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An ADAS Feature Rating System: Proposing a New Industry Standard

Velodyne LiDAR-David Heeren, Mircea Gradu
Published 2019-10-07 by SAE International in United States
More than 90% of new vehicles include Advanced Driving Assistance Systems that offer features such as Lane Keep Assist and Adaptive Cruise Control [1]. These ever-improving vehicle systems present a great opportunity to increase driving safety and reduce the number of roadway deaths and injuries. Indeed, they are already having a positive effect. However, the wide variety of features offered in the marketplace can be confusing to consumers, who may not clearly understand their vehicles’ true capabilities and limitations, or have an easy way of comparing system performance between vehicle models. This lack of information has the potential to reduce the safety gains of ADAS features by increasing the risk of improper use. To encourage transparency in the marketplace and thus engender the maximum positive effect of ADAS technologies, this paper proposes a five-level rating system, which utilizes diamonds to denote significant milestone achievements in vehicle system performance. The rating charts resulting from this system describe gradients of performance within criteria addressed by certain foundational ADAS features. Presented here in its initial stage of development,…
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Rethinking ADAS materials

Automotive Engineering: September 2019

John Pedrotti is Marketing Business Manager, Mobility, SABIC-John Pedrotti
  • Magazine Article
  • 19AUTP09_03
Published 2019-09-01 by SAE International in United States

New specialized thermoplastics offer greater design freedom to improve sensor performance and packaging, at reduced cost.

Advanced driver assistance system (ADAS) technologies-including automatic emergency braking, collision avoidance, adaptive cruise control and parking assist-are quickly going mainstream. OEMs, regulators and consumers recognize their value in improving driving and preventing accidents. As a global market, ADAS is expected to grow at a CAGR of 19.0% through 2025, according to Grand View Research.

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Developing a Standardized Performance Evaluation of Vehicles with Automated Driving Features

SAE International Journal of Connected and Automated Vehicles

Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, USA-Alexis Basantis
Virginia Tech Transportation Institute (VTTI), USA-Zachary Doerzaph, Leslie Harwood, Luke Neurauter
  • Journal Article
  • 12-02-03-0011
Published 2019-08-21 by SAE International in United States
Objectives: The project goal was to create an initial set of standardized tests to explore whether they enable the ongoing evaluation of automated driving features as they evolve over time. These tests focused on situations that were representative of several daily driving scenarios as encountered by lower-level automated features, often called Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS), while looking forward to higher levels of automation as new systems are deployed. Methods: The research project initially gathered information through a review of existing literature about ADAS and current test procedures. Thereafter, a focus group of industry experts was convened for additional insights and feedback. With this background, the research team developed a series of tests designed to evaluate a variety of automated driving features in currently available implementations and anticipated future variants. Key ADAS available on current production vehicles include adaptive cruise control (ACC), lane keeping assist (LKA), and automatic emergency braking (AEB). Seven of the most automated production vehicles available in 2018 from six manufacturers were subjected to a series of standardized tests that were performed…
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The Sense-itive Side of Autonomous Vehicles

Autonomous Vehicle Engineering: July 2019

Kami Buchholz
  • Magazine Article
  • 19AVEP07_07
Published 2019-07-01 by SAE International in United States

BASF is exploring how specific materials-and even paint colors and finishes-can improve the capabilities of AV sensors.

The sensing technologies needed for automated-driving vehicles are evolving as the industry moves toward high-level (SAE Level 4-5) automation. Sophisticated sensors already enable advanced driver-assistance systems (ADAS) features such as adaptive cruise control, park assist, lane-centering and others.

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Energy-Efficient Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control with Receding Horizon of Traffic, Route Topology, and Traffic Light Information

SAE International Journal of Connected and Automated Vehicles

AVL List GmbH, Austria-Alejandro Ferreira Parrilla, Stephen John Jones
Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden-Anders Grauers
  • Journal Article
  • 12-02-02-0006
Published 2019-05-16 by SAE International in United States
Advanced and cooperative vehicle (semi-) autonomous driving systems will become a necessity in the future for sustainable, convenient, and safe mobility. By utilizing Vehicle-to-Vehicle (V2V) and Vehicle-to-Infrastructure (V2I) communication, a vehicle’s energy consumption can be reduced while maintaining safety and driving comfort. A holistic control strategy is presented, which in a novel way incorporates traffic lights, road speed limits, gradients, and curvature, as well as surrounding traffic and detailed powertrain characteristics into a single Model Predictive Control formulation. The performance of the system is evaluated using a realistic co-simulation toolchain representing the vehicle, driver, and road, including complex traffic conditions. The approach is valid for a wide range of scenarios, ranging from urban city driving to highways. Simulation results for a D-class passenger car with a diesel engine and an automatic transmission in an urban route show energy savings between 5% and 30% with an unchanged travel time, compared to a simulated human driver.
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An Immersive Vehicle-in-the-Loop VR Platform for Evaluating Human-to-Autonomous Vehicle Interactions

Clemson University-Roberto Merco, Manveen Kaur, Anjan Rayamajhi, Gianluca Papa, Pierluigi Pisu, Sabarish Babu, Andrew Robb, Jim Martin
Maserati-Marco Gavelli
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
The deployment of autonomous vehicles in real-world scenarios requires thorough testing to ensure sufficient safety levels. Driving simulators have proven to be useful testbeds for assisted and autonomous driving functionalities but may fail to capture all the nuances of real-world conditions. In this paper, we present a snapshot of the design and evaluation using a Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control application of virtual reality platform currently in development at our institution. The platform is designed so to: allow for incorporating live real-world driving data into the simulation, enabling Vehicle-in-the-Loop testing of autonomous driving behaviors and providing us with a useful mean to evaluate the human factor in the autonomous vehicle context.
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Analysis of Driver’s Behavior under Following-Go Scenario

Tongji University, Shanghai, China-Lan Xia, Xichan Zhu, Zhixiong Ma
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
The driver’s behavior under following-go scenario, which has been involved in little research so far, is an important part of the driver's following behavior. Analysis of driver's behaviour under following-go scenario is important for improving the performance and the adaptability of ACC (Adaptive Cruise Control) systems in urban traffic environment. In this paper driver’s behavior under following-go scenario in real traffic is studied based on naturalistic driving data. Starting reaction time and starting distance from the target vehicle are used to evaluate driver’s starting timing under following-go scenario. Starting acceleration is used to evaluate the effect of driver’s acceleration operation under following-go scenario. The naturalistic driving data collected in china is screened and classified and the following-go scenario is obtained. The driver’s behaviour parameters under following-go scenario are extracted and the statistical characteristics are obtained. Influence factors are analyzed with univariate ANOVA (Analysis of Variance) and regression analysis. The results show that the starting reaction time and the starting distance from the target vehicle approximately obey the lognormal probability distribution and the starting acceleration approximately…
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Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control Design and Implementation

Ohio State University-Mustafa Ridvan Cantas, Sukru Yaren Gelbal, Levent Guvenc, Bilin Aksun Guvenc
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
In this manuscript a design and implementation of CACC on an autonomous vehicle platform (2017 Ford Fusion) is presented. The developed CACC controls the intervehicle distance between the target vehicle and ego vehicle using a feedforward PD controller. In this design the feedforward information is the acceleration of the target vehicle which is communicated through Dedicated Short-Range Communication (DSRC) modem. The manuscript explains the detailed architecture of the designed CACC with used hardware and methods for the both simulation and experiments. Also, an approach to overcome detection failures at the curved roads is presented to improve overall quality of the designed CACC system. As a result, the initial simulation and experimental results with the designed CACC system is presented in the paper. The presented results indicate that CACC improves the car following performance of the ego vehicle as compared to the classical Adaptive Cruise Controller.
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A Novel Approach for Validating Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC) Using Two Hardware-in-the-Loop (HIL) Simulation Benches

Ford Motor Co., Ltd.-Adit Joshi
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC) is becoming a common feature in modern day vehicles with the advancement of Advanced Driver Assist Systems (ADAS). Simultaneously, Hardware-in-the-Loop (HIL) simulation has emerged as a major component of the automotive product development cycle as it can accelerate product development and validation by supplementing in-vehicle testing. Specifically, HIL simulation has become an integral part of the controls development and validation V-cycles by enabling rapid prototyping of control software for Electronic Control Units (ECUs). Traditionally, ACC algorithms have been validated on a system or subsystem HIL bench with the ACC ECU in the loop such that the HIL bench acts as the host or trailing vehicle with the target or preceding vehicle usually simulated using as an object that follows a pre-defined motion profile. In this setup, the host vehicle HIL bench generally includes physical components and subsystems or their corresponding simulated representations with varying degrees of fidelity. However, the simulated target vehicle is typically used as a low fidelity object for which the motion is described only as functions of lateral…
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Determining the Greenhouse Gas Emissions Benefit of an Adaptive Cruise Control System Using Real-World Driving Data

General Motors LLC-William Dvorkin, Joshua King, Marc Gray, Shyhyeu Jao
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Adaptive cruise control is an advanced vehicle technology that is unique in its ability to govern vehicle behavior for extended periods of distance and time. As opposed to standard cruise control, adaptive cruise control can remain active through moderate to heavy traffic congestion, and can more effectively reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Its ability to reduce greenhouse gas emissions is derived primarily from two physical phenomena: platooning and controlled acceleration. Platooning refers to reductions in aerodynamic drag resulting from opportunistic following distances from the vehicle ahead, and controlled acceleration refers to the ability of adaptive cruise control to accelerate the vehicle in an energy efficient manner. This research calculates the measured greenhouse gas emissions benefit of adaptive cruise control on a fleet of 51 vehicles over 62 days and 199,300 miles. To our knowledge, the greenhouse gas emissions benefit of an advanced vehicle technology has never been demonstrated in this manner, and no automaker has published such extensive data pertaining to adaptive cruise control. These results highlight the opportunity to further reduce consumer fuel use and…
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