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Occupant Controlled Ventilation

Mahindra & Mahindra, Ltd.-Priyanka Marudhavanan
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2461
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Keywords-Coolant,Ventilation Research and/or Engineering Questions/Objective: Number of Occupants is the major parameter when we consider Air Conditioning System. The number of person who stays in the room may vary in the same way the person who travels in the automobile also vary throughout the distance. This is more prevalent in transportation system like bus, train and where lot of people will travel together and where dropping station in the vehicle is too frequent.In this type,operating A.C has to be varied Methodology: . Instead the number count in the vehicle will be monitored from time to time. Based on the number of count, the cabin has to be cooled or heated and accordingly corresponding power has to be drawn by the compressor from the engine. This human count can be detected based on the number of CO2 sensor located in the cabin. the amount of fresh air that should be added to a cabin can be controlled by a carbon dioxide level transmitter. When CO2 levels go up, fresh air is added until the CO2 levels…
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Rectangular Cross Section Polymeric Sealing Rings

Automatic Transmission and Transaxle Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J2310_201910
  • Current
Published 2019-10-09 by SAE International in United States
The purpose of this SAE Recommended Practice is to establish guidelines for the automatic transmission and hydraulic systems engineer to design rectangular cross section seals for rotating and static grooved shaft applications. Also included are property comparisons of polymeric materials suitable for these applications. Historically, material covered in this document is not intended to include aluminum contact applications.
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Increase of Compressor Performance through the Use of Microstructures

Bionic Surface Technologies GmbH-Mikel Garcia de Albeniz, Peter Adrian Leitl
RINA-Emiliano Costa, Stefano Barberis
Published 2019-10-07 by SAE International in United States
Turbomachinery efficiency is becoming more and more relevant in order to reduce fuel consumption and mechanical wear of machines at the purpose of increasing their environmental sustainability and reliability. Optimized material identification and design is therefore of paramount importance. This paper describes how turbomachines can be optimized thanks to the effect of microstructures suitably created over the shapes of their constituting components in order to increase the overall efficiency via a simple coating solution. These structures, called riblets, consist of tiny streamwise grooved surfaces which are such to reduce drag in the turbulent boundary layer. Theoretical, numerical and experimental experiences gave a first estimation of the impact of riblets in industrial compressors. In this case, the riblet structures reduce the aerodynamic shear stress losses. The areas of higher interest are the diffuser and the volute, where the higher losses happen. The optimal size, position and effect on performance were analysed via simulation. The use of such an effective numerical means may give a precise evaluation about benefits in terms of efficiency increase as well as…
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Energy Recovery Rate from an Electric Air-Cycle System under the Cruising Altitude and Speed

Akita University-Takahiro Adachi, Mikio Muraoka
IHI Corporation-Naoki Seki, Hitoshi Oyori
Published 2019-09-16 by SAE International in United States
A new electric air-cycle system of aircrafts is investigated focusing on energy recovery from the exhaust air. The working fluid of air has the higher energy level in the cabin than in the outside during the cruise because the outside air is at low pressure and low temperature. In the system, by setting a recovery turbine behind the cabin, the discharged energy can be collected, although the working fluid through the system has been only discharged from the cabin into the outside. We perform a thermodynamic cycle-analysis, where the temperature, pressure, entropy, etc. are calculated at each position of the cycle by considering the two pressure ratios of the compressors as variable parameters to show T-s diagram. In addition, we obtain an energy recovery rate of the recovery energy to the necessary power for the electric compressor. The energy recovery rate is roughly estimated 40-80% under the reasonable practical operating conditions.
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Development and Application of a Quasi-3D Model for the Simulation of Radial Compressors of Turbochargers for Internal Combustion Engines

Politecnico di Milano-Gianluca Montenegro, Matteo Tamborski, Augusto Della Torre, Angelo Onorati, Andrea Marinoni
Università degli Studi di Genova-Silvia Marelli
Published 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
In this work the 3Dcell method, a quasi3D approach developed by the Internal Combustion Engine Group at Politecnico di Milano, has been extended and applied to the fluid dynamic simulation of turbocharging devices for internal combustion engines, focusing on the compressor side. The 3Dcell is based on a pseudo-staggered leapfrog method applied to the governing equation of a 1D problem arbitrarily oriented in space. The system of equations is solved referring to the relative system in the rotating zone, whereas the absolute reference system has been used elsewhere. The vaneless diffuser has been modelled resorting to the conservation of the angular momentum of the flow stream in the tangential direction, combined with the solution of the momentum equation in the radial direction. Source terms due to the presence of the centrifugal force field and its potential have been included both in the energy and momentum conservation equations to account for the interaction of the fluid with the moving blades. The model has been validated against measurements carried out on a steady state flow test bench…
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Intake Manifold Primary Trumpet Tuning Options for Fuel Flow Limited High Performance I.C.E.

Ferrari Gestione Sportiva-Angelo Rosetti, Corrado Iotti
University of Modena e Reggio Emilia-Giuseppe Cantore
Published 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
The 2014 change in Formula One regulations, from naturally aspirated to highly-downsized and heavily-boosted hybridized power units, led to a relevant increase of the internal combustion engine brake specific power output in comparison with former V-8 units. The newly designed “down-sized” engines are characterized by a fuel flow limitation and a relevant increase in the thermal loads acting on the engine components, in particular on those facing the combustion chamber. Furthermore, efficiency becomes an equivalent paradigm as performance. In the power unit layout, the air path is defined by the compressor, the intercooler and the piping from the intake plenum to the cylinder. Intake duct length is defined from intake plenum to valve seat and it is a key parameter for engine performance. In order to find the optimum length different design criteria can be applied: the so called “tuning”, the “un-tuning” or the “anti-tuning” are all valid possibilities, showing pros and cons. The scope of the paper is to study and present the possible different tuning options for the internal combustion engine (ICE) part…
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Incipient Surge Detection in Automotive Turbocharger Compressors

Università degli Studi di Genova-Silvia Marelli, Paolo Silvestri, Vittorio Usai, Massimo Capobianco
Published 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
Nowadays, turbocharging is a technique widely used to improve fuel consumption and exhaust emissions in automotive engines.Centrifugal compressors are typically adopted, even if an efficient engine integration is often restricted by surge phenomena.The focus of the present work is to describe an experimental analysis developed with the aim at characterizing and identifying compressor behavior in incipient surge conditions. The acoustic and vibrational operative response of two automotive centrifugal compressors has been experimentally analyzed on the test facility operating at the University of Genoa.Each compressor is characterized by a classical architecture and one of them is equipped with a “ported shroud”, which enlarges stable zone.Compressors characteristic curves have been measured under steady flow conditions for different levels of corrected rotational speed from the choking region to the surge line. Moreover, transient operations have been taken into account where, starting from a stable condition, surge phenomenon was generated progressively closing a valve positioned downstream the compressor or increasing rotational speed keeping fixed the circuit characteristics.Accelerometer and microphone signals have been acquired and analyzed both in the sub-synchronous…
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Evaluation of Hybrid Electric Turbocharging for Medium Speed Engines

Delft University of Technology-Klaas Visser
Royal IHC-Benny Mestemaker, Jan Westhoeve
Published 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
This paper investigates the effects of hybrid electric turbocharging on the total system efficiency, the transient loading capability and the operational range of maritime engines, including the effects of the air control valves (cylinder bypass & charge air blow-off valve). An existing and validated mean-value first principle engine model has been adapted to simulate the operating principle of a combustion engine with a hybrid electric turbocharger system. The simulation of power-take-off/in together with an excess air ratio control strategy is included by means of torque addition to/removal from the turbocharger shaft and limiting it with seven boundary controllers. The analysis of the simulation results illustrates a trade-off between the increase of the system efficiency on one side and the transient loading capability of the engine on the other side. With turbocompounding, the system efficiency can be increased at the expense of a deteriorated gas exchange process and increased thermal loading of the engine. And assisting the turbocharger for steady state operation leads to a smaller operating envelope due to the limitation of compressor surge. Combining…
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A/C Compressor Oil Separator Effectiveness Test Standard

Interior Climate Control MAC Supplier Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J3112_201907
  • Current
Published 2019-07-15 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Standard establishes the test conditions and reporting method for quantifying refrigerant circuit oil circulation rate (OCR) reduction effectiveness of mobile air conditioning compressors using R-134a and R-1234yf refrigerants that include oil separators and/or other design features for the purpose of reducing the OCR in the refrigerant circuit. This standard and the OCR values it produces are not intended to make judgement on suitability of OCR values with regard to compressor durability.
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Microwave Technique for Liquid Water Detection in Icing Applications

University of Oxford-Matthew McGilvray, David Gillespie
University of Southern Queensland-John Leis, David Buttsworth, Ramiz Saeed, Khalid Saleh
Published 2019-06-10 by SAE International in United States
The partial melting of ingested ice crystals can lead to ice accretion in aircraft compressors, but accurately measuring the relatively small fraction of liquid water content in such flows is challenging. Probe-based methods for detecting liquid water content are not suitable for deployment within turbofan engines, and thus alternatives are sought. Recent research has described approaches based on passive microwave sensing. We present here an approach based on active microwave transmission and reflection, employing a vector network analyzer. Utilization of both transmission and reflection provides additional data over and above emission or transmission only, and permits a more controllable environment than passive sensing approaches. The paper specifically addresses the question of whether such an approach is viable within the context of representative icing wind tunnel and engine flow conditions. A quasi-thermal equilibrium approach is presented herein to estimate the melting ratio during microwave analysis of samples at 0 °C. Experimental results using microwaves in the 2.45GHz region are presented, and post-processing methods investigated. This is followed by an investigation of detection limits for ice accretion…
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