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The Navigator

Autonomous Vehicle Engineering: July 2019

Sam Abuelsamid
  • Magazine Article
  • 19AVEP07_02
Published 2019-07-01 by SAE International in United States

As the world turns to C-V2X, Europe picks WiFi

Vehicle-to-everything (V2X) communications is a relatively straightforward and inexpensive technology that has the potential to reduce crashes by improving driver situational awareness. Compared to the automated-driving technology that most of the industry is rushing to develop, V2X is cheap and can even be retrofitted to existing vehicles.

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Personnel Protection for General Purpose Industrial Machines

OPTC1, Personnel Protection (General)
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J98_201904
  • Current
Published 2019-04-11 by SAE International in United States
No Abstract Available.
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A Study of the Performance of Automatic Emergency Braking (AEB) Systems Equipped on Passenger Vehicles for Model Years 2013 to 2018

30 Forensic Engineering-Djordje Miholjcic, Mark Fabbroni, Richard Robinson
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Over the past decade, manufacturers have introduced vehicles equipped with Automatic Emergency Braking (AEB) into the North American market. These vehicles have the capability to not only detect an impending collision and warn the driver, but also to initiate braking independent of the driver. The collision avoidance strategies used by the various manufacturers have not been studied extensively. In 2013, the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS) began testing vehicles equipped with AEB in rear-end collision situations in order to issue their front crash prevention safety ratings for these vehicles. To date, over 180 vehicles from 31 manufactures spanning model years 2013 to 2018 have been tested. This paper presents an analysis of the data collected in these tests. The objective of the study was to assess the differences in performance and strategies used, at two different closing speeds, between manufacturers. The difference in strategies included differences in braking rates and timing of the onset of braking. With more vehicles being equipped with AEB systems each year, this study will be a valuable resource for…
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Long-Term Evolution of Straight Crossing Path Crash Occurrence in the U.S. Fleet: The Potential of Intersection Active Safety Systems

Toyota Motor Corp.-Rini Sherony
Virginia Tech-Max Bareiss, H. Gabler
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Intersection collisions currently account for approximately one-fifth of all crashes and one-sixth of all fatal crashes in the United States. One promising method of mitigating these crashes and fatalities is to develop and install Intersection Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (I-ADAS) on vehicles. When an intersection crash is imminent, the I-ADAS system can either warn the driver or apply automated braking. The potential safety benefit of I-ADAS has been previously examined based on real-world cases drawn from the National Motor Vehicle Crash Causation Survey (NMVCCS). However, these studies made the idealized assumption of full installation in all vehicles of a future fleet. The objective of this work was to predict the reduction in Straight Crossing Path (SCP) crashes due to I-ADAS systems in the United States over time. The proportion of new vehicles with I-ADAS was modeled using Highway Loss Data Institute (HLDI) fleet penetration predictions. The number of potential SCP conflicts was modeled as increasing year over year due to a predicted increase in Vehicle Miles Traveled (VMT) each year. Finally, the combined effect of…
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Application of Collision Probability Estimation to Calibration of Advanced Driver Assistance Systems

Ohio State University-Vivek Bithar, Aditya Karumanchi
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) are designed and calibrated rigorously to provide them with the robustness against highly uncertain environments that they usually operate in. Typical calibration procedures for such systems rely extensively on track (controlled environment) testing, which is time-consuming, expensive, and sometimes cannot cover all the critical test scenarios that could be encountered by ADAS in the real world. Therefore, virtual (simulation-based) testing and validation has been gaining more prominence and emphasis for ensuring high coverage along with easier scalability and usage. This paper attempts to provide an alternative approach for calibrating ADAS in the controller validation phase by the aid of simulated test case scenarios. The study executes characterization of the uncertainty in the position and heading of the ego and the obstacle vehicles. This exercise captures the uncertainties in the states detection of vehicles in the environment and localization errors of the states of the ego vehicle. Following it, the approach estimates the probability of collision between the two vehicles for a given trajectory through a Monte Carlo approach. For illustration…
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Emergency Portability of Slide/Rafts

S-9A Safety Equipment and Survival Systems Committee
  • Aerospace Standard
  • ARP5252A
  • Current
Published 2019-03-18 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) recommends design features for facilitating relocation of portable slide/rafts for deployment at an alternate exit under ditching conditions.
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Power Line Detection System for Unmanned Aircraft Systems

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-33098
Published 2018-10-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

Electrical power lines pose a serious crash hazard to helicopters and other air-based vehicles, especially small aerial vehicles such as unmanned aircraft systems (UAS). This is because power lines are so widespread, hard to see, and strung at roughly the same height above the ground at which these aircraft fly. In fact, according to one report by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), power lines are the cause of roughly 5 percent of helicopter accidents. This statistic applies to both civilian and military cases. Another report found power-line collisions are responsible for 31 percent of accidents among agricultural aircraft. Fatalities and injuries occurred in many of these accidents.

Key Technologies Needed to Advance Mission-Critical IoT

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-32497
Published 2018-08-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

By 2028, virtually all major sensing and feedback systems benefiting from continuous monitoring will connect to devices currently known as the Internet of Things (IoT). As that connectedness becomes a given, the need to label anything as IoT will become unnecessary, in much the same way that referring to a smartphone today as an Internet-connected device seems redundant. As the pervasiveness of the IoT spreads, it will change completely how the world interacts with information. And, it will have a dramatic impact on mission-critical IoT devices and the applications they enable.

Crash testing advances on many fronts

MOBILITY ENGINEERING: March 2016

Terry Costlow
  • Magazine Feature Article
  • 16MEIP03_18
Published 2016-03-01 by SAE International in United States

Traffic fatalities have declined significantly over the last several years, but the U.S. is on track to have its deadliest year since 2007, according to the National Safety Council. That's shining the spotlight on crash testing, which helps automakers create the safest vehicles possible.

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Brake Burnishing Effect on AEB Performance

SAE International Journal of Transportation Safety

Insurance Institute for Highway Safety-Myles Wilson, David Aylor, David Zuby, Joseph Nolan
  • Journal Article
  • 2015-01-1481
Published 2015-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS) evaluates autonomous emergency braking (AEB) systems as part of its front crash prevention (FCP) ratings. To prepare the test vehicles' brakes, each vehicle must have 200 miles on the odometer and be subjected to the abbreviated brake burnish procedure of Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) 126. Other organizations conducting AEB testing follow the more extensive burnishing procedure described in FMVSS 135; Light Vehicle Brake Systems. This study compares the effects on AEB performance of the two burnishing procedures using seven 2014 model year vehicles.Six of the vehicles achieved maximum AEB speed reductions after 60 or fewer FMVSS 135 stops. After braking performance stabilized, the Mercedes ML350, BMW 328i, and Volvo S80 showed increased speed reductions compared with stops using brand new brake components. The Acura RLX and Cadillac CTS showed no change in speed reductions, and the speed reductions of the Dodge Durango and Lexus IS 250 worsened.After the FMVSS 135 burnishing was complete, AEB runs at 20 and 40 km/h were conducted to compare the results…
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