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Experimental and Numerical Assessment of Active Pre-chamber Ignition in Heavy Duty Natural Gas Stationary Engine

Istituto Motori CNR-Gessica Onofrio, Carlo Beatrice
Lund University-Changle Li, Pablo Garcia Valladolid, Per Tunestal
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0819
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Gas engines (fuelled with CNG, LNG or Biogas) for generation of power and heat are, to this date, taking up larger shares of the market with respect to diesel engines. In order to meet the limit imposed by the TA-Luft regulations on heavy duty engines, lean combustion represents a viable solution for achieving lower emissions as well as efficiency levels comparable with diesel engines. Leaner mixtures however affect the combustion stability as the flame propagation velocity and consequently heat release rate are slowed down. As a strategy to deliver higher ignition energy, an active pre-chamber may be used. This work focuses on assessing the performance of two pre-chambers with different nozzle orifice diameters, in a stationary heavy-duty engine for power generation, operating at different loads, equivalence ratios and spark timings. The engine was originally a 6-cylinder compression ignition engine which is here employed as a single cylinder engine and then suitably modified to host the pre-chamber (with its natural gas injection system and spark plug) with a new bowl piston to decrease compression ratio. A…
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Experimental Investigation of Combustion Stability and Particle Emission from CNG/Diesel RCCI Engine

Indian Institute of Technology-Mohit Raj Saxena, Rakesh Kumar Maurya
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0810
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
This paper presents the experimental investigation of combustion stability and nano-particle emissions from the CNG-diesel RCCI engine. A modified automotive diesel engine is used to operate in RCCI combustion mode. An open ECU is used to control the low and high reactivity fuel injection events. The engine is tested for fixed engine speed and two different engine load conditions. The tests performed for various port-injected CNG masses and diesel injection timings, including single and double diesel injection strategy. Several consecutive engine cycles are recorded using in-cylinder combustion pressure measurement system. Statistical and return map techniques are used to investigate the combustion stability in the CNG-diesel RCCI engine. Differential mobility spectrometer is used for the measurement of particle number concentration and particle-size and number distribution. It is found that advanced diesel injection timing leading to higher cyclic combustion variations. Too advanced diesel injection results in a partial burn/misfire operating condition. The results indicate that the double diesel injection strategy has a relatively higher concentration of nucleation mode particles and it increases with advancing the diesel injection…
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Effects of Sub-Chamber Configuration on Heat Release Rate in a Constant Volume Chamber simulating Lean-burn Natural Gas Engines

Honda R&D Co., Ltd.-Ryu Kaya, Hideaki Nakano, Shinichi Kobayashi
Tokushima University, Department of Energy System-Yuzuru Nada, Yoshiyuki Kidoguchi, Yuto Yamashita, Ryo Furukawa
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-32-0551
Published 2020-01-24 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
Sub-chamber is a useful device with regard to sustaining stable operation of compressed natural gas (CNG) engines under lean burn conditions. In our previous studies, we applied a sub-chamber injection system to CNG engines, in which a single injector and a spark plug are mounted in a small sub-chamber. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of the sub-chamber configuration on heat release in the main combustion chamber. 11 types of sub-chamber with different nozzle number, nozzle diameter, and sub-chamber volume were examined under a condition that pressure is 2.3 MPa, and global equivalence ratio is 0.6. When the sub-chamber with smaller nozzles are used, the penetration velocity of burned gas jet increases. In addition, the velocity also increases with an increasing sub-chamber volume. The high-speed penetration of burned gas jet shortens the period of initial flame development. This is because the high-temperature burned gas quickly reaches to side wall of main chamber, and immediately ignites lean mixtures existing in the main chamber. Consequently, combustion duration time until heat release reaches 90…
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Experimental analysis of engine cooling capacity at different altitudes: a case study for biarticulated gas engine bus at high altitude

Scania Latin America-Gabriel Prado de Oliveira, Bruno Afonso Garcia
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0272
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
The demand for mass public transportation is growing on the major urban areas worldwide along with stricter demands on exhaust gas emission levels driven by society’s concern on the environment, leading to the development of sustainable transport solutions. Some of the solutions to reduce emission levels, such as electrified powertrains, may not be affordable for emergent markets due to the necessity of investments on infrastructure as well as high costs of some technologies. Bogotá city in Colombia is renewing its bus rapid transit (BRT) fleet and aims to reduce emission levels in its operation. Therefore, the development of a biarticulated bus driven by a compressed natural gas (CNG) Otto engine can be a sustainable solution for such application reducing both emission levels and fuel costs (compared to a Diesel model). However, the development of a cooling system for such bus becomes a challenge due to several factors that have a negative impact on cooling performance such as: high gross train weight (GTW); high altitude application; CNG Otto engine (compared to a Diesel model) and limited…
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A Technical Review on Performance and Emissions of Compressed Natural Gas - Diesel Dual Fuel Engine

Indian Oil Corp., Ltd.-M. Muralidharan, M Subramanian
University of Petroleum and Energy Studies-Ajay Srivastava
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2390
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
In view of the depletion of energy and environmental pollution, dual fuel technology has caught the attention of researchers as a viable technology keeping in mind the increased availability of fuels like Compressed Natural Gas (CNG). It is an ecologically friendly technology due to lower particulate matter (PM) and smoke emissions and retains the efficiency of diesel combustion. Generally, dual fuel technology has been prevalent for large engines like marine, locomotive and stationary engines. However, its use for automotive engines has been limited in the past due to constraints of the limited supply of alternative fuels. CNG is a practical fuel under dual-fuel mode operation, with varying degree of success. The induction method prevents a premixed natural gas-air mixture, minimizes the volumetric efficiency and results in a loss of power at higher speeds. Under lower engine operating temperatures, at low-intermediate loads, the oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions reduce however hydrocarbon (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions are significantly increased. This paper reviews the fuel properties of CNG comparison with diesel, methods available to use CNG…
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Study of Handling Behavior of a Passenger Vehicle after Addition of CNG Tank

Maruti Suzuki India, Ltd.-Lakshmi Narasimha Varma Jelli, Raghav Budhiraja, Akash Goel, Deepak Bakshi, Rakesh K
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2405
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
The objective of this paper is to study the change in handling behaviour of the dual-fuel vehicle fitted with a CNG tank to that of its single fuel (gasoline) counterpart. A validated CarSim model is run through steady state and transient state handling tests before and after the addition of CNG tank. The simulation results are used to compare the handling characteristics of the CNG vehicle with the reference vehicle. Further based on these results the suspension parameters are changed to find an optimum set-up for the actual CNG vehicle.
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Approach for CO2 Reduction in India’s Automotive Sector

Maruti Suzuki India, Ltd.-Gaurab Bhowmick, Tapan Sahoo, Anoop Bhat, Gaurav Mathur, Deepak Gambhir
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2388
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
India has gone through a lot of transformation over the last decade. Today it is the 6th largest and one of the fastest growing economies in the world. Rising income level, increased consumerism, rapid growth in urbanization and digitization have attributed to this change. Government focus on “Make in India” for promoting trade and investment in India have ensured that India emerge as one of the largest growing economies in the world. The automotive industry played a pivotal role in the manufacturing sector to boost economic activities in India. The passenger car market has increased 3 times over the last decade and it has led to increased mobility options for many people across India. However, this has put concerns on the country’s energy security and emission levels. According to IEA’s recent report on global CO2 emission, 32.31 Gt of CO2 emissions were from fuel combustion in 2016, out of which transport sector contributed ~25%. India contributed ~11% of transport emissions in Asia in 2016. This necessitates systematic approach and action plans to curb India’s vehicular…
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1D Numerical and Experimental Investigations of an Ultralean Pre-Chamber Engine

SAE International Journal of Engines

Business Unit Gasoline Powertrains FEV Europe GmbH in Aachen, Germany-Christoph Müller, Knut Habermann
University of Naples “Federico II”, Italy-Fabio Bozza, Vincenzo De Bellis, Daniela Tufano, Enrica Malfi
  • Journal Article
  • 03-13-02-0012
Published 2019-11-19 by SAE International in United States
In recent years, lean-burn gasoline Spark-Ignition (SI) engines have been a major subject of investigations. With this solution, in fact, it is possible to simultaneously reduce NOx raw emissions and fuel consumption due to decreased heat losses, higher thermodynamic efficiency, and enhanced knock resistance. However, the real applicability of this technique is strongly limited by the increase in cyclic variation and the occurrence of misfire, which are typical for the combustion of homogeneous lean air/fuel mixtures. The employment of a Pre-Chamber (PC), in which the combustion begins before proceeding in the main combustion chamber, has already shown the capability of significantly extending the lean-burn limit. In this work, the potential of an ultralean PC SI engine for a decisive improvement of the thermal efficiency is presented by means of numerical and experimental analyses. The SI engine is experimentally investigated with and without the employment of the PC with the aim to analyze the real gain of this innovative combustion system. For both configurations, the engine is tested at various speeds, loads, and air-fuel ratios. A…
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Considerations for Hydrogen Fuel Cells in Airborne Applications

SAE EUROCAE Fuel Cell Task Group
  • Aerospace Standard
  • AIR7765
  • Current
Published 2019-11-18 by SAE International in United States
The scope of this joint EUROCAE/SAE report is to compile the considerations relating to airborne application of hydrogen fuel cells. This document provides a comprehensive analysis of the use of hydrogen as a fuel by describing its existing applications and the experience gained by exploiting fuel cells in sectors other than aviation. The use of hydrogen fuel cells in aircraft can help in meeting aviation environmental targets (including noise pollution) and can be vital to achieving efficient electrically propelled air vehicles. The experience gained with mature fuel cells in terrestrial applications and the handling of other gases in aviation, as presented herein, will help in alleviating safety concerns and in demystifying the usage of hydrogen in aviation.
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A Novel 1D Co-Simulation Framework for the Prediction of Tailpipe Emissions under Different IC Engine Operating Conditions

Aristotle University of Thessaloniki-Grigorios Koltsakis, Zissis Samaras
EMPA-Panayotis Dimopoulos Eggenschwiler, Viola Papetti, Jakub Rojewski, Patrik Soltic
Published 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
The accurate prediction of pollutant emissions generated by IC engines is a key aspect to guarantee the respect of the emission regulation legislation. This paper describes the approach followed by the authors to achieve a strict numerical coupling of two different 1D modeling tools in a co-simulation environment, aiming at a reliable calculation of engine-out and tailpipe emissions. The main idea is to allow an accurate 1D simulation of the unsteady flows and wave motion inside the intake and exhaust systems, without resorting to an over-simplified geometrical discretization, and to rely on advanced thermodynamic combustion models and kinetic sub-models for the calculation of cylinder-out emissions. A specific fluid dynamic approach is then used to track the chemical composition along the exhaust duct-system, in order to evaluate the conversion efficiency of after-treatment devices, such as TWC, GPF, DPF, DOC, SCR and so on. This co-simulation environment is validated against a real engine configuration which was instrumented and tested at EMPA labs. A 4-cylinder SI, turbocharged, CNG engine is investigated at different loads and revolution speeds, to…
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