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A Technical Review on Performance and Emissions of Compressed Natural Gas – Diesel Dual Fuel Engine

Indian Oil Corp., Ltd.-M. Muralidharan, M Subramanian
University of Petroleum and Energy Studies-Ajay Srivastava
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2390
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
In view of the depletion of energy and environmental pollution, dual fuel technology has caught the attention of researchers as a viable technology keeping in mind the increased availability of fuels like Compressed Natural Gas (CNG). It is an ecologically friendly technology due to lower PM and smoke emissions and retains the efficiency of diesel combustion. Generally, dual fuel technology has been prevalent for large engines like marine, locomotive and stationary engines. However, its use for automotive engines has been limited in the past due to constraints of the limited supply of alternative fuels. CNG is a practical fuel under dual-fuel mode operation, with varying degree of success. The induction method prevents a premixed natural gas-air mixture, minimizes the volumetric efficiency and results in a loss of power at higher speeds. Under lower engine operating temperatures, at low-intermediate loads, the NOx emissions reduces however HC and CO emissions are significantly increased. This paper reviews the performance and emissions of compressed natural gas (CNG) – diesel dual fuel engine.
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Study of Handling Behavior of a Passenger Vehicle after addition of CNG Tank

Maruti Suzuki India, Ltd.-Lakshmi Narasimha Varma Jelli, Raghav Budhiraja, Akash Goel, Deepak Bakshi, Rakesh K
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2405
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Objective The objective of this paper is to achieve a comparable handling performance from a vehicle fitted with a CNG tank to that of its gasoline counterpart. A validated CarSim model is run through standard handling evaluation tests before and after the addition of CNG tank. The simulation results are used to compare the handling characteristics of the CNG vehicle with the Base vehicle. Further these results are used to tune the suspension parameters to find an optimum set-up for the actual CNG vehicle. The final parameters are then evaluated in the actual vehicle to verify the study. Methodology A mix of Actual Mule vehicle testing backed by quik Car Sim Model. Full car model is first developed using CarSim by using the parameters of the actual base gasoline vehicle. The modeled vehicle is then tested for standard handling maneuvers such Double Lane Change, Constant Radius Constant Speed and Pulse Input. Further the actual vehicle is run through the exact same tests with the same inputs. The results are used to fine tune the CarSim…
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Effect of Gasoline-Ethanol blends on GDI engine to reduce cost of vehicle ownership

Mahindra & Mahindra, Ltd.-Kartick Ramakrishnan, Padmavathi Ramadandi, Karthikeyan N Krishnan
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2379
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
A major challenge for combustion development is to optimize the engine for improved fuel economy, reduce greenhouse gases. Stringent CAFÉ and emission norms require the customer to pay higher capital on vehicles. To offset the cost of ownership- cheaper and alternative energy sources are being explored. Ethanol blend with regular Gasoline and CNG are such alternative fuels. The study was carried on turbo-charged gasoline direct injection engine. The effect of ethanol on engine and vehicle performance is estimated and simulated numerically. The work is split into three stages: first the base 1D engine performance model was calibrated to match the experimental data. In parallel, vehicle level Simulink model was built and calibrated to match the NEDC cycle performance. Second, the thermal efficiency of the ethanol blend is calculated as a linear function of theoretical Otto cycle efficiency. The engine performance for varying compression ratio & ethanol gasoline blend is studied for vehicle level using a MATLAB code. Third, 1D code was run to simulate the high-speed exhaust temperature & low speed knock intensity, this is…
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CNG injector performance analysis against variation of physical and electrical parameters: An alternate fuel approach

Noida Institute of Engineering and Technology-Udit Kaul
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2389
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Authors: Udit Kaul, Mahendarpal and Madhusudan Joshi Organization: International Centre for Automotive Technology, Manesar Introduction: In this paper, a study concerning multi-point CNG injectors (MPCI) or commonly known as injector rail would be presented. Here we would make a detailed analysis regarding the performance of MPCIs due to variation in physical and electrical parameters. In this case multiple MPCIs would be considered and there electrical and dimension parameters would be compared with respect to their performance. The performance comparison would be done based on the common compliance standard under standard laboratory conditions. We would also like to propose the optimal combination of electrical and dimension parameters for better performance. The variables to be considered for the proposed study are: injector valve open/shut timing, injector dimension, voltage levels, solenoid types etc. Key words : multi-point CNG injectors, injector valve, solenoid
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Approach for CO2 Reduction in India’s Automotive Sector

Maruti Suzuki India, Ltd.-Gaurab Bhowmick, Tapan Sahoo, Anoop Bhat, Gaurav Mathur, Deepak Gambhir
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2388
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
India has gone through a lot of transformation over the last decade. Today it is the 6th largest and one of the fastest growing economies in the world. Rising income level, increased consumerism, rapid growth in urbanization and digitization have attributed to this change. Government focus on “Make in India” for promoting trade and investment in India have ensured that India emerge as one of the largest growing economies in the world. The automotive industry played a pivotal role in the manufacturing sector to boost economic activities in India. The passenger car market has increased 3 times over the last decade and it has led to increased mobility options for many people across India. However, this has put concerns on the country’s energy security and emission levels. According to IEA’s recent report on global CO2 emission, 32.31 Gt of CO2 emissions were from fuel combustion in 2016, out of which transport sector contributed ~25%. India contributed ~11% of transport emissions in Asia in 2016. This necessitates systematic approach and action plans to curb India’s vehicular…
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A Novel 1D Co-Simulation Framework for the Prediction of Tailpipe Emissions under Different IC Engine Operating Conditions

Aristotle University of Thessaloniki-Grigorios Koltsakis, Zissis Samaras
EMPA-Panayotis Dimopoulos Eggenschwiler, Viola Papetti, Jakub Rojewski, Patrik Soltic
Published 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
The accurate prediction of pollutant emissions generated by IC engines is a key aspect to guarantee the respect of the emission regulation legislation. This paper describes the approach followed by the authors to achieve a strict numerical coupling of two different 1D modeling tools in a co-simulation environment, aiming at a reliable calculation of engine-out and tailpipe emissions. The main idea is to allow an accurate 1D simulation of the unsteady flows and wave motion inside the intake and exhaust systems, without resorting to an over-simplified geometrical discretization, and to rely on advanced thermodynamic combustion models and kinetic sub-models for the calculation of cylinder-out emissions. A specific fluid dynamic approach is then used to track the chemical composition along the exhaust duct-system, in order to evaluate the conversion efficiency of after-treatment devices, such as TWC, GPF, DPF, DOC, SCR and so on. This co-simulation environment is validated against a real engine configuration which was instrumented and tested at EMPA labs. A 4-cylinder SI, turbocharged, CNG engine is investigated at different loads and revolution speeds, to…
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Development of a Dedicated CNG Three-Way Catalyst Model in 1-D Simulation Platforms

FPT Industrial SpA-Stefano Golini, Francesco Giovanni Rutigliano
Istituto Motori CNR-Carlo Beatrice, Valentina Fraioli
Published 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
A growing interest towards heavy-duty engines powered with NG, dictated by stringent regulations in terms of emissions, has made it essential to study a specific Three-Way Catalyst (TWC). Oxygen storage phenomena characterize the catalytic converter efficiency under real world driving operating conditions and, consequently, during strong dynamics in Air-to-Fuel ratio (AFR).A numerical “quasi-steady” model has been set-up to simulate the chemical process inside the reactor. A dedicated experimental campaign has been performed in order to evaluate the catalyst response to a defined λ variation, thus providing the data necessary for the numerical model validation. In fact, goal of the present research activity was to investigate the effect of very fast composition transitions of the engine exhaust typical of the mentioned driving conditions (including fuel cutoffs etc.) on the catalyst performance and on related emissions.A surface reactions kinetic mechanism, representing CH4, CO, H2 oxidation and NO reduction, has been appropriately calibrated in steady-state operation, using a step-by-step procedure all over the engine operating conditions at different AFRs. Then transient conditions were numerically reproduced, through cyclical and…
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Bullish on biomethane

SAE Truck & Off-Highway Engineering: June 2019

based on presentation by CNH Industrial's Hubertus Mühlhäuser-Ryan Gehm
  • Magazine Article
  • 19TOFHP06_01
Published 2019-06-01 by SAE International in United States

The CEO of CNH Industrial says biomethane is cleaner path than electric, as Case demos the alt fuel in cool wheel-loader concept.

Hybrid and electric powertrains were omnipresent at bauma 2019 in Munich, with several OEMs and engine manufacturers showcasing electrified machines in near-production form. But CNH Industrial bucked that trend, touting the many benefits of biomethane instead.

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A Quasi-Dimensional Model of Pre-Chamber Spark-Ignition Engines

FEV Engine Technology-Knut Habermann
University of Naples-Fabio Bozza, Vincenzo De Bellis, Daniela Tufano, Enrica Malfi
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Increasingly stringent pollutant and CO2 emission standards require the car manufacturers to investigate innovative solutions to further improve the fuel economy of their fleets. Among these techniques, an extremely lean combustion has a large potential to simultaneously reduce the NOx raw emissions and the fuel consumption of spark-ignition engines. Application of pre-chamber ignition systems is a promising solution to realize a favorable air/fuel mixture ignitability and an adequate combustion speed, even with very lean mixtures.In this work, the combustion characteristics of an active pre-chamber system are experimentally investigated using a single-cylinder research engine. Conventional gasoline fuel is injected into the main chamber, while the pre-chamber is fed with compressed natural gas. In a first stage, an experimental campaign was carried out at various speeds, spark timings and air-fuel ratios. Global engine operating parameters as well as cylinder pressure traces, inside main combustion chamber and pre-chamber, were recorded and analyzed.Based on the available experimental data, a phenomenological model of this unconventional combustion system with divided combustion chambers was developed and validated. The model was then implemented…
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An Optical and Numerical Characterization of Directly Injected Compressed Natural Gas Jet Development at Engine-Relevant Conditions

Continental-Mike Hornby, Doug Cosby, Perry Czimmek
Ford Motor Co Ltd-Adam Smith
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Compressed natural gas (CNG) is an attractive, alternative fuel for spark-ignited (SI), internal combustion (IC) engines due to its high octane rating, and low energy-specific CO2 emissions compared with gasoline. Directly-injected (DI) CNG in SI engines has the potential to dramatically decrease vehicles’ carbon emissions; however, optimization of DI CNG fueling systems requires a thorough understanding of the behavior of CNG jets in an engine environment.This paper therefore presents an experimental and modeling study of DI gaseous jets, using methane as a surrogate for CNG. Experiments are conducted in a non-reacting, constant volume chamber (CVC) using prototype injector hardware at conditions relevant to modern DI engines. The schlieren imaging technique is employed to investigate how the extent of methane jets is impacted by changing thermodynamic conditions in the fuel rail and chamber.Post-processing of these optical results presents challenges because of the similarity between the density of methane and the background nitrogen. A methodology to interpret the jet extent in the high-speed movies is therefore proposed and used to quantify methane jet propagation and structure. The…
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