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Design and Analysis of Aluminium-Flyash Composite for Connecting Rod

Geethanjali College of Engg. and Tech.-Suresh Nuthalapati, Devaiah Malkapuram
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-0166
To be published on 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
In this modern era of rapid growth of technology and need of economical machining processes and materials, there is an increasing demand for new materials for different mechanical applications. Composites with fly ash as reinforcement are likely to overcome the cost barrier for wide spread applications in automotive and small engine applications. To improve wettability, elements such as Mg and Si are added into Al melt to incorporate the ceramic particles. The chemical composition and engineering properties of fly ash, its physical and chemical properties make it an ideal raw material for producing various application based composites. The main objective this paper is to fabricate an aluminium- fly ash composite material suitable for parts like engine connecting rod which demand high strength and temperature sustainability at comparatively less weight. The composite will be made using casting process and Engine connecting rod will be designed in AutoCAD software. The design will be analyzed with the help of ANSYS with aluminium and aluminium- fly ash composite (at different compositions).

Design and Analysis of Hybrid Metal Matrix Composite Connecting Rod via Stir/Squeeze Casting Route

Sri Krishna College of Engg. and Tech.-Soundararajan Ranganathan, Sathishkumar Kuppuraj, Karthik Soundarrajan, Ashokvarthanan Perumal
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-0113
To be published on 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
Connecting rod is a link which connects the crankshaft and piston in an internal combustion engine. The main role of a connecting rod is to change the rotation movement of the crankshaft to the linear movement of the piston and it also withstands high tensile and compressive stress. Mostly the connecting rod is manufactured by forging process or machining process. The main intern of our proposed work is to manufacture a two set of composites A356 alloy with reinforcement of 5 wt% silicon carbide and 10 wt% flyash by using stir casting and stir cum squeeze casting process and obtain testing results. Further, the same material properties were taken for modelling and analysing of the developed connecting rod. Now a day’s composite material takes a vital role/demandable one in the analysis because it offers novel response and satisfies current industrial needs. The FEA analysis is done on the connecting rod by taking four different case conditions for an 180cc engine. The output parameter such as total deformation, Von Mises stress, and maximum equivalent stress are…

Design of light weight Hydraulic Connecting Rod for Agricultural Tractor

Mahindra & Mahindra, Ltd.-Mahendra Dumpa, Solairaj Perumal, Dinesh Redkar, Maxson Gomes, Prasanna Balaji Subbaiyan
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-0016
To be published on 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
Hydraulic power train assembly of an agricultural tractor is meant to controls the position and draft of the implement depending upon the type of crop, farming stage, implement type and soil conditions. These variations induce extreme range of loads on the hydraulic system, thus making it challenging to design these components. Hydraulic connecting rod is critical component of hydraulic power train assembly. Standards like IS12224, IS4468 governs the design of hydraulic power train components which regulates the test method for hydraulic power and lift capacity of the tractor. In this paper, a virtual simulation process has been established to design a hydraulic connecting rod to meet the requirements. The hydraulic connecting rod basically functions as a short column, which is subjected to the operating hydraulic pressure of the hydraulic lifting mechanism. The current circular connecting rod is higher in weight and cost. So, there is scope for optimizing the design of connecting rod. Virtual simulation has been done by performing (i) Multi body dynamics analysis (MBD) approach is used to predict the loads on Tractor…

Friction Reduction by Optimization of Local Oil Temperatures

University of Kassel-Oemer Oezdemir, Adrian Rienäcker
University of Stuttgart-Kevin Huttinger, Michael Bargende
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-24-0177
To be published on 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
The reduction of engine-out emissions and increase of the total efficiency is a fundamental approach to reduce the fuel consumption and emissions of vehicles driven by combustion engines. Conventional passenger cars are operated mainly in lower partial loads most of their lifetime. Under these conditions, oil temperatures which are far below the maximum temperatures allowed, dominate inside the journal bearings. Therefore, the objective of this research project was to investigate possible potentials of friction reduction by optimization of the thermal management of the oil circuit of a combustion engine. Within the engine investigations, it was shown that especially the friction of the main and connecting rod bearings can be reduced with an increase of the oil supply temperature. For the investigations, the oil circuit of the test engine was modified to realize three separate oil circuits of main and connecting rod bearings, cylinder head and the piston jets with turbocharger, that were individually supplied with oil at different pressures and temperatures by an external system. Furthermore, on a journal bearing test rig it was shown…

Optimization Approach to Passive Engine Mounting System for Reducing Automotive Vibrations

K. N. Toosi University of Technology-Reza Abedi, Amir H. Shamekhia
Shahid Beheshti University-Abbas Rahi
Published 2019-07-08 by SAE International in United States
Improvised noise, vibration, and harshness (NVH) performance of vehicle implies better comfort for passengers. Apart from road inputs, engine vibration is one of the major contributors to interior vibrations in automotive. The aim of this paper is to optimize specifications and locations of engine mounts to reduce vehicle vibration without affecting engine performance and to provide better ride comfort. This paper also includes the challenges involved in the analysis of engine vibration on critical conditions such as movement on the road surface or braking action. Therefore, a fully numerical simulation expands to a four-cylinder engine by considering piston side force. In this model, the mass distribution in the connecting rod and crankshaft, outside of the center pin, and friction between the cylinder and piston have been considered. Furthermore, simulation analysis is implemented for an engine in vehicle movement with constant speed on the road class B roughness and braking conditions. Engine location, the angle of placement, and dynamic characteristics of mounts are the important parameters to reduce vibrations transferred to the vehicle frame. The optimization…
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The Influence of Connecting-Rod Specifications on the Combustion-Noise Generation from a Diesel Engine

Yamaguchi University-Hitoshi Oguchi, Koki Minato, Takehiko Seo, Masato Mikami
Published 2019-06-05 by SAE International in United States
We experimentally investigated the influence of shifting natural frequencies of the internal transmission system depending on the connecting-rod specifications on the characteristics of noise radiated from a single-cylinder diesel engine. We used FFT analysis to investigate the influence of shifting natural frequencies of the internal transmission system on the radiated noise characteristics. By changing the thinned portion of the connecting-rod, we confirmed that the natural frequency of the piston-connecting-rod-coupled vibration differed from another natural frequency of the engine structure, and thus the engine noise was reduced. This research studied the time-frequency characteristics of combustion impact and engine noise by wavelet analysis of in-cylinder pressure and sound pressure. We examined the vibration-transmission characteristics through the relationship between the maximum engine noise power and the maximum combustion energy in the same cycle for the main frequencies of combustion noise. Two types of connecting-rods were used: the original connecting-rod and a connecting rod that has a short-thinned portion (STP). By shortening the thinned portion of the connecting-rod, the natural frequency of the piston-connecting-rod-coupled vibration became around 2800 Hz…
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Advanced Functional Pulse Testing of a Two-Stage VCR-System

FEV Europe GmbH-Markus Jesser, Kolja Orlowsky
RWTH Aachen University-Stefan Pischinger
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Two-stage variable compression ratio (VCR) systems for spark ignited engines offer a CO2 reduction potential of approx. 5%. Due to their modularity, connecting rod based VCR-systems can be integrated into existing engine assembly systems, where engines can be built in parallel with or without such a system, depending on performance and market requirements. In order to comply with the new RDE emission standards with high specific power engine variants, VCR systems enable high load engine operation without fuel enrichment. The interactions between the hydraulic-, mechanical - and oil supply systems of a VCR-system with variable connecting rod length are complex and require a well-developed and adapted layout of all subsystems. This demands the use of tailored measurement and simulation tools during the development and application phases. In this context, Advanced Functional Pulse Testing enables single-parameter analyses of VCR con rods. Examples are the determination of the frequency response under constant load cases or the chance for in-depth sensitivity studies on the impacts of various important operational boundary conditions. Another advantage of this testing method is…
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Robust Design Optimization on an Inline Three-Cylinder Engine Balance Shaft with Many Stochastic Variables

ESTECO North America-Zhendan Xue
Ford Motor Company of Europe Inc.-Fabio Pedroso de Lima
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
The balance shaft is a countermeasure to reduce the 1st order excitation caused by the crankshaft in inline three-cylinder engine. Its design consists of two main variables, balance mass and angle. These variables need to be tuned so the engine pitch and yaw moments are minimized, which can be achieved by solving a deterministic design optimization problem. However, due to manufacturing tolerances of connecting rods, pistons, and balance shaft itself, the actual vibration level of the optimized balance shaft could fluctuate, and often becomes sub-optimal and even unacceptable. One way of addressing the influence of tolerances on vibration is to conduct a Taguchi parameter design, to pick the optimal settings of balance mass and angle, so the final designs are the least subject to the influence of manufacturing tolerances. Another approach of tackling the robust design issue is to use Robust Design Optimization (RDO), empowered by optimization algorithms, to search for the best nominal values of balance mass and angle. Furthermore, a Reverse-RDO can achieve designs with similar performance as the solutions of RDO but…
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Effect of Diamond-Like Carbon Coating on Anti-Scuffing Characteristics of Piston Pins

Hino Motors, Ltd.-Shoichiro Usui, Hideki Kato, Hiroshi Nakajima, Kiyohiro Shimokawa
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
It has been proposed that downspeeding combined with high boost levels would effectively reduce fuel consumption in heavy-duty diesel engines. Under low-speed and high-boost operating conditions, however, the in-cylinder gas pressure, which acts on the piston crown, is greater than the piston inertia force (such that there is no force reversal), over the entire range of crank angles. Therefore, the piston pin never lifts away from the main loading area (the bottom) of the connecting rod small-end bushing where the contact pressure against the piston pin is highest. In such operating conditions, lubricant starvation is easily induced at the interface between the piston pin and small-end bushing. Through carefully devised engine tests, the authors confirmed that the piston pin scuffing phenomenon arises when the boost pressure exceeds a critical value at which the no-force reversal condition appears. Furthermore, to prevent this piston pin scuffing when there is no force reversal, the authors applied a type of diamond-like carbon (DLC), a hydrogenated tetrahedral amorphous carbon (ta-C:H) coating, to the piston pins and then evaluated its anti-scuffing…
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Development of High Strength Aluminum-Zinc-Silicon Alloy Bearing with Polymer Overlay

Daido Metal Co., Ltd.-Takeshi Hoshina, Seiji Amano, Motohiko Koushima, Kei Ishikura
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Recent automotive engine developments have made great progress in protecting the global environment and in meeting exhaust gas regulations and fuel economy regulations. As a result, engine bearings tend to be used under severe conditions such as higher specific load onto the bearings and with low viscosity of lubricating oil. Aluminum alloy bearings are widely adopted as main bearings and connecting rod bearings in gasoline and diesel engines for passenger cars, and generally Al-Sn-Si alloy bearings without an additional overlay are used. Although these Al-Sn-Si alloy bearings have good anti-seizure properties and excellent running-in-properties, their material strength under high temperature conditions is not sufficient because of the low melting point of Sn phase contained in the alloy, and they could potentially result in damage to the bearing as seizure and fatigue under these conditions.In such cases, Cu-Pb-Sn alloy bearings with lead-based overlay are usually applied. On the other hand Al-Zn-Si alloy bearings with bismuth overlay are also becoming to be applied from the view point of superior corrosion resistance and lower cost. This means that…
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