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Experimental analysis of engine cooling capacity at different altitudes: a case study for biarticulated gas engine bus at high altitude

Scania Latin America-Gabriel Prado de Oliveira, Bruno Afonso Garcia
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0272
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
The demand for mass public transportation is growing on the major urban areas worldwide along with stricter demands on exhaust gas emission levels driven by society’s concern on the environment, leading to the development of sustainable transport solutions. Some of the solutions to reduce emission levels, such as electrified powertrains, may not be affordable for emergent markets due to the necessity of investments on infrastructure as well as high costs of some technologies. Bogotá city in Colombia is renewing its bus rapid transit (BRT) fleet and aims to reduce emission levels in its operation. Therefore, the development of a biarticulated bus driven by a compressed natural gas (CNG) Otto engine can be a sustainable solution for such application reducing both emission levels and fuel costs (compared to a Diesel model). However, the development of a cooling system for such bus becomes a challenge due to several factors that have a negative impact on cooling performance such as: high gross train weight (GTW); high altitude application; CNG Otto engine (compared to a Diesel model) and limited…
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A Technical Review on Performance and Emissions of Compressed Natural Gas - Diesel Dual Fuel Engine

Indian Oil Corp., Ltd.-M. Muralidharan, M Subramanian
University of Petroleum and Energy Studies-Ajay Srivastava
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2390
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
In view of the depletion of energy and environmental pollution, dual fuel technology has caught the attention of researchers as a viable technology keeping in mind the increased availability of fuels like Compressed Natural Gas (CNG). It is an ecologically friendly technology due to lower particulate matter (PM) and smoke emissions and retains the efficiency of diesel combustion. Generally, dual fuel technology has been prevalent for large engines like marine, locomotive and stationary engines. However, its use for automotive engines has been limited in the past due to constraints of the limited supply of alternative fuels. CNG is a practical fuel under dual-fuel mode operation, with varying degree of success. The induction method prevents a premixed natural gas-air mixture, minimizes the volumetric efficiency and results in a loss of power at higher speeds. Under lower engine operating temperatures, at low-intermediate loads, the oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions reduce however hydrocarbon (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions are significantly increased. This paper reviews the fuel properties of CNG comparison with diesel, methods available to use CNG…
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Study of Handling Behavior of a Passenger Vehicle after Addition of CNG Tank

Maruti Suzuki India, Ltd.-Lakshmi Narasimha Varma Jelli, Raghav Budhiraja, Akash Goel, Deepak Bakshi, Rakesh K
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2405
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
The objective of this paper is to study the change in handling behaviour of the dual-fuel vehicle fitted with a CNG tank to that of its single fuel (gasoline) counterpart. A validated CarSim model is run through steady state and transient state handling tests before and after the addition of CNG tank. The simulation results are used to compare the handling characteristics of the CNG vehicle with the reference vehicle. Further based on these results the suspension parameters are changed to find an optimum set-up for the actual CNG vehicle.
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Approach for CO2 Reduction in India’s Automotive Sector

Maruti Suzuki India, Ltd.-Gaurab Bhowmick, Tapan Sahoo, Anoop Bhat, Gaurav Mathur, Deepak Gambhir
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2388
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
India has gone through a lot of transformation over the last decade. Today it is the 6th largest and one of the fastest growing economies in the world. Rising income level, increased consumerism, rapid growth in urbanization and digitization have attributed to this change. Government focus on “Make in India” for promoting trade and investment in India have ensured that India emerge as one of the largest growing economies in the world. The automotive industry played a pivotal role in the manufacturing sector to boost economic activities in India. The passenger car market has increased 3 times over the last decade and it has led to increased mobility options for many people across India. However, this has put concerns on the country’s energy security and emission levels. According to IEA’s recent report on global CO2 emission, 32.31 Gt of CO2 emissions were from fuel combustion in 2016, out of which transport sector contributed ~25%. India contributed ~11% of transport emissions in Asia in 2016. This necessitates systematic approach and action plans to curb India’s vehicular…
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1D Numerical and Experimental Investigations of an Ultralean Pre-chamber Engine

SAE International Journal of Engines

Business Unit Gasoline Powertrains FEV Europe GmbH in Aachen, Germany-Christoph Müller, Knut Habermann
Universita degli Studi di Napoli Federico II Dipartimento di Ingegneria Industriale, Italy-Vincenzo De Bellis
  • Journal Article
  • 03-13-02-0012
Published 2019-11-19 by SAE International in United States
In recent years, lean-burn gasoline Spark-Ignition (SI) engines have been a major subject of investigations. With this solution, in fact, it is possible to simultaneously reduce NOx raw emissions and fuel consumption due to decreased heat losses, higher thermodynamic efficiency, and enhanced knock resistance. However, the real applicability of this technique is strongly limited by the increase in cyclic variation and the occurrence of misfire, which are typical for the combustion of homogeneous lean air/fuel mixtures. The employment of a Pre-Chamber (PC), in which the combustion begins before proceeding in the main combustion chamber, has already shown the capability of significantly extending the lean-burn limit. In this work, the potential of an ultralean PC SI engine for a decisive improvement of the thermal efficiency is presented by means of numerical and experimental analyses. The SI engine is experimentally investigated with and without the employment of the PC with the aim to analyze the real gain of this innovative combustion system. For both configurations, the engine is tested at various speeds, loads, and air-fuel ratios. A…
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Considerations for Hydrogen Fuel Cells in Airborne Applications

SAE EUROCAE Fuel Cell Task Group
  • Aerospace Standard
  • AIR7765
  • Current
Published 2019-11-18 by SAE International in United States
The scope of this joint EUROCAE/SAE report is to compile the considerations relating to airborne application of hydrogen fuel cells. This document provides a comprehensive analysis of the use of hydrogen as a fuel by describing its existing applications and the experience gained by exploiting fuel cells in sectors other than aviation. The use of hydrogen fuel cells in aircraft can help in meeting aviation environmental targets (including noise pollution) and can be vital to achieving efficient electrically propelled air vehicles. The experience gained with mature fuel cells in terrestrial applications and the handling of other gases in aviation, as presented herein, will help in alleviating safety concerns and in demystifying the usage of hydrogen in aviation.
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A Novel 1D Co-Simulation Framework for the Prediction of Tailpipe Emissions under Different IC Engine Operating Conditions

Aristotle University of Thessaloniki-Grigorios Koltsakis, Zissis Samaras
EMPA-Panayotis Dimopoulos Eggenschwiler, Viola Papetti, Jakub Rojewski, Patrik Soltic
Published 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
The accurate prediction of pollutant emissions generated by IC engines is a key aspect to guarantee the respect of the emission regulation legislation. This paper describes the approach followed by the authors to achieve a strict numerical coupling of two different 1D modeling tools in a co-simulation environment, aiming at a reliable calculation of engine-out and tailpipe emissions. The main idea is to allow an accurate 1D simulation of the unsteady flows and wave motion inside the intake and exhaust systems, without resorting to an over-simplified geometrical discretization, and to rely on advanced thermodynamic combustion models and kinetic sub-models for the calculation of cylinder-out emissions. A specific fluid dynamic approach is then used to track the chemical composition along the exhaust duct-system, in order to evaluate the conversion efficiency of after-treatment devices, such as TWC, GPF, DPF, DOC, SCR and so on. This co-simulation environment is validated against a real engine configuration which was instrumented and tested at EMPA labs. A 4-cylinder SI, turbocharged, CNG engine is investigated at different loads and revolution speeds, to…
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Development of a Dedicated CNG Three-Way Catalyst Model in 1-D Simulation Platforms

FPT Industrial SpA-Stefano Golini, Francesco Giovanni Rutigliano
Istituto Motori CNR-Carlo Beatrice, Valentina Fraioli
Published 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
A growing interest towards heavy-duty engines powered with NG, dictated by stringent regulations in terms of emissions, has made it essential to study a specific Three-Way Catalyst (TWC). Oxygen storage phenomena characterize the catalytic converter efficiency under real world driving operating conditions and, consequently, during strong dynamics in Air-to-Fuel ratio (AFR).A numerical “quasi-steady” model has been set-up to simulate the chemical process inside the reactor. A dedicated experimental campaign has been performed in order to evaluate the catalyst response to a defined λ variation, thus providing the data necessary for the numerical model validation. In fact, goal of the present research activity was to investigate the effect of very fast composition transitions of the engine exhaust typical of the mentioned driving conditions (including fuel cutoffs etc.) on the catalyst performance and on related emissions.A surface reactions kinetic mechanism, representing CH4, CO, H2 oxidation and NO reduction, has been appropriately calibrated in steady-state operation, using a step-by-step procedure all over the engine operating conditions at different AFRs. Then transient conditions were numerically reproduced, through cyclical and…
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Bullish on biomethane

SAE Truck & Off-Highway Engineering: June 2019

based on presentation by CNH Industrial's Hubertus Mühlhäuser-Ryan Gehm
  • Magazine Article
  • 19TOFHP06_01
Published 2019-06-01 by SAE International in United States

The CEO of CNH Industrial says biomethane is cleaner path than electric, as Case demos the alt fuel in cool wheel-loader concept.

Hybrid and electric powertrains were omnipresent at bauma 2019 in Munich, with several OEMs and engine manufacturers showcasing electrified machines in near-production form. But CNH Industrial bucked that trend, touting the many benefits of biomethane instead.

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A Quasi-Dimensional Model of Pre-Chamber Spark-Ignition Engines

FEV Engine Technology-Knut Habermann
University of Naples-Fabio Bozza, Vincenzo De Bellis, Daniela Tufano, Enrica Malfi
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Increasingly stringent pollutant and CO2 emission standards require the car manufacturers to investigate innovative solutions to further improve the fuel economy of their fleets. Among these techniques, an extremely lean combustion has a large potential to simultaneously reduce the NOx raw emissions and the fuel consumption of spark-ignition engines. Application of pre-chamber ignition systems is a promising solution to realize a favorable air/fuel mixture ignitability and an adequate combustion speed, even with very lean mixtures.In this work, the combustion characteristics of an active pre-chamber system are experimentally investigated using a single-cylinder research engine. Conventional gasoline fuel is injected into the main chamber, while the pre-chamber is fed with compressed natural gas. In a first stage, an experimental campaign was carried out at various speeds, spark timings and air-fuel ratios. Global engine operating parameters as well as cylinder pressure traces, inside main combustion chamber and pre-chamber, were recorded and analyzed.Based on the available experimental data, a phenomenological model of this unconventional combustion system with divided combustion chambers was developed and validated. The model was then implemented…
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