Flow and Swirl Generation Analysis for a Naturally Aspirated Diesel Genset Engine for Emission Reduction through Intake Port Design

College of Engineering-Sameer Tikar, Dileep Malkhede, Milankumar Nandgaonkar
Published 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
Engine in-cylinder flow structure governs the combustion process and directly influences emission formation and fuel consumption at the source. In naturally aspirated DI diesel engine, combustion process coupled with low pressure mechanical fuel injection systems set different requirements for inlet port performance. In-cylinder swirl needs to be optimized for efficient combustion to meet emission levels and fuel consumption targets. Thus, intake port design optimization process becomes a vital requirement.In the present paper intake port design optimization is carried out for single cylinder naturally aspirated engine using mechanical fuel injection systems. The objective is to investigate in-cylinder flow field developed by intake port designs, study the effects of geometrical details of various port cross sections on flow velocity and pressure fields and establish a relationship with intake port performance parameters i.e. swirl and flow coefficient. CFD analysis is carried out for port performance study at various valve lift positions. The design variants are experimentally validated on steady state test rig using paddle wheel principle. Further, the impact of these new intake port designs on single cylinder…
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Reduction of NOx in a Single Cylinder Diesel Engine Emissions Using Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction (SNCR) with In-Cylinder Injection of Aqueous Urea

Univ of North Florida-Anthony Timpanaro, John Nuszkowski
Published 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
The subject of this study is the effect of in-cylinder selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) of NOx emissions in diesel exhaust gas by means of direct injection of aqueous urea ((NH2)2CO) into the combustion chamber. A single cylinder diesel test engine was modified to accept an electronically controlled secondary common rail injection system to deliver the aqueous urea directly into the cylinder during engine operation. Direct in-cylinder injection was chosen to ensure precise delivery of the aqueous urea without the risk of any premature reactions taking place. The injection strategy was four molar ratios, 4.0, 2.0, 1.0 and 0.5 with five varying injection timings of 60, 20, 10, 0, and -30 degrees after top dead center (ATDC). The main secondary injection fluid, aqueous urea, was mixed with glycerol (C3H8O3) in an 80-20 ratio, by mass, with the desire to function as a lubricant for the secondary injector. In addition to the base line and aqueous urea tests, neat water injection and an 80-20 ratio, by mass, water-glycerol solution tests were also conducted to compare the effects…
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Experimental Analysis of SCR Spray Evolution and Sizing in High-Temperature and Flash Boiling Conditions

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Continental Automotive Systems US Inc., USA-Nic van
Universita degli Studi di Perugia, Italy-Gabriele Brizi, Lucio Postrioti
  • Journal Article
  • 04-12-02-0006
Published 2019-05-16 by SAE International in United States
In the last years, new stringent emission legislation in terms of nitrogen oxides (NOx) has been leading to a massive development of advanced after-treatment systems for diesel engines. Among them, selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology has proved to be an effective approach for NOx reduction in a wide range of engine operating conditions. In SCR systems, the interaction between diesel exhaust fluid (DEF) and hot exhaust gas is crucial to promote the chemical reactions through which ammonia is produced. Hence, a proper matching between the exhaust pipe architecture and the DEF spray is mandatory for obtaining an adequate SCR efficiency, especially in close-coupled configurations and moderate exhaust gas temperature conditions. To this end, significant benefits could be derived via appropriate SCR injector thermal management, as the spray structure is significantly influenced by the DEF temperature upstream of the injector nozzle. In this article, the results of a spray analysis campaign carried out on a prototype DEF dosing system are presented. The goal of this research is to investigate the influence of both air and DEF…
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