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Mahindra & Mahindra Ltd-Boobala Krishnan D, T Vijayan, Apurbo Kirty
Mahindra Research Valley-Himanshi Dua
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2571
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Keywords – Miniaturization, Low Profile (LP) Relays, Low Profile (LP) Fuses, Fuse box, Wiring Harness Research and/or Engineering Questions/Objective With the exponential advancement in technological features of automobile’s EE architecture, designing of power distribution unit becomes complex and challenging. Due to the increase in the number of features, the overall weight of power distribution unit increases and thereby affecting the overall system cost and fuel economy. The scope of this document is to scale down the weight and space of the power distribution unit without compromising with the current performance. Methodology Miniaturization involves replacing the mini fuses and J-case fuses with LP mini and LP J-case fuses respectively. The transition doesn’t involve any tooling modification and hence saves the tooling cost. Furthermore, to address stringent weight and space targets, LP mini fuses and LP J-case fuses were further replaced with micro-2 fuse and M-case fuse respectively. Similarly, micro relay and mini relay were replaced with Ultra micro and High current micro relay respectively. Results We took MPV segment vehicle for our initial testing and validation…

Performance of Switched Reluctance Motor for Small Electric Vehicle in Urban Mobility

ARAI-Yogesh Krishan Bhateshavar
ARAI Academy-Vignesh S, Mohammad Rafiq Agrewale, Kamalkishore Vora
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2501
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Small electric vehicles are challenging in nature while designing the power train and especially the mounting of batteries within the volume available. In this research, power train of small electric vehicle is designed and it is compared with the electric vehicles. The designed vehicle should meet the requirements of urban car so that it can be preferred in urban mobility. Emphasis is given on studying performance parameters such as motor speed, torque for different urban driving cycles by altering the motor and its no. of poles. Battery pack is designed to fit under the front hood of the vehicle whereas motor is fitted at the rear. Range is estimated using Simulink and it is validated with mathematical calculation using Peukert method performed in MATLAB. It is concluded that the designed vehicle with Switched Reluctance Motor 6/4 configuration of 15 kW, 110 Nm is sufficient to meet the urban car in 2020 targets. NCA battery is preferred for range improvement. Retro fitment is given higher priority while designing battery pack.


GM Technical Center-Santosh Swamy, Gulshan Noorsumar, Shivakumar Chidanandappa
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2546
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
MASS OPTIMIZED HOOD DESIGN FOR CONFLICTING PERFORMANCES Santosh Swamy, Gulshan Noorsumar, Shivakumar Chidanandappa General Motors Technical Center, India Keywords Hood; Head Injury Criterion (HIC); Stiffness; Shape optimization; Multi-Disciplinary Optimization (MDO) Research and/or Engineering Questions/ Objective The objective of this work is to obtain a light weight hood which has least possible mass, and at the same time meets all contradicting performances of pedpro (pedestrian protection) and structural stiffness disciplines. Passenger vehicles have stringent safety norms from pedpro perspective to meet child and adult head injury criteria (HIC). These pedestrian safety requirements often conflict with structural stiffness performance criteria which pose a challenge for most automotive OEMs. Therefore, there is a growing need for mass optimization and performance balancing to meet both the requirements simultaneously. Methodology The outlined method uses a CAE based Multi-Disciplinary Optimization (MDO) approach involving shape variables to find an optimum design for stiffness and pedpro performances. Adding slots along the vertical beam walls of the hood inner panel helps soften the area around the head impact location, thereby improving pedpro performance locally.…

Optimization of An EV Controller Design For A Three Wheeler BOVs - EMC Approach

International Centre For Automotive Tech.-Nikhil Grover
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2474
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Introduction: The advent of electric mobility is changing the conventional mobility techniques and their application in automobiles across all segments. Three wheeler Battery Operated Vehicles (BoVs) are a special category of electric vehicles (EVs) as far as EMC compliance is concerned. The problem mainly lies with the open body design and cost cutting measures being exercised by the manufactures which makes Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) compliance challenging. Objective: Though it is sometimes possible to resolve EMC malfunctions related to motor power cable, cables & wiring harness etc. using external techniques post design stage, but controller being a closed and typical element makes it difficult to improve against EMC malfunctions using external techniques. This paper would concentrate on the controller design parameters and improvement of the same in terms of Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) and performance efficiency at the design stage itself. Methodology: This study would concentrate on designing of motor controller for three wheeler EVs, improving and optimizing the EMI/EMC aspects of the design and its performance with the following aspects in mind: 1. Selection of critical…

Mathematical Modelling of Door Shut-line Definition in CATIA

Becton Dickinson-Pawan Pandey
Mahindra & Mahindra, Ltd.-Hasan Askari, Sreebalajinarayanan Raadhaasaminathan
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-0107
To be published on 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
Door shut-line definition is the first vital step in car body door engineering and depends on the hinge position, hinge shape, manufacturing capabilities and other parameters. In the design process, once the hinge axis definition is finalized door shut-line is defined which should satisfy two major requirements. The requirements are clearance between the door outer surface with its surrounding components (like hinges, fender, other door etc.) and assembly feasibility. The above conditions must be checked on different locations of the door as well as w.r.t different openings of the door. The paper presents a mathematical model to determine the door shut-line position with great computational efficiency. This method propounds closure engineer with parameters to define the shut-line rather than cumbersome manual iterative process. Instead of following an iterative approach to determine a limit for the shut-line, paper presents a mathematical formulation with an implicit equation. An innovative approach to solve implicit equation on CATIA is also discussed which significantly reduces the processing time. This paper inherently discusses a series of challenges which a user faces…

Prototype design of a small scale thermionic energy generator for waste heat recovery in hybrid electric vehicle.

BSDU-Kantaprasad Kodihal, Ankur Sagar
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-0027
To be published on 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
The sustainability of energy generation is primarily based on the effectiveness of the methods used for minimizing the wastes and optimum utilization of available energy resources. Mobility and its ease is therefore being an essential component of development. Automotive technology is an area where methods are explored in recent times to provide sustainable solution for reduction of fuel consumption and carbon emission by switching to hybrid technology and electric vehicles where regeneration of energy plays an important role. At present the research is focused on achieving methods of solid state conversion of heat into electricity but its limited to thermoelectric which has lower conversion efficiency. A comparative analysis of the direct energy convertors shows that thermionic energy conversion stands better with a higher conversion efficiency. Very close and non contact type of electrode spacing having electrical insulation provided with vacuum or inert gas environment is the basic requirement while designing any thermionic energy generator. Identifying these key research challenges, this article discusses a design of a prototype small scale thermionic generator. The paper hence explores…

Design and Implementation of Digital Twin for Predicting Failures in Automobiles using Machine Learning Algorithms

VIT Universtity-Kalivaradhan Ramesh Babu
Vellore Institute of Technology-Ponnuraman Balakrishnan, Chooriyaparambil Damodaran Naiju, Muthaiyan Madiajagan
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-0159
To be published on 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
The drastic technological advancements in designing autonomous vehicles and connected cars lead to substantial progression in the commercial values of automobile industries. However, these advancements force the Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) to shift from feedback-based reactive business analysis to operational-data based predictive analysis thereby enhancing both the customer satisfaction as well as business opportunities. The operational data is nothing but the parameters obtained from several parts of an automobile during its operation such as, temperature in radiator, viscosity of the engine oil and force applied over the brake disk. These operational data are gathered using several sensors implanted in different parts of an automobile and are continuously transmitted to backend computers to develop Digital Twin, which is a virtual model of the physical automobile. Later, the gathered operational data are analysed using data mining algorithms to predict the failures of an automobile well in advance, better insights into performance of an automobile thereby recommending alternative design choices and remote service management of failures by a professional technician. This research work primarily focuses towards the creation…

Development of a Simulation Model for Computing Stable Configurations for Off–Road Vehicle

Piyush Kailash Malviya
John Deere India Pvt. Ltd.-Vinit Shashikant Jawale, Ojas Patil, Ameya Bandekar
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-0126
To be published on 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
Off-highway vehicles operate under complex duty cycles which consist of handling varying terrain conditions under dynamic loads. A challenge for the equipment operator is to maintain stability of the vehicle during various field operations. The operator must make judgement calls on whether terrain and loading conditions are suitable for vehicle stability. In view of the increasing emphasis being placed on operator comfort and vehicle autonomy, a methodology to predict the degree of vehicle stability in varying terrains and dynamic loads will be an aid in designing safer vehicles. In this paper, we describe a mathematical model capable of predicting the longitudinal overturning behavior of off-highway vehicle. A mathematical kinematic and dynamic model of the system is developed using Newton-Euler approach. This yields a system of non-linear equations which are solved iteratively using commercial software to predict stability for varying terrains and dynamic loads. Given a vehicle geometry and a terrain conditions, this methodology allows the simulation and prediction of various longitudinal overturning situations under dynamic loading. The modularity and scalability of the methodology will allow…

Design and development of intake ports for 2-valve & 4-valve configurations for heavy duty off-highway Diesel Engine

College of Engineering-Sameer Tikar, Dileep Malkhede, Milankumar Nandgaonkar
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-0042
To be published on 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
Keywords - Four valve intake port design, steady flow test, CFD numerical simulation, off-highway engines Abstract: Future emission limits for off-highway application engines need advanced power train solutions to meet stringent emissions legislation, whilst meeting customer requirements and minimising engineering costs. Development of diesel engines for off-highway application for different power segments need different intake port design solutions to optimise in-cylinder flow structure for efficient combustion. With adaptation of low pressure mechanical fuel injection system, intake port development becomes an important stage for reduction of emission formation at the source and improvement in fuel economy. In this paper, intake port design and development process is elaborated for two different power ratings of 75 hp and 120 hp of off-highway engine. 2-valve and 4-valve configurations are deployed for the same cylinder bore size. Considering the legislative emission limits for these two power segments of engines, intake port are designed for target swirl and flow performance within the same constraints of cylinder head bolting pattern and valve train actuation mechanism. For 2-valve configuration, a helical intake port…

Step & Repeat: Reduce Derivative Aircraft Development Risk with Design Reuse

Mentor-Muhammad Askar
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1871
To be published on 2019-09-16 by SAE International in United States
Designing derivative aircraft is a complex process with potentially large amounts of program risk. In this paper we present new technologies such as digital interface control documents, and generative design that can transform this process. Employing these types of technologies makes the process more verifiable and repeatable. The paper explains how the technologies can be adopted from the early definition of components & LRUs, to their aggregation into reusable subsystems, as well as the automation and validation processes that can be built around them to reduce the associated complexity and program risk.