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Advancements of Superplastic Forming and Diffusion Bonding of Titanium Alloys for Heat Critical Aerospace Applications

The Boeing Company-Eve Taylor Burkhart, Larry Hefti
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0033
To be published on 2020-03-10 by SAE International in United States
Titanium’s high strength-to-weight ratio and corrosion resistance makes it ideal for many aerospace applications, especially in heat critical zones. Superplastic Forming (SPF) can be used to form titanium into near-net, complex shapes without springback. The process uses a machined die where inert gas is applied uniformly to the metal sheet, forming the part into the die cavity. Standard titanium alpha-beta alloys, such as 6Al-4V, form at temperatures between 900 and 925ºC (1650-1700ºF). Recent efforts have demonstrated alloys that form at lower temperatures ranging between 760 and 790ºC (1400-1450ºF). Lowering the forming temperature reduces the amount of alpha case that forms on the part, which must be removed. This provides an opportunity of starting with a lower gauge material. Lower forming temperatures also limit the amount of oxidation and wear on the tool and increase the life of certain press components, such as heaters and platens. A variation of this process is SPF combined with Diffusion Bonding (SPF/DB) of two or more titanium sheets to produce integrally stiffened structures with limited fasteners and less weight than…
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Burst Pressure Study in Damaged Hydraulic Rigid Brake Pipes on Passenger Cars

PSA Groupe-Márcio Ciolfi, Celso Pacheco, Rodrigo Mathias
TI Automotive do Brasil-Adriano Souza da Silva, André Casagrande, Edilson Dias
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0001
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
Hydraulic brake pipes are responsible for fluid flows and as consequence the proper functionality of the most important safety system in passenger vehicles. Even so, this component has no much development since it was applied in the 1930s. In fact, the brake pipes can be particularly vulnerable components, being mainly in an exposed condition under the vehicle and near of components with relative movement. Externally it needs to survive a wide range of environmental conditions whereas internally it must withstand pressurized brake fluid. Brake pipes failures is an obvious safety hazard. Using simulations with car body, burst and corrosion bench test and multiple linear regression, this paper attempts to present, basing the pipes lifetime in the burst bench test, how the pipes are really vulnerable or not to damages caused by interference with other components, corrosion or even in frequent abrasion. As well as pipes behavior during interference, how such as corrosion in spot exposed regions degrades the pipes, how such as quantity, type and bending location influence the lifetime, which are the most relevant…
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CONNECTOR ACCESSORIES, ELECTRICAL, BACKSHELL, ENVIRONMENTAL, CABLE SEALING, STRAIGHT, GROUNDING (WITHOUT STRAIN RELIEF), CATEGORY 1C (FOR AS50151 SOLDER TYPE, V THREAD OF AS310XX CLASSES A, B, C, OR K CONNECTORS, AS95234 CONNECTORS)

AE-8C1 Connectors Committee
  • Aerospace Standard
  • AS85049/1B
  • Current
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
No Abstract Available.
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Investigation of Particulate Matter Formation in a Diesel Engine Using In-Cylinder Total Sampling and Thermal Desorption-GCMS/Carbon Analysis

Isuzu Advanced Engineering Center, Ltd.-Shinya Furukawa, Hirotaka Suzuki, Keiko Shibata, Hiroaki Saito, Kazuya Miyashita, Yoshinori Ishii, Naoki Shimazaki
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2276
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
In-cylinder total sampling technique utilizing a single-cylinder diesel engine equipped with hydraulic valve actuation system has been developed. In this study, particulate matter (PM) included in the in-cylinder sample gas was collected on a quartz filter, and the polycyclic-aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) component and soot were subsequently quantified by thermal desorption-gas chromatograph mass spectrometry (TD-GCMS) and a carbon analyzer, respectively. Cylinder-averaged histories of PAHs and soot were obtained by changing the sampling timing. It was found that decreasing intake oxygen concentration suppresses in-cylinder soot oxidation, and the fuel with higher aromatic and naphthenic contents accelerates soot production.
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Development of Non-equilibrium Plasma and Combustion Integrated Model for Reaction Analysis

Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University-Yohei Kon
Institute of Fluid Science, Tohoku University-Hidemasa Takana
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2349
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
Control of self-ignition timing in a HCCI engine is still a major technical issue. Recently, the application of a non-equilibrium plasma using repetitively discharge has been proposed as the promising technology. However, non-equilibrium plasma reaction in higher hydrocarbon fuel mixture is very complicated. Hence, there have been few calculation reports considering a series of reactions from non-equilibrium plasma production to high temperature oxidation process. In this study, 0-dimensional numerical simulation model was developed in which both reactions of plasma chemistry and high temperature oxidation combustion was taken into account simultaneously. In addition, an ODEs solver has been applied for the reduction of calculation time in the simulation. By comparing calculation results with experiment such as self-ignition timing, the validity of the developed numerical model has been evaluated.
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Study on PAHs and PM Formed by Benzene Pyrolysis

Tokyo Denki University-Koki Kashiwa, Masataka Arai, Yoshihiro Kobayashi
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2275
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
The main component of PM (particulate matter) formed in the combustion field is soot. Soot is formed by pyrolysis, polymerization and partial oxidation of hydrocarbon fuel. In this experimental research, the effects of temperature and oxygen on PAHs (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) and PM formed from benzene-oxygen mixture were investigated by independent control of temperature (Tf = 1,073 K, 1,173 K, 1,273 K, and 1,338 K) and oxygen concentration (ϕ = ∞, 6.2, and 2.8). In order to investigate the growth processes of PAHs, mass concentrations of naphthalene, biphenyl, phenanthrene, anthracene, and pyrene were measured. As the result, it was found that mass concentration of biphenyl (two-ring PAH, nC = 12) was higher than naphthalene (two-ring PAH, nC = 10) under benzene-N2 mixture condition (without oxygen condition:ϕ = ∞). Mass concentrations of biphenyl and naphthalene were almost same levels under ϕ = 6.2 condition. Furthermore, under ϕ = 2.8 condition, mass concentration of naphthalene was higher than that of biphenyl. Biphenyl and naphthalene concentration change was obvious at 1,250±20 K. Under low temperature condition of 1,190…
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Research on a DPF Regeneration Burner System for Use when Engine is not in Operation

Hino Motors, Ltd.-Tatsuki Igarashi, Yusuke Adachi, Ichiro Tsumagari, Shinya Sato
SANGO Co., Ltd.-Atsushi Yaeo, Akihiro Nakayama
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2237
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
An on board burner that enables DPF regeneration even when an engine is at standstill has been researched. By employing pre evaporative combustion with a wick burner, miniaturization of the burner system was successfully accomplished as well as stable ignition and combustion. Total heat necessary for DPF regeneration was reduced in comparison to the active DPF regeneration by means of engine control and an oxidation catalyst. Uneven temperature distribution in DPF and excessive temperature rise, which had been recognized as issues in the regeneration of a DPF while engine is at standstill, were solved by increase of combustion air amount and multi-step control of regeneration temperature and reliable regeneration was accomplished.
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Analysis of Reaction Mechanism Preparing Hot Ignition Observed in Homogeneous Compression of n-Heptane Air Mixture

Graduate School of Science and Engineering, University of To-Muhammad Safwan bin Mazelan, Atsumu Tezaki, Sahadev Thapa
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2348
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
Multi-stage heat releases in homogenous charge compression ignition (HCCI) near the ignition threshold are analyzed in this study. Motored engine experiments are conducted with exhaust gas analysis by Fourier transform infrared spectrometer under hot ignition suppressed condition, in order to provide a deeper insight into the ignition mechanism of n-heptane. By increasing intake temperature from room temperature, heat release of low temperature oxidation (LTO) can be observed. Moreover, second heat release was observed after primary heat release of LTO, which increases rapidly with increasing intake temperature within narrow range below the high temperature oxidation (HTO) threshold. The mechanism of HTO preparation reaction is discussed.
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Quality Assurance Sampling and Testing Corrosion and Heat-Resistant Steels and Alloys Wrought Products and Forging Stock

AMS F Corrosion Heat Resistant Alloys Committee
  • Aerospace Material Specification
  • AMS2371L
  • Current
Published 2019-12-17 by SAE International in United States

This specification covers quality assurance sampling and testing procedures used to determine conformance to applicable material specification requirements of wrought corrosion and heat-resistant steel and alloy products and of forging stock.

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Nickel Alloy, Corrosion and Heat Resistant, Bars, Forgings, and Rings, 74Ni - 15.5Cr - 8.0Fe

AMS F Corrosion Heat Resistant Alloys Committee
  • Aerospace Material Specification
  • AMS5665P
  • Current
Published 2019-12-17 by SAE International in United States

This specification covers a corrosion and heat resistant nickel alloy in the form of round bars over 2.50 to 4.50 inches (over 63.5 to 114.3 mm), inclusive, in nominal diameter, forgings over 2.50 inches (63.5 mm) in nominal thickness, other bars and forgings, flash welded rings, and stock for forging or flash welded rings (see 8.6).