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Study of Friction Reduction Potential in Light- Duty Diesel Engines by Lightweight Crankshaft Design Coupled with Low Viscosity Oil

General Motors-Salvatore Mafrici
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-37-0006
To be published on 2020-06-23 by SAE International in United States
Over the last two decades, engine research has been mainly focused on reducing fuel consumption in view of compliance with more stringent homologation cycles and customer expectations. As it is well known, the objective of overall engine efficiency optimization can be achieved only through the improvement of each element of the efficiency chain, of which mechanical constitutes one of the two key pillars (together with thermodynamics). In this framework, the friction reduction for each mechanical subsystem has been one of the most important topics of modern Diesel engine development. The present paper analyzes the crankshaft potential as contributor to the mechanical efficiency improvement, by investigating the synergistic impact of crankshaft design itself and oil viscosity characteristics (including new ultra-low-viscosity formulations already discussed in SAE Paper 2019-24-0056). For this purpose, a combination of theoretical and experimental tools have been used to design an extremely lightweight crankshaft and to evaluate the effects of main and conrod bearings dimensioning, clearances and oil viscosity, considering not only the impact from a friction perspective but also from a structural and…
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Functionality Analysis of Thermoplastic Composite Material to Design Engine Components

Politecnico di Torino-Abbas Razavykia, Cristiana Delprete, Carlo Rosso, Paolo Baldissera
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0774
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Developing of innovative technologies and materials to meet the requirements of environmental legislation on vehicle emissions has paramount importance for researchers and industries. Therefore, improvement of engine efficiency and fuel saving of modern internal combustion engines (ICEs) is one of the key factors, together with the weight reduction. Thermoplastic composite materials might be one of the alternative materials to be employed to produce engine components to achieve these goals as their properties can be engineered to meet application requirements. Unidirectional carbon fiber reinforced PolyEtherImide (CF/PEI) thermoplastic composite is used to design engine connecting rod and wrist pin, applying commercial engine data and geometries. The current study is focused on some elements of the crank mechanism as the weight reduction of these elements affects not only the curb weight of the engine but the overall structure. As a matter of fact, by reducing the reciprocating mass, alternate forces will be reduced and hence the size of the structural elements. Also, other elements of the engine can be designed for lightweighting, but the crank mechanism elements maximize…
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Impact of High Performance Combustion Chamber Alloys on Fuel Efficiency

BREDDA Engineering, Ltd.-Scott Bredda
Cosworth, Ltd.-Andrew Egger
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1338
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Internal combustion engines have been developed for over one hundred and twenty years and are a very mature technology. Over this time, significant improvements in power density and brake thermal efficiency have been realized from improvements in design, processing and material properties. Huge advances in computer simulation capability over the past thirty years have enabled the former two categories to be explored and exploited very thoroughly, leaving materials specifications as the fundamental key to unlocking further efficiency gains. This paper summarizes the design advantages of a range of alternative materials developed for piston, ring connecting rod and bushing applications. A Ford Ecoboost 2.3l RS engine was selected as a baseline engine and the reciprocating parts were re-designed to take advantage of the improved characteristics of these materials. Reciprocating mass, mechanical efficiency and crevice volume savings have been demonstrated from the re-designed components: piston, pin, ring, connecting rod and bushing. A dynamometer test program was devised to evaluate the net improvements in engine operating efficiency from the modified engine, based on a series of steady-state reference…
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Elucidation of the Sulfide Corrosion Mechanism in Piston Pin Bushings

Honda R&D Co., Ltd.-Ryuta Motani, Kazuki Maeyama, Kenta Yoshii, Shinji Oshida, Hiroki Masuda, Tomohiro Ikeda, Tatsuya Okayama, Shinichi Takahashi
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1079
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Recent trends to downsize engines have resulted in lighter weight and greater compactness. At the same time, however, power density has increased due to the addition of turbocharger and other such means to supplement engine power and torque, and this has increased the thermal and mechanical load. In this kind of environment, corrosion of the copper alloy bushing (piston pin bushing) that is press-fitted in the small end of the connecting rod becomes an issue. The material used in automobile bearings, of which the bushing is a typical example, is known to undergo sulfidation corrosion through reaction with an extreme-pressure additive Zinc Dialkyldithiophosphate (ZnDTP) in the lubricating oil. However, that reaction path has not been clarified. The purpose of the present research, therefore, is to clarify the reaction path of ZnDTP and copper in an actual engine environment. In order to ascertain the effects of the heat, copper content, and state of deterioration of the oil on corrosion, component corrosion tests were conducted. The results of the component corrosion tests suggested that the main factor…
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Connecting Rod Durability and Big-End Bore Distortion Study

Royal Enfield-Nabeel Thekke Kolayath, Sreenivasulu T, Rod Giles
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0184
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The prediction of the connecting rod behaviour is one of the most important aspects of the engine design to estimate the engine life and its NVH behaviour. Connecting rod is usually simulated as a stand-alone component replacing the connected members with boundary conditions. These kinds of simulation usually underestimate the life of the connecting rod and overestimate the crankpin distortion. This unreal behaviour of simulation can result in over design of the crankshaft and wrong crankpin bearing selection, which can result in a noisy engine. The current Finite Element Analysis (FEA) is modelled by considering crankshaft, bearings, 3D bolts and crankcase substructure along with the connecting rod to predict the fatigue life and bearing distortion. A multi-body dynamics (MBD) simulation of the Cranktrain has been carried out to predict the forces and accelerations on the connecting rod by including the combustion force with a constant crankshaft speed for different conditions. The extracted loads from MBD simulation at different conditions are imported into FEA model, to predict stresses at maximum combustion and maximum inertia stages. Journal…
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Internal Combustion Engines - Piston Vocabulary

Piston and Ring Standards Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J2612_202002
  • Current
Published 2020-02-18 by SAE International in United States
This SAE standard defines the most commonly used terms for pistons. These terms designate either types of pistons or certain characteristics and phenomena of pistons.
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A study of Measurement for Oil Film at the Bearing of the Small End of Diesel Engine Connecting Rod

SAE International Journal of Advances and Current Practices in Mobility

Tokyo City University-Shotaro Suzuki, Shota Yamada, Akemi Ito
  • Journal Article
  • 2019-01-2332
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
Downsizing and slowing down of engine speed reduce mechanical losses and improve fuel economy. However, they exacerbate lubrication condition. The oil film thickness of the bearing of the small end of the connecting rod, which was one of the sliding surfaces with the severest lubrication condition in a diesel engine, was measured in this study to clarify the lubrication condition. Optical fibers were embedded in the bearing, and oil film was measured by means of the laser induced fluorescence method. It was found that oil film thickness was affected combustion gas pressure and distortion of the piston pin.
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Dynamic oil pressure in connecting rod bearings and their influence on innovative cranktrain technologies

Institute for Combustion Engines VKA, RWTH Aachen University-Denis Pendovski, Stefan Pischinger
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2333
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
In order to lower friction losses and hence ensure low fuel consumption of internal combustion engines, borderline design of hydrodynamic cranktrain bearings is often unavoidable. To realize this without the risk of failures, detailed modelling of hydrodynamic effects is gaining more and more relevance. In this publication, an approach using flow simulation to couple hydrodynamic bearings with each other, will be introduced. This allows the state variables of the fluid in the supply bore of the crankshaft to be calculated transiently. One important aspect of this concerns the solubility of gas in oil. This paper demonstrates that the gas fractions in the supply bore of the crankshaft influence the pressures at the hydrodynamic bearings. Additionally, simulation results will be shown and also validated with measurement data. Beside the application for conventional cranktrains, the developed methodology can also be applied to investigate lubrication systems, which include innovative technologies such as hydraulic, length adjustable connecting rods employed for variable compression ratio (VCR connecting rod).
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Effect of Eccentric Imbalance of Various Crank Train Components on Vibrations in Single Cylinder Diesel Engines

Tafe Motors and Tractors Limited-Puneet Julaha, Vasundhara Arde, Remesan Chirakkal
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2417
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Diesel engine is the main source of power for many agricultural applications such as water pump sets, compressors and tractors. At the same time it is also the main source of vibrations. Mechanical vibrations have instantaneous and long term effects on human body. Kinds of effects depend upon duration of exposure and frequency of vibrations. The increasing demands of improved comfort levels of operators are putting pressures on tractor manufacturers on reducing the vibration levels which thereby resulting in improving diesel engine vibrations.Vibration is the movement or mechanical oscillations about an equilibrium position of a machine or component. A Vibration analysis is about the art of looking for changes in the vibration pattern and then relating those changes. Vibration always occurs when there is unbalanced body in reciprocating or rotary motion. In an internal combustion engine there are many parts in reciprocating and rotary motion such as pistons, connecting rod, crankshaft, flywheel etc.This paper explains the study carried out to evaluate combined effect of location of unbalance in individual components when they are assembled and…
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Nondestructive Measurement of Residual Strain in Connecting Rods Using Neutrons

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

Honda R&D Co., Ltd., Japan-Tomohiro Ikeda, Ryuta Motani, Hideki Matsuda, Tatsuya Okayama
Oak Ridge National Laboratory, USA-Bunn R. Jeffery, Christopher M. Fancher
  • Journal Article
  • 05-12-03-0018
Published 2019-10-15 by SAE International in United States
Increasing the strength of materials is effective in reducing weight and boosting structural part performance, but there are cases where the residual strain generated during the process of manufacturing of high-strength materials results in a decline of durability. It is therefore important to understand how the residual strain in a manufactured component changes due to processing conditions. In the case of a connecting rod, because the strain load on the connecting rod rib sections is high, it is necessary to clearly understand the distribution of strain in the ribs. However, because residual strain is generally measured by using X-ray diffractometers or strain gauges, measurements are limited to the surface layer of the parts. Neutron beams, however, have a higher penetration depth than X-rays, allowing for strain measurement in the bulk material. The research discussed within this article consists of nondestructive residual strain measurements in the interior of connecting rods using the Second Generation Neutron Residual Stress Mapping Facility (NRSF2) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), measuring the Fe (211) diffraction peak position of the ferrite…