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Automated Driving System Safety: Miles for 95% Confidence in “Vision Zero”

Driving Safety Consulting LLC-Richard Allen Young
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1205
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Engineering reliability models from RAND, MobilEye, and Volvo concluded that billions of miles of on-road data were required to validate that the real-world fatality rate of an “Automated Driving System-equipped vehicle” (AV) fleet for an improvement over human-driven conventional vehicles (CV). RAND said 5 billion miles for 20%, MobileEye 30 billion for 99.9%, and Volvo 5 billion for 50% improvement. All these models used the Gaussian distribution, which is inaccurate for low crash numbers. The current study proposes a new epidemiologic method and criterion to validate real-world AV data with 95% confidence for zero to ten fatal crashes. The upper confidence limit (UL) of the AV fatal crash rate has to be lower than the CV fatal crash rate with 95% confidence. That criterion is met if the UL of the AV fatal crash incidence rate ratio estimate is below one. That UL was estimated using the mid-P exact method for calculating confidence limits for a dual Poisson process, using a one-tailed 95% confidence level. The required AV mileage was adjusted by trial and error…
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Heartbeat Detection Technology for Monitoring Driver’s Physical Condition

Aisin Seiki Co., Ltd.-Kento Tsuchiya, Kenta Mochizuki
Keio University-Tomoaki Ohtsuki, Kohei Yamamoto
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1212
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
In recent years, the number of reported traffic accidents due to sudden deterioration in driver’s physical condition has been increasing, it is expected to develop a system that prevents accidents even if physical condition suddenly changes while driving, or reduces damage through vehicle body control. For this purpose, it is necessary to detect sudden changes of the driver’s physical condition, and research is being conducted widely. Among them, it is reported that some of such changes may appear in the heartbeat interval. In other words, by acquiring the driver’s heartbeat interval in real time, it may be possible to detect the sudden changes, and reduce traffic accident. Even if a traffic accident occurs, the damage can be reduced by emergency evacuation immediately after detecting sudden changes. Therefore, we focused on the technology to detect the heartbeat interval with 24GHz microwave Doppler radar, which can detect heartbeat non-contactly while maintaining the interior design and passenger’s privacy. Doppler radar with microwave is sensitive enough to detect heartbeat, however vibration noise is also superimposed on the sensor signal…
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Reference test system for machine vision used for ADAS functions

Texas A&M University-Abhishek Nayak, Sivakumar Rathinam, Adam Pike, Swaminathan Gopalswamy
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0096
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
LDW and LKA systems have the potential to prevent or mitigate 483,000 crashes in the United States every year which includes 87,000 nonfatal injury crashes and 10,345 fatal crashes. Studies have shown that fatalities due to unintentional roadway departures can be significantly reduced if Lane Departure Warning (LDW) and Lane Keep Assist (LKA) systems are used effectively. While LDW and LKA technologies are available, there has been low customer acceptance and penetration of these technologies. These deficiencies can be traced to the inability of many of the perception systems to consistently recognize lane markings and localize the vehicle with respect to the lane marking in a real-world environment of variable markings, changing weather and occlusions. These challenges translate to (i) inconsistent lane detection; (ii) misidentification of lane markings; and (iii) the inability of the systems to locate lane markings in some conditions. Currently, there is no available standard or benchmark to evaluate the quality of either the lane markings or the perception algorithms. This project seeks to establish a reference test system that could be…
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Evaluation of General Motors Event Data Recorder Performance in Semi-Trailer Rear Underride Collisions

Momentum Engineering Corp.-Nicholas Famiglietti, Ryan Hoang, Edward Fatzinger, Jon Landerville
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1328
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The objective of this study was to analyze the validity of airbag control module data in semi-trailer rear underride collisions. These impacts involve unusual collision dynamics, including long crash pulses and minimal bumper engagement [1]. For this study, publicly available data from 16 semi-trailer underride guard crash tests performed by the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS) were used to form conclusions about the accuracy of General Motors airbag control module (ACM) delta-V (ΔV) data in a semi-trailer rear underride scenario. These tests all utilized a 2009 or 2010 Chevrolet Malibu impacting a stationary 48’ or 53’ semi-trailer at a speed of 35 mph. Nine tests were fully overlapped collisions, six were 30% overlapped, and one was 50% overlapped [2]. The IIHS test vehicles were equipped with calibrated 10000 Hz accelerometer units. Event Data Recorder (EDR) data imaged post-accident from the test vehicles were compared to the reference IIHS data. For each test, root mean square error (RMSE), the percent error over time, and the difference between the EDR ΔV and the IIHS ΔV, was…
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A Study of Driver's Driving Concentration Based on Computer Vision Technology

Chongqing University-Guan Lin, Zhenfei Zhan, Xiangjun Peng, Huijie Xu, Yue Fu, Ling Jiang
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0572
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Driving safety is an eternal theme of the transportation industry. In recent years, with the rapid growth of car ownership, traffic accidents have become more frequent, and the harm it brings to human society has become increasingly serious. In this context, car safety assisted driving technology has received widespread attention. As an effective means to reduce traffic accidents and reduce accident losses, it has become the research frontier in the field of traffic engineering and represents the trend of future vehicle development. However, there are still many technical problems that need to be solved. With the continuous development of computer vision technology, face detection technology has become more and more mature, and applications have become more and more extensive. This article will use the face detection technology to detect the driver's face, and then analyze the changes in driver's driving focus. Firstly, the problem of detecting the eyes and mouth status of the driver is discussed. The purpose is to capture the driver's long-term closed eyes and yawning and other actions closely related to the…
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Determination of Seatbelt Use Following a Crash

DJS Associates-John R. Yannaccone
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0643
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
When investigating a vehicle crash, the issue of seatbelt usage is frequently part of the information needed to perform an occupant kinematics or injury analysis. A physical inspection of the vehicle is the preferred method to investigate seatbelt usage. However, if the vehicle is no longer available, or the condition has changed since the time of the crash, preventing analysis of seatbelt usage by an occupant, the investigators must rely on other available evidence to assess occupant seatbelt usage. This would typically include a review of the police report, scene or early photographs of the vehicle, physical marks on the occupant in medical records and statements from witnesses. More recently, event data recorders (EDR) can provide data regarding seatbelt status for front seat occupants, and occasionally, rear seat occupants. However, the EDR data must have been previously recovered or the vehicle must be available.In cases where the available data is limited or includes only subjective data such as a police report or statements of occupants, some investigators have used the post-crash seatbelt position to determine…
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Driver Perception of Lateral Collision Threats

30 Forensic Engineering-Fabian Erazo, Adam Campbell
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1198
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Immediate collision hazards pose obvious threats to approaching drivers and therefore provoke emergency evasive responses. When the hazard is a vehicle intruding into the lane ahead, how its movement characteristics influence and approaching driver’s response is not well understood.This study examined the relationship between intruding vehicle motion and hazard perception. Seventeen subjects viewed first-person perspective recordings of a simulated vehicle travelling down a two-lane roadway containing several intersections with stop-controlled minor roads. Stopped vehicles were located at approximately half of the minor road intersections. Throughout the study, some vehicles (termed ‘intruders’) accelerated into the subject’s lane of travel at 1 of 6 pre-determined acceleration rates. Subjects were instructed to ‘brake’ their vehicle by pressing the space bar on a keyboard as soon as they perceived that a collision was imminent. Perception and response times (PRT) were measured as the elapsed time between the intruder’s first motion and braking. The duration of the perception interval was subsequently estimated by deducting a simple reaction time interval from the total PRT.The results indicated a significant relationship between perception…
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Development of Electrostatic Capacity Type Steering Sensor Using Conductive Leather

Autoliv Japan Ltd.-Yukinori Midorikawa
Honda R&D Co., Ltd.-Shotaro Odate, Naohiro Sakamoto
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1209
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Today’s progress in electronic technologies is advancing the process of making vehicles more intelligent, and this is making driving safer and more comfortable. In recent years, numerous vehicles equipped with high-level Advance Driving Assist System (ADAS) have been put on the market. High-level ADAS can detect impending lane deviation, and control the vehicle so that the driver does not deviate from the lane. Lane departure prevention systems are able to detect imminent departure from the road, allowing the driver to apply control to prevent lane departure. These systems possess enormous potential to reduce the number of accidents resulting from road departure, but their effectiveness is highly reliant on their level of acceptance by drivers. The effectiveness of the systems will depend on when they are providing driving assistance, what level of laxness in terms of maintaining contact with the steering wheel is allowed on the part of the driver, and what level of assistance the system provides. In order to prevent accidents caused by the driver's confidence in the system beforehand, detection of the state…
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Characterization of Thoracic Spinal Development by Age and Gender and Possible Effect on Crash Occupants

Exponent Inc.-Chantal Parenteau
University of Michigan Hospital-Michelle Caird, Carla Kohoyda-Inglis, Sven Holcombe, Stewart Wang
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0520
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Spine degeneration can lower injury tolerance and influence injury outcomes in vehicle crashes. To date, limited information exists on the effect of age and gender on thoracic spine 3-dimensional geometry. The purpose of this study is to quantify thoracic spinal column and canal geometry using selected geometrical measurement from a large and continuous sample of CT scans. More than 33,488 scans were obtained from the International Center for Automotive Medicine database at the University of Michigan under Institutional Review Board approval (HUM00041441). The sample consisted of CT scans obtained from 31,537 adult and 1,951 pediatric patients between the ages of 0 to 99 years old. Each scan was processed semi-automatically using custom algorithms written in MATLAB (The Math Works, Natick, MA). Five geometrical measurements were collected including: 1) maximum spinal curvature depth (D), 2) T1-to-T12 vertical height (H), 3) Kyphosis Index (KI), 4) kyphosis angle, and 5) spinal canal radius. The data were analyzed by gender and age. Maximum spinal curvature depth occurred at T6, irrespective of age and gender. It continuously increased with age.…
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Crash Response of a Repaired Vehicle - Influence of Welding UHSS Members

University of Agder-Gulshan Noorsumar, Kjell Robbersmyr, Svitlana Rogovchenko, Dmitry Vysochinskiy
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0197
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Automakers generally recommend not to weld structural parts after a vehicle crash, and these should be replaced as a whole part in case of a crash event. Sectioning of these members is also not recommended and use of the repair manual is mandatory in case of fracture of such parts. However, repair shops may not adhere to these instructions and use incorrect repair procedures on these members which would modify their strength properties. This study analyses the impact of welding structural members in a vehicle like the A-pillar which use Ultra-High Strength Steels (UHSS) for reducing the weight of the vehicle and improving the crashworthiness of the structure. The research conducted in this paper highlights the differences in the crash performance of a repaired vehicle as opposed to baseline injury values for the vehicle. The performance of the modified vehicle when tested for different loadcases shows reduced crash performance as compared to the baseline performance and it can be concluded that welding or sectioning the UHSS parts would influence the crashworthiness of a vehicle. This…