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Rapid Optimal Design of a Light Vehicle Hydraulic Brake System

Politecnico di Torino-Pier Giuseppe Anselma, Shirish Padmakar Patil, Giovanni Belingardi
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-0831
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Automobile brake system design process is complex and time consuming as there are several components in the system as well as the system has to pass all the conflicting government regulations. With these constraints it is not easy to design an optimal configuration. This paper proposes a simple, intuitive and automated methodology that enables rapid optimal design of light vehicle hydraulic brake systems through an efficient exhaustive search of all the possible designs. Firstly, the system is modeled through cascaded analytical equations for each component. A large design space is then generated by varying the operational parameters of each component in its specific reasonable range. The system components under consideration include the brake pedal, the master cylinder, the vacuum-assisted booster, the brake line and the brake pistons. Successful system configurations are identified by implementing the requirements of the two most relevant safety homologation standards for light vehicle brake systems (US and EU legislations). Ergonomics constraints and the compensation for the fluid losses in the system complete the design requirements. The optimal design identification is carried…

Investigation of the Acoustic Surface Power on a Cooling Fan Using the Mesh Morpher Optimizer

Advanced Safety & Energy Inc-Mike Kheirallah
Ford Motor Company-Abdallah Hamieh
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-0833
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
A cooling fan is an essential device of the engine cooling system which is used to remove the heat generated inside the engine from the system. An essential element for successful fan designs is to evaluate the pressure over the fan blade since it can generate annoying noises that influence performance of the fan blades. Investigation of the Acoustic Surface Power for a cooling fan model is an important task for estimating the weak regions over the surface and for proposing a design guidance which can help improve the acoustic performance of the fan model. The implementation of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) with support of mesh morphing, along with the development of optimization techniques, can provide a quick evaluation of the acoustic performance of the fan model and improve the design. CFD techniques and optimization methodology will be applied to improve the acoustic surface power distribution over a cooling fan surface. The noise control must be undertaken by considering proper design factors and features. Different aeroacoustic optimization techniques are used to examine and reduce the…

Modeling Fuel Tank Draining/Sloshing in a Typical Transiently Accelerating Vehicle using GT-SUITE for Reliable Tank Designing

Gamma Technologies LLC-Arpit Tiwari, Nils-Henning Framke
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1262
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Draining and fuel starvation prediction is of critical importance in designing and approving fuel tanks. Simulation of fluid dynamics to predict draining of a moving tank having multiple fuel compartments and multiple ports is, however, challenging. This is because the dynamics involve multiple fluids which follow distinct thermodynamics – compressible air at the top and nearly incompressible fuel below it. Moreover, for a typical vehicle accelerating transiently, the surface angle keeps changing which leads to dynamic fuel covering/uncovering of interior as well as outlet ports. Simulation of these effects often requires 3D multiphase solution, which is computationally expensive especially when it is required to model additional fluid systems such as fuel pipes and jet pumps. We present fast and efficient modeling and simulation of tank draining using the 0D/1D framework of GT-SUITE. The flexibility and robustness of the inbuilt flow solver allows accurate solution of the associated multiphase flow dynamics. Furthermore, the software is geometrically flexible to capture the surface angle variations (sloshing) of fuel moving in complicated 3D shaped tanks and allows for the…

Numerical Analysis using Fast RANS simulations and Comparison with Experimental Measurements for Closed and Open Grille Realistic Car Models

Simerics Inc-Yu Jiang
Simerics Inc.-Sujan Dhar
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-0655
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Over the past few years, the DrivAer car geometry has driven development of simulation methodology for vehicle aerodynamics. Due to the realistic geometry of the DrivAer car model the results obtained from simulations can be easily extended to the aerodynamic design process of production vehicles. This paper details a comprehensive CFD study of all three variants of the DrivAer car geometries: Fastback, Notchback and Estate configurations. The most realistic geometry was chosen for each of the variants; with detailed underbody, wheels and mirrors. In addition to the closed-grille standard DrivAer models, the open–grille variant has also been simulated. Simulations are performed both with and without ground simulation. Mesh generation was performed without surface alterations (e.g. wrapping) using a novel Binary-Tree automatic unstructured mesher. All simulations were performed using RANS turbulence model. A consistent modeling methodology was developed that was rigorously applied to all variants of the DrivAer model and the simulations are shown to have consistently good agreement with experimental measurements. This demonstrates the potential of using such a methodology for several different types of…

An Efficient Approach to Key Negotiation in an Automotive Environment

Fiat Chrysler Automobiles-Bill Mazzara, Theo Van Dam
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-0480
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Negotiating Keys for applications such as message authentication within a vehicle presents many problems as, in designing the algorithm; the algorithm must be able to be utilized by small, fixed-point processors. In addition, if there is a desire to do this algorithm in the manufacturing environment, there are severe time constraints placed on how long this algorithm can take, as there are strict station time requirements, which are expensive to change, and any time utilized in the plant can negatively affect vehicle throughput. Additionally, negotiating these keys between many ECUs can greatly increase the time required to negotiate a common key using standard multi-party Diffie-Hellman. Timing would also be an issue in the case of using pair-wise Diffie-Hellman for encryption and distribution of keys utilizing a key master. To solve these problems in multi-party key negotiation, we have utilized the Elliptic Curve variation of the Burmester-Desmedt (ECBD) algorithm. ECBD is relatively fast for a large number of ECUs, though the primary benefit of utilizing this algorithm is that calculation times for key negotiation vary only…

Development of Parametric Tool to Design Base Frame for Marine Application Engine

Cummins Inc.-Mukesh Kumar, Neeraja Rajasekhar, Prachi Pokharkar, Bibhu Mahanta, Rohit Saha
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-0798
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
A spread sheet based parametric tool is developed to design the base frame for a marine genset. Factors such as engine details, alternator details, anti-vibration mount (AVM) etc., that determine the design of the base frame, are set as parameters in the spreadsheet. The spreadsheet has formulae to calculate channel specifications, and anti-vibration mount deflections. It is linked to channel standards database and selects the optimal channel based on calculations. Similarly, the tool provides guidance in selection of anti-vibration mounts (AVM) from supplier catalogues, helps to predict number of anti-vibration mounts required and their location on base frame. This spread sheet is integrated with a generic base frame 3D model and 2 D print in Creo, which is auto-updated based on calculated parameters in the spreadsheet. Using this tool the user can generate a 3D-model and 2D print. This tool helps to standardize the design process and reduces design turnaround time considerably. The output of the tool and existing base frame designs were analysed using a finite element tool (ANSYS). Modal and static analysis were…

Assessment of a Three-Semester Mechanical Engineering Capstone Design Sequence Based on the SAE Collegiate Design Series

Lawrence Technological Univ-Liping Liu, Andrew Gerhart, Xin Xie, Wuming Jing, Kingman Yee
Lawrence Technological Univ.-James A. Mynderse
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1126
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Mechanical engineering seniors at Lawrence Technological University complete a capstone design project: either an SAE collegiate design series (CDS) vehicle or an industry-sponsored project (ISP). Starting in 2015, the Lawrence Tech CDS advisors worked together to redesign the five-credit three-semester sequence. The overall goals of the modifications were to improve student design, project management and communication skills; integrate SAE CDS projects into the curriculum; and increase faculty advisor involvement in the classroom. Initial results from the 2015-2016 academic year showed improvement in the first offering of the new sequence (Mynderse et. al. 2016). Ongoing assessment of course modifications includes faculty advisor observation, student surveys, and direct assessment of student technical output. This work expands on previous results with finalized learning outcomes, resulting session-by-session schedules, and new assessment data. The revised sequence consists of three courses: Introduction to Projects, Competition Projects 1, and Competition Projects 2. Introduction to Projects runs during the Spring semester only and introduces students the CDS projects while using a designette to practice the engineering design process and project management. Students complete…

Methodology Development for Coolant Boiling Prediction in EGR Coolers

Instituto Tecnológico de Aragon-Ignacio Ainsa Claver
Instituto Tecnológico de Aragón-María García-Camprubí
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1197
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Coolant boiling detection is a key issue to ensure Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) coolers performance and durability. Accurate boiling detection and prediction tools are thus increasingly demanded to support EGR coolers design in a context of raising requirements, mainly driven by the stringent regulations and the recent application of this technology to gasoline engines. In this scenario, a numerical tool for the prediction of coolant boiling in EGR coolers has been developed. It is based on Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) simulations and its results have been successfully validated against experimental data obtained on a test bench fully instrumented for boiling quantification. As for the predictive tool, a mathematical model describing the EGR cooler performance, including conjugate heat transfer and subcooled boiling, has been developed. Then a numerical methodology to solve this model has been implemented using OpenFOAM® (open source CFD toolbox). To validate the results of such a numerical tool, experimental quantification of the coolant boiling degree was required. To this end, a boiling test bench has been fully equipped with different sensors (pressure, AE,…

Automated Assessment of E/E-Architecture Variants Using an Integrated Model- and Simulation-Based Approach

Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT)-Harald Bucher, Kevin Neubauer, Jürgen Becker
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-0111
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Due to the continuously increasing complexity of automotive electric/electronic architectures (EEAs), model-based systems engineering principles became state-of-the-art for designing such heterogeneous systems. However, current Architecture Description Languages (ADLs), their system-design and analysis tools as well as frameworks for simulation-based analysis of EEA models often are not fully integrated in a single design process but usually require error-prone import/export processes, especially when considering distributed collaboration, from EEA data models to external analysis frameworks and vice versa. Particularly, this barriers the efficient assessment and comparison of distinct architecture variants regarding certain non-functional properties. Moreover, simulation-based analysis of the latter intended for EEA assessments in early concept phases necessitates backtracking capabilities to allow iterative model adaptations. In this paper, we present a novel approach for evaluating EEAs dynamically in different use-cases and comparing their architecture variants. We contrived a generic concept to integrate actor-oriented simulation and analysis tools with EEA system-design tools based on a previously developed approach for synthesizing and executing a cross-domain simulation model out of static EEA descriptions in PREEvision. Additionally, our concept comprises the…

Gearbox Paradigm: a support for quick and effective gearbox design

Politecnico di Torino-Carlo Rosso, Giovanni Belingardi, VIttorio Romagnoli
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-0806
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
The complexity of automotive market, the request of new gearbox layout able to improve the efficiency of a vehicle and the requirement of quick and effective design of gearboxes push the designers to seek new technologies, new layouts, new solutions. The typical development of a gearbox requires a lot of time and engineers' effort and it often implies a lot of time to define the right layout. The idea to develop a "paradigm" able to guide the designer through the design process seems to be effective. Starting from the experience of a code called "Engine Paradigm" where such idea was firstly implemented, the authors propose in the present paper the development of a code able to suggest a first attempt design of a gearbox. The "Gearbox Paradigm" code requires few data introduction, as torque, power, number of gears, some geometrical constraints such as the axes gap the gearbox layout, and the code elaborates a proposal of CAD design of a gearbox. All the calculation about gears, synchronizers, shafts, bearings, couplings are made by the code…