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Use of Butanol Blend Fuels on Diesel Engines - Effects on Combustion and Emissions

Berner Fachhochschule TI AFHB-Danilo Engelmann
University of Applied Sciences, Biel-Bienne-Jan Czerwinski, Hervé Nauroy lng, Pierre Comte, Andreas Hüssy lng
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0333
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Butanol, a four-carbon alcohol, is considered in the last years as an interesting alternative fuel, both for Diesel and for gasoline application. Its advantages for engine operation are: good miscibility with gasoline and diesel fuels, higher calorific value than ethanol, lower hygroscopicity, lower corrosivity and possibility of replacing aviation fuels. Like ethanol, butanol can be produced as a biomass-based renewable fuel or from fossil sources.In the research project, DiBut (Diesel and butanol) addition of butanol to Diesel fuel was investigated from the points of view of engine combustion and of influences on exhaust aftertreatment systems and emissions. One investigated engine (E1) was with emission class “EU Stage 3A” for construction machines, another one, engine (E2) was HD Euro VI.The most important findings are: with higher butanol content, there is a lower heat value of the fuel and there is lower torque at full load. With Bu30 the conversion rates of CO and HC in the oxidation catalyst (DOC) are slightly lower, light-off temperatures are a little higher and NO2 production is lower. The PM-emissions with…
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Specification Definitions - Hydraulic Backhoes

MTC1, Loaders, Crawlers, Scrapers and Mounted Attachments
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J49_202003
  • Current
Published 2020-03-04 by SAE International in United States
This standard applies to hydraulic backhoes which have no more than 190 degrees of rotational swing and are mounted on wheeled tractors and crawler tractors.
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Nomenclature - Hydraulic Backhoes

MTC1, Loaders, Crawlers, Scrapers and Mounted Attachments
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J326_202003
  • Current
Published 2020-03-04 by SAE International in United States
This SAE standard includes hydraulic backhoes which have no more than 190 degrees of rotational swing and are mounted on wheeled tractors and crawler tractors. Illustrations used are not intended to include all existing commercial machines or to be exact descriptions of any particular machine. The illustrations have been chosen to describe the principles to be used in applying this standard.
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The Impact of Attitude Feedback on the Control Performance and Energy Consumption in the Path-Following of Unmanned Rollers

Tianjin University, China-Zhan Wei, Xie Hui, Xu Quanzhi, Song Kang, Qiang Wei
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-5029
Published 2020-02-24 by SAE International in United States
The unmanned roller is one of the most popular construction vehicles, for which the accurate path-following is one of the most important control task. The dual-antenna Global Positioning System (GPS), usually mounted on the top of the cabin and the front drum separately, is used to approximately measure the position and heading direction at the contact patch between the wheel and the road. However, in the presence of large variation in the attitude of the roller, caused by the uneven construction site, there is bias in position and heading measurement due to the wobble of the roller. Obviously, this introduces several disturbances to the path-following control. In this paper, the Attitude Heading Reference System (AHRS) is used to measure the attitude information thereby corrects the position and heading of the roller measured by GPS only. The effects of such attitude-based correction on the path-following control performance of the unmanned roller are assessed in experiments by using a cascaded disturbance rejection structure. Results show that relative to the GPS only solution, the usage of attitude correction…
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Volvo CE showcases 100-ton EC950F excavator, new hybrid assist that cuts fuel use by 15%

SAE Truck & Off-Highway Engineering: February 2020

Ryan Gehm
  • Magazine Article
  • 20TOFHP02_13
Published 2020-02-01 by SAE International in United States

The entrance to Volvo Construction Equipment's ConExpo-Con/Agg exhibit (F3432), through what the company has dubbed “excavator alley,” will lead to the manufacturer's largest excavator offered in North America: the 100-ton (90-tonne) EC950F crawler excavator. The reason Volvo CE is emphasizing its excavator lineup is simple, according to Ray Gallant, VP of sales support: more than half of the units sold in construction equipment are excavators.

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EDITORIAL: ConExpo: Go big or go home

SAE Truck & Off-Highway Engineering: February 2020

Editor-in-Chief-Ryan Gehm
  • Magazine Article
  • 20TOFHP02_06
Published 2020-02-01 by SAE International in United States

My inbox has been inundated with notifications of exciting new construction equipment, power systems, and other advanced technologies to be revealed at the rapidly approaching ConExpo/Con-Agg and IFPE shows in March. For example, as I write this in mid-January, Kubota teases that it is entering a new product segment and will unveil new equipment at the Las Vegas event. And the onslaught will only intensify in the coming weeks.

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Latticed Crane Boom Systems - Analytical Procedure

Cranes and Lifting Devices Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J1093_202001
  • Current
Published 2020-01-15 by SAE International in United States
This SAE information report applies to wire rope supported, latticed crane boom systems mounted on mobile construction type cranes for lift crane service.
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A Recommended Method of Analytically Determining the Competence of Hydraulic Telescopic Cantilevered Crane Booms

Cranes and Lifting Devices Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J1078_202001
  • Current
Published 2020-01-15 by SAE International in United States
This analysis applies to crane types as covered by ASME B30.5.
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Prediction of Friction Durability in Off-Road Applications Based on Mechanistic Understanding of the Effects of Fluids and Surfaces on Clutch Friction

Afton Chemical Corporation-Mark Devlin, Atanu Adhvaryu
Komatsu Ltd.-Shinpei Kariwa, Toshiharu Abekawa
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2339
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
After new transmission lubricants are developed there is an extensive validation program where friction durability testing is performed on multiple clutch materials. Each durability test can run for long terms and the entire validation program can take much longer terms. A well designed lubricant and friction material will deliver the necessary friction control for construction equipment to operate at optimum level. A mechanistic construct has been evaluated to calculate friction durability in clutch systems based on fluid and surface tribological properties. Fluid properties include both boundary frictional and rheological effects. Surface properties include elastic modulus, surface roughness, asperity density and asperity tip radius. Using this mechanistic construct friction durability has been predicted. In the past, researchers in the field have often associated lubricant induced glazing of the friction material surface as the cause of the loss of friction control in clutch systems. In the current study, results show that wear is also a dominant cause of friction loss. In short clutch friction tests the rate of change in surface properties and fluid properties have been…
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Hydraulic Directional Control Valves, 3000 psi Maximum

CTTC C1, Hydraulic Systems
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J748_201912
  • Current
Published 2019-12-04 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Recommended Practice has been set up by Subcommittee 4 of the Off-Road Machinery Technical Committee and is primarily for directional control valves on construction and industrial machinery equipment as referenced in SAE J1116. The purpose is to establish port area to flow relationship and match valve spool eye ends in relation to rated capacity. Port connections are optional for either the 4-bolt split flange connection or the internal straight thread "O" ring connection.
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