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Effect of geometry variations in a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell

Siemens Digital Industries Software-Carlo Locci, Chris Lueth, Huong Nguyen, Karin Frojd
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1174
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Water transport at high current densities is of main concern for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells. The water content of the membrane has to be high enough to provide maximum electrical conductivity and thus optimal stack performance. Dry-out may also lead to membrane degradation. However, a too high level of humidity leads to cell flooding, blocking the air and fuel flows to the catalyst sites and thus the reactions, resulting in a drop in efficiency. Fuel cells water transport physics requires further investigation due to its complexity [1,2] and numerical modelling can improve the fundamental understanding of the phenomena. In this work, an optimization algorithm is used to optimize a fuel cells geometry to improve the temperature distribution and the pressure drop. In addition, the effect of the several geometric configurations on the water management is discussed. The PEM fuel cell is modelled in Siemens Simcenter STAR-CCM+ [3]. Anode and cathode GDL and catalyst layers are modelled as porous media, with electrochemical reactions in the catalyst layer. The membrane is modelled as a solid block…
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LOW COST ELECTROMAGNETIC SHIELDING MATERIAL BASED ON POLYPYRROLE-BIO WASTE COMPOSITES

Dongguk University-Ganapathi Nagarajan PhD
Hindustan University-Sheeba Rathina Selvi, Srimathi Krishnaswamy PhD, Puspamitra Panigrahi PhD
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0226
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
There is a crucial need of Electromagnetic interference shielding in many of the applications in this digital world with low cost and high efficient shielding materials. Electrically conducting heterocyclic polymer polypyrrole has found its application as an EMI shielding materials due to its conducting property. Electrically conducting polypyrrole (PPy) coated on coconut fibres (coir) with different morphology, were prepared through in-situ chemical polymerization of PPy using strong oxidizing agent like ammonium per sulfate. The synthesized PPy on coconut fibre were characterised using UV-Visible spectrophotometer(UV-VIS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) which confirmed the product formation. The morphology was done using Scanning electron Microscopy(SEM).Thermal studies were performed by Thermo Gravimetric analysis (TGA). The effect of PPy morphology and content in composite with coir on the DC conductivity and shielding effectiveness (SE) were investigated. The shielding effectiveness was calculated theoretically and well matched with the experimental values.
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Predictive gearbox oil temperature using Machine Learning techniques

Electronics Engineering-Varaprasad Gandi
Tata Elxsi Ltd-Mithun Manalikandy, Rajesh Koduri
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0731
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Gearbox failure is the most common failure, which is being detected in vehicles, turbines and other applications. It is not possible to detect every fault manually because gearbox failure depends on various factors like gearbox oil temperature, uncertain driving patterns, engine components and other various gearbox parameters. In recent decades, a lot of research has been done in detecting gearbox failure and various methods and techniques have been proposed to predict failure and also to reduce maintenance and failure costs. To predict the behaviour of the gearbox, robust and efficient algorithms are required. In this work, an effective and accurate algorithm to predict gearbox failure after analysing various symptoms arising on gearbox oil temperature is proposed. Gearbox oil temperature variations are caused by different factors like viscosity, water saturation, dielectric constant and conductivity. Diverse machine learning models such as Support Vector Machine, Random forest and Logistic Regression algorithms from the dataset obtained from gearbox real-time observations are leveraged in this analysis. This paper aims to use sensor data for monitoring oil temperature for fault detection.…
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The effect of an active thermal coating on efficiency and emissions from a high speed direct injection diesel engine

Thistle Dubh Ltd-Robert Gilchrist
University of Oxford-Nick Papaioannou, Felix Leach, Martin Davy
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0807
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
This study looked into the application of active thermal coatings on the surfaces of the combustion chamber as a method of improving the thermal efficiency of internal combustion engines. The combination of low thermal conductivity and low heat capacity that these coatings are offering, reduces the temperature gradient between the hot combustion gases and the cooler surroundings during the engine cycle thus leading to lower heat transfer losses and increased piston work. The use of such coatings also results in increased exhaust temperatures which has the potential to improve the cold start performance of after-treatment systems. The active thermal coating was applied to a production aluminium piston and its performance was compared against a reference aluminium piston on a single-cylinder diesel engine. The two pistons were tested over a wide range of speed/load conditions and the effects of EGR and combustion phasing on engine performance and tailpipe emissions were also investigated. A detailed energy balance approach was also employed to study the thermal behaviour of the active thermal coating. In general, improvements in indicated specific…
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Design and Thermal Analysis of Lithium-Ion Battery for an Electric Racing Car

Hefei University of Technology-Shuhua LI, Bofu WU, Peng WANG, Yongjia WANG
Jilin University-Dawei QU
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0167
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
It is well known that battery thermal management system (BTMS) has been paid more attentions with the development of lithium-ion batteries. To meet the requirements of electric vehicles to supply long driving range and adequate acceleration, lithium-ion battery packs are often arranged very compactly with small internal, which poses a challenge to the design of BTMS. BTMS has great influence on performance, lifespan and safety of the battery pack and is an essential part of battery pack design. For racing cars that are often in extreme conditions, thermal safety of the battery is very important. The battery pack in this study is consisted of 170 cells connected in series and/or in parallel, 5 boxes made of sheet molding compound (SMC) material and aluminum partition to provide the necessary power for electric racing car. In this work, the computational fluid dynamic (CFD) analysis is performed to investigate the forced air cooling system. The thermal behavior of battery pack under different constant-current (CC) discharge was performed using CD-adapco's STAR-CCM+ solver. This study shows that passive air cooling…
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Simulation and Parametric Analysis of Battery Thermal Management System Using Phase Change Material

CATARC-Chunjing Lin, Yuhan Sun
Tongji University-Zhao Li, Sichuan Xu
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0866
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The thermophysical parameters and amount of composite phase change materials (PCMs) have a decisive influence on the thermal control effects of thermal management systems (TMSs). At the same time, the various thermophysical parameters of the composite PCM are interrelated. For example, increasing the thermal conductivity is bound to mean a decrease in the latent heat of phase change, so a balance needs to be achieved between these parameters. In this paper, a prismatic LiFePO4 battery cell cooled by composite PCM is comprehensively analyzed by changing the phase change temperature, thermal conductivity and amount of composite PCM. The influence of the composite PCM parameters on the cooling and temperature homogenization effect of the TMS is analyzed. which can give useful guide to the preparation of composite PCMs and design of the heat transfer enhancement methods for TMSs.
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An Electric Motor Thermal Bus Cooling System for Vehicle Propulsion – Design and Test

CCDC Ground Vehicle Systems Center-Katherine Sebeck
Clemson Univ-Richard Miller, John Wagner
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0745
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Automotive and truck manufacturers are introducing electric propulsion systems into their ground vehicles to reduce fossil fuel consumption and harmful tailpipe emissions. The mobility shift to electric motors requires a compact thermal management system that can accommodate heat dissipation demands with minimum energy consumption in a confined space. An innovative cooling system design, emphasizing passive cooling methods coupled with a small liquid system, using a thermal bus architecture will be explored. The laboratory experiment features an emulated electric motor interfaced to a thermal cradle and multiple heat rejection pathways to evaluate the transfer of generated heat to the ambient surroundings. The thermal response of passive (e.g., carbon fiber, high thermal conductivity material, thermosyphon) and active cooling systems are investigated for two operating scenarios. The test results demonstrate significant improvements can be achieved in cooling system energy consumption while maintaining a target e-motor temperature of 70℃. The governing thermal system dynamics will be reviewed in discussion of the experimental observations.
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Thermal performance augmentation of automobile radiator using water-based Al2O3 and CuO nanofluid as a coolant

S.V. National Inst. of Technology, Surat-Mahendrakumar Maisuria, Manishkumar K. Rathod
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1340
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
In the recent past, rapid development in the performance of vehicle engine has taken place. Attempts are going on to produce high-efficiency engines at a minimum possible cost in order to fulfill the requirements of customers. However, usage of low thermal conductivity engine coolant limits the ability of cooling system to extract the heat, which ultimately results into difficulties in maintaining the compact size of cooling system. Also, increasing the cooling rate by conventional technologies i.e. providing fins and microchannel has already reached their limits. One of the alternative efforts to improve cooling rate in an automotive radiator to immerge and analyze new types of cooling fluids. Thus, in the present work, the experimental and analytical analysis is carried out to investigate the thermal performance of corrugated finned flat tube car radiator using water-based Al2O3 and CuO Nano fluid. Augmentation of heat transfer process is studied for Nano fluid in comparison to water coolant. The Nano fluid is prepared considering 0.2% Vol. concentration of Nanoparticle with water as a base fluid. A numerical code is…
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Modelling the Influence of Different Soot Types on the Radio-Frequency-Based Load Detection of Gasoline Particulate Filters

OTH Regensburg-Peter Schwanzer, Hans-Peter Rabl
University of Bayreuth-Stefanie Walter, Gunter Hagen, Ralf Moos
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0360
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Due to the harmful health effects of ultrafine particles, emission standards for gasoline engines have been tightened in recent years with regard to particle number. In order to meet the limits, gasoline particulate filter (GPF) have become necessary, especially for engines with direct injection. As for diesel applications, GPFs can be monitored via differential pressure measurement or a radio-frequency approach (RF sensor). The latter is based on the influence of the soot conductivity on the electromagnetic field. Due to large differences in soot properties and engine operating modes (e.g., the possibility of incomplete regenerations), the behavior of both sensor systems has to be investigated in detail. For this purpose, usually complex measurements on engine test benches are required. To simplify sensor development, a simulation model was created using COMSOL Multiphysics that not only allows to calculate the loading and regeneration process of GPFs under different engine operating conditions, but also to determine the impact on both sensor systems. In order to simulate the regeneration behavior of gasoline soot accurately, an oxidation model was developed using…
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Comprehensive 3D thermal modeling of vehicle-ready battery module

Seres-Aditya Velivelli, Saeed Khaleghi Rahimian, Yifan Tang
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1385
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Thermal management of vehicle battery pack is crucial in determining the life / ageing of the battery pack, in establishing the range of the vehicle on a day to day basis and in determining the safety of the vehicle and occupants. An effective design of a thermal management system cannot be established solely through experimentation as it is time consuming and costly. Accurate computational models are required to aid in the design process. This study describes the development and validation of 3D computational model for simulating electrical and thermal characteristics of a vehicle-ready battery module. The modeling process starts with the full 3D CAD geometry of the module including the coolant channels and cold plate. As part of the study, an experimental test case was setup. This included a climate chamber for the initial soak of the module and to control ambient temperature. Coolant was pumped through channels underneath the cold plate atop which the cells sat in blocks. The cell bottom area conducted heat through a thermal interface material and through the cold plate.…