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To establish the correlation in between Computer Aided Engineering & physical testing of automotive parts returnable case (Stacktainer).

International Centre For Automotive Tech.-Ashish Singh
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2569
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Automotive returnable cases (Stacktainers) are being used to transport the automotive parts through surface & seaways. No automotive manufacturer wants to spend money on woods, paper & cardboard again and again, it`s better to pay once for robust & reusable cases. these provide better protection to parts from its manufacturing to assembly line of vehicle. While transporting, any kind of crack or failure of returnable cases may lead to loss of money, human & time. To ensure the safety, these pallets have to be validated for vibrations coming from surface irregularities, sea waves & load due to stacking of cases one above other. The objective of this study is to establish a correlation in between the physical testing & simulation in Computer added Engineering (CAE) of automotive returnable case (Stacktainers). There are different types of tests considered to validate the returnable case, rough road evaluation, Multi-axial Vibration & strength evaluation. After conducting the physical test & CAE simulation, a correlation & confidence level up to 90% is established.


General Motors Technical Center India-RAMESH KAVALUR, Raghavendra Rao
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2568
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
ENHANCE STRENGTH, ACCURACY AND PRECISION OF THE 3D PRINTED ASSEMBLY AID GAUGES Ramesh Kavalur1, Raghavendra Rao 1 1 Body in White, Manufacturing Engineering, General Motors Technical Centre India Pvt. Ltd, India, Keywords - Additive manufacturing, assembly aid gauges, 3D printer. Research Objective - Automotive manufacturing impressively implementing 3D printed jigs and fixtures. Traditional manufacturing of metal assembly aid gauges have limitations such as lead time and causes dent and rough marks on the outer panel of the body. On the other hand, 3D printed jigs and fixtures, demands more time (depends on complexity), have low level of precision and they offer lower strength. It is observed that this occurs because of the inefficient design and manufacturing without understanding the functionality and capability of the 3D printer. The primary objective of this study is to examine, design & develop 3D printed jigs and fixture to optimize the product, achieve required precision and functionality with improvement in the strength of the product. Methodology - In order to examine, detail examination of existing 3D printed part were studied.…

Thermal Challenges in Automotive Exhaust System through Heat Shield Insulation

Sharda Motor industries limited ( R&D )-Rajadurai S
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2539
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
While advanced automotive system assemblies contribute greater value to automotive safety, reliability, emission/noise performance and comfort, they are also generating higher temperatures that can reduce the functionality and reliability of thesystem over time. Thermal management and insulation are extremely important and highly demanding in BSVI, RDE and Non-IC engine operating vehicles. Passenger vehicle and Commercial vehicle exhaust systems are facing multiple challenges such as packaging constraints, weight reduction andthermalmanagement requirements.Frugal engineering is mandatory to develop heat shield in the exhaust system with minimum heat loss. The focus of the paper is to design, develop and validate heat shield products with different variables such as design gap, insulation material, sheet metal thickness and manufacturing processes. 1D and 3D computational simulations are performed with different gaps from 3 mm to 14 mm are considered. Heat protection of about 75% is achieved ( from 614°C to 140°C) using different insulation materials. Sheet metal thicknesses from 0.15 mm to 1 mm with different manufacturing processes are used in the wrap around, closed and open type protections. Computational simulation and…

Development of a Simulation Model for Computing Stable Configurations for Off–Road Vehicle

Piyush Kailash Malviya
John Deere India Pvt. Ltd.-Vinit Shashikant Jawale, Ojas Patil, Ameya Bandekar
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-0126
To be published on 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
Off-highway vehicles operate under complex duty cycles which consist of handling varying terrain conditions under dynamic loads. A challenge for the equipment operator is to maintain stability of the vehicle during various field operations. The operator must make judgement calls on whether terrain and loading conditions are suitable for vehicle stability. In view of the increasing emphasis being placed on operator comfort and vehicle autonomy, a methodology to predict the degree of vehicle stability in varying terrains and dynamic loads will be an aid in designing safer vehicles. In this paper, we describe a mathematical model capable of predicting the longitudinal overturning behavior of off-highway vehicle. A mathematical kinematic and dynamic model of the system is developed using Newton-Euler approach. This yields a system of non-linear equations which are solved iteratively using commercial software to predict stability for varying terrains and dynamic loads. Given a vehicle geometry and a terrain conditions, this methodology allows the simulation and prediction of various longitudinal overturning situations under dynamic loading. The modularity and scalability of the methodology will allow…

Optimization of Multi Stage Direct Injection-PSCCI Engines

Università degli Studi della Basilicata-Annarita Viggiano, Vinicio Magi
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-24-0029
To be published on 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
The more and more stringent regulations on emissions lead the automotive companies to develop innovative solutions for new powertrain concepts, including the employment of advanced combustion strategies and mixture of fuels with different thermochemical properties. HCCI combustion coupled with the partial direct injection of the charge is a promising technique, in order to control the performance and emissions and to extend the operating range.In this work an in-house developed multi-dimensional CFD software package has been used to analyze the behavior of a multi stage direct injection - partially stratified charge compression ignition engine fueled with PRF97. A combustion model based on the partially stirred reactor concept to include the influence of turbulence on chemistry has been employed. Specifically, a skeletal kinetic reaction mechanism for PRF oxidation, with a dynamic adaptive chemistry technique to reduce the computational cost of the simulations has been used. Most of the fuel is injected during the intake stroke, in order to get a homogeneous mixture of fuel and air, whereas the remaining part is injected at the end of the…

A Global Sensitivity Analysis Approach for Engine Friction Modeling

SAE International Journal of Engines

Germany-Oleg Krecker, Christoph Hiltner
  • Journal Article
  • 03-12-05-0035
Published 2019-08-21 by SAE International in United States
Mechanical friction simulations offer a valuable tool in the development of internal combustion engines for the evaluation of optimization studies in terms of time efficiency. However, system modeling and evaluation of model performance may be highly complex. A high number of interacting submodels and parameters as well as a limited model transparency contribute to uncertainties in the modeling process. In particular, model calibration and validation are complicated by the unknown effect of parameters on the model output. This article presents an advanced and model-independent methodology for identifying sensitive parameters of engine friction. This allows the user to investigate an unlimited number of parameters of a model whose structure and properties are prior unknown. In contrast to widely used parameter studies, in which only one parameter is varied at a time, the use of the elementary effect method enables the consideration of interactions in the entire parameter space. Based on a sensitivity analysis (SA), the methodology offers a comprehensive and practicable approach to improve model performance and effectiveness of predictive optimization studies. The methodology is validated…

Impact of Dynamic Characteristics of Wheel-Rail Coupling on Rail Corrugation

SAE International Journal of Vehicle Dynamics, Stability, and NVH

Shanghai University of Engineering Science, China-Xiaogang Gao, Anbin Wang, Xiaohan Gu, Wei Li
  • Journal Article
  • 10-03-02-0009
Published 2019-07-02 by SAE International in United States
To gain a better understanding of the characteristics of corrugation, including the development and propagation of corrugation, and impact of vehicle and track dynamics, a computational model was established, taking into account the nonlinearity of vehicle-track coupling. The model assumes a fixed train speed of 300 km/h and accounts for vertical interaction force components and rail wear effect. Site measurements were used to validate the numerical model. Computational results show that (1) Wheel polygonalisation corresponding to excitation frequency of 545-572 Hz was mainly attributed to track irregularity and uneven stiffness of under-rail supports, which in turn leads to vibration modes of the bogie and axle system in the frequency range of 500-600 Hz, aggregating wheel wear. (2) The peak response frequency of rail of the non-ballasted track coincides with the excitation frequency of wheel-rail coupling; the resonance results in larger wear amplitude of the rail. The track lateral pinned-pinned frequency at 540 Hz contributes to the propagation of rail corrugation. (3) With wheel-rail contact friction coefficient of 0.3, simulation results of track lateral pinned-pinned frequency…
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Complexity of Autonomous-Systems Simulation, Validation Soars to the Clouds

Autonomous Vehicle Engineering: July 2019

Terry Costlow
  • Magazine Article
  • 19AVEP07_03
Published 2019-07-01 by SAE International in United States

Scalable, cloud-based architectures are gaining greater acceptance for simulating and testing the myriad development aspects of automated driving.

As the auto industry strives to improve safety and edge towards high-level automated driving, the complexity of proving that electronic vehicle controls will perform safely is skyrocketing. Simulation's expanding role in systems validation is prompting many tool providers to move to scalable, cloud-based architectures that run operations in parallel to shorten analysis times.

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Focus on Challenges in SLD Regime: Reemitted Droplet Modelling

Dassault Aviation-Francois Caminade, Loïc Frazza
Published 2019-06-10 by SAE International in United States
A lot of studies have been carried out over the last decades on SLD ice accretion challenges. Many of them referred to SLD physics modelling such as break-up, splashing, bouncing, etc… and relied on numerous physics experiments. Different models have been developed in Europe and North-America and have been implemented in several numerical tools, widely in 2D but more and more in 3D. As these tools are intended to be used increasingly among the community, deficiencies have to be deeper investigated. This paper provides some highlights on specific needs linked to SLD impingement and ice accretion, especially for 3D high fidelity computations. Regarding the results, deficiencies on the numerical side and on experimental needs will be highlighted in order to feed brainstorming for ongoing SLD projects such as in European Union H2020 ICE-GENESIS.
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Experimental and Computer Model Results for a Carbon Nanotubes Electrothermal De-Icing System

Embraer-Rodrigo Domingos, Gilberto Becker
Published 2019-06-10 by SAE International in United States
Results from a three-dimensional computer model of a Carbon Nanotubes (CNT) based de-icing system are compared to experimental data obtained at COLLINS-Ohio Icing Wind Tunnel (IWT). The experiments were performed using a prototype of a CNT based de-icing system installed in a section of a business jet horizontal tail. The 3D numerical analysis tools used in the comparisons are AIPAC [1] and CFD++. The former was derived from HASPAC, an anti-icing computer model developed at Wichita State University in 2010 [3, 9, 10]. AIPAC uses the finite volumes method for the solution of the icing problem on an airfoil leading edge (or other 3D surfaces) and relies on any CFD solver to obtain the external flow properties used as boundary conditions. AIPAC is capable of predicting 3D multi-step ice shapes under rime, glaze and mixed regimes, and can also deal with the complex dynamics of cyclic ice accretion, melting, and shedding present in the realm of aircraft electrothermal de-icing systems. The latter is the CFD solver selected to provide the external flow properties for the…
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