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Aerospace & Defense Technology: December 2019

  • Magazine Issue
  • 19AERP12
Published 2019-11-28 by SAE International in United States
Engineered Solutions for Enclosure Sealing and InsulationTips for Reducing Error When Using Eddy Current Measuring TechniquesReducing the High Cost of TitaniumStreamlining Post-Processing in Additive ManufacturingSoftware-Defined Analog Filters: A Paradigm Shift in Radio Filter Performance and CapabilitySDR Interface for the NeXtRAD Multistatic Radar SystemElectrodeposition of Metal Matrix Composites and Materials Characterization for Thin-Film Solar Cells Metal matrix composites, which consist of silver-multiwalled carbon nanotube-silver, layer-by-layer stacks, can electrically bridge the cracks (>40 μm) that appear in semiconductor substrates and the composite grid lines.Sensing Applied Load and Damage Effects in Composites with Nondestructive Techniques Comparing and correlating piezoelectrically induced guided waves, acoustic emission, thermography, and X-ray imaging to determine the effects of applied load on a composite structure.Technology Impact Forecasting for Multi-Functional Composites Multi-functional composites offer a possible solution to the conflicting design goals of making new aircraft lighter, stronger, faster, and more environmentally sustainable.Molecular Engineering for Mechanically Resilient and Stretchable Electronic Polymers and Composites Establishing the design criteria for elasticity and ductility in conjugated polymers and composites by analysis of the structural determinants of the mechanical…
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Self-Sensing, Lightweight and High Modulus Carbon Nanotube Composites for Improved Efficiency and Safety of Electric Vehicles

NoPo Nanotechnologies India Pvt Ltd.-Gadhadar Changalaraya Reddy, Aparna Allannavar
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2532
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Carbon Composites (CFRP) have been touted to be an essential component of future automobiles due to their mechanical properties and lightweight. CFRP has been adopted successfully for secondary and primary structures in Aerospace industry. In Automobiles, they are incorporated in models like the BMW i-series. CFRP suffers from 2 major problems. Delamination of Composites leads to catastrophic and rapid failure which could be dangerous in passenger vehicles. Delamination occurs whenever there is a shock on the composite. Secondly, Composites need regular expensive maintenance to ensure that the material is intact and will not compromise passenger safety. Carbon Nanotubes in composites have shown a substantial increase in delamination resistance. A 0.1wt% addition of HiPCO® Single-walled Carbon Nanotube provides both self-sensing and improved fracture resistance. Here we report results of our work with NoPo HiPCO® Nanotubes with small amounts of Iron. 6K Carbon fiber was used as the fiber reinforcement. NoPo HiPCO® Nanotubes were reinforced in the Epoxy system by sonication. HiPCO® Nanotubes were produced using standard parameters. The coupons of CENCE composite were made using VARTM…
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Mechanical Property Evaluation of Paper Honeycomb reinforced Plastics

Hyundai Motor India Engineering Pvt Ltd.-Vignesh Balaji S G, Pradeep S, Aakash S K
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2538
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Mechanical Property Evaluation of Paper Honeycomb Reinforced Plastics Vignesh Balaji S G, Pradeep Hyundai Motor India Engineering Pvt. Ltd, Chennai. India Key Words: Paper Honeycomb, Epoxy Composites, Mechanical Properties, Tensile, Impact & Flexural Test Research and/or Engineering Questions/Objective : Composite Materials are widely being used in many engineering applications because of their desirable properties & Cost, Weight Effectiveness. They are widely being used as their Strength-Weight Ratio is Higher than any Other Material. Paper Honeycomb Material is basically a paper made of honeycomb shapes enforced between layers of Glass Mat. This paper deals with the evaluation of Tensile Strength, Flexural (Three-Point Bending) Strength & Flexural Modulus, Impact Strength of Paper Honeycomb Reinforced Epoxy Composites. The Scope of this Material defines the quality of Paper Honeycomb Reinforced Composites which can be used for Automotive Trim Parts. Methodology: Before beginning the tests, the specimens should be prepared and the steps for the preparation of paper honeycomb reinforced epoxy composites are shown below: 1. Mould Preparation 2. Mixing of Epoxy and Hardener with a ratio of 10:1 3.…
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Fabrication and Wear Characteristics Basalt Fiber Reinforced Polypropylene Matrix Composites

Dhanalakshmi Srinivasan Institute of Technology-Krishnaraj M, Thirugnana Sambandha T, Arun R
Trichy Engineering College-Vaitheeswaran T
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2570
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Generally brake pads are manufacturing by use of asbestos materials, that materials are chemically harmful and toxic nature to affect the human health. The present investigation is to fabricates polypropylene composites with mixing constant volume [5 vol.%] of alumina nano particles and different volume percentages [0%, 5%, 10% & 15%] of basalt Fiber by hand layup compression technique. The wear characteristics of polypropylene matrix composites were tested by dry sliding condition. The test was carried out pin on disc apparatus, configured with hardened steel counter-face at elevated temperature. The load was applied 10 N to 30 N with the interval of 10 N and varying of sliding speed 300 rpm to 900 rpm with the interval of 300 rpm for the time period of 0-180 sec. The wear rate was decreases with addition of alumina nano particle and the frictional force was increases due to basalt Fiber content present in the composites. The co-efficient of friction was increases 0.1 to 0.66 under normal loading condition.
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A New Appraisal of the Thermomechanical Behaviour of a Hybrid Composite Brake Disc in a Formula Vehicle

Force Motors-Pradeep Chandrasakaran
Sri Krishna College of Engineering and Technology-Soundararajan Ranganathan, Sathishkumar Kuppuraj, Shanthosh Gopal
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2572
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
The present work promotes a hybrid composite brake disc for thermal and structural analysis of a formula vehicle. In order to reduce the un-sprung weight without compromising the strength, hybrid composite materials were incorporated in the disc plates of the braking system. In the disk brake system, the disc is a major part of a device used for slowing or stopping the rotation of a wheel. Repetitive braking of the vehicle leads to heat generation during each braking condition. Based on the practical understanding the brake disc was remodeled with unique slotting patterns and grooves, using the selected aluminium alloy of (AA8081) with reinforcement particle of 15wt% Silicon carbide (SiC) and 3wt% Graphite (Gr) as a hybrid composite material for this proposed work. By varying slotting pattern and groove angles the transient thermal and structural analysis using ANSYS workbench on the hybrid composite disc plate of disk brake is done. The main purpose of this study is to analyse the thermomechanical behavior of composite brake disc for a formula vehicle under severe braking conditions. To…
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Composite Steering Strategy for 4WS-4WD EV Based on Low-Speed Steering Maneuverability

Tongji University-Yang Yang Wang, Zhi Guang Liu, Yuan Xing Jiang
Published 2019-11-04 by SAE International in United States
A composite steering control strategy, which combines four-wheel steering (4WS) and differential steering, is proposed in this paper, to optimize steering maneuverability in the conditions where the vehicle speed is below 15 Km/h, mainly for U-turning and parking conditions. A dynamic model is developed for the steering system and the tire system. Taking different steering wheel inputs into consideration, a 4WS control strategy proportional to the front wheel steering angle is quoted to improve the steering maneuverability in the low speed conditions and guarantee the manipulability by controlling the side slip of the vehicle. Based on the 4WS system, this paper explores the possibility of further improving the low-speed maneuverability of the vehicle through differential steering. And the differential steering control strategy is developed, including four hub-motor output modes. A composite steering controller is designed based on the 4WS-4WD electric vehicle platform. Through the real vehicle calibration tests, the output torque distribution coefficient of the hub motor in the differential steering control strategy is obtained, and the composite steering control strategy optimal for maneuverability is…
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Fiberboard Crease Bending Test

Textile and Flexible Plastics Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J119_201910
  • Current
Published 2019-10-31 by SAE International in United States
This test method is designed to determine the suitability of a painted or unpainted fiberboard for application involving creasing and bending. The specific purpose of the test is to determine whether a given material, properly creased, can be bent along the impressed crease without objectionable failure on the surface of the bend.
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Recommended Practice for Determining Material Properties of Li-Battery Separator

Battery Materials Testing Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J2983_201910
  • Current
Published 2019-10-14 by SAE International in United States
This SAE RP provides a set of test methods and practices for the characterization of the properties of Li-battery separator. The test methods in this RP have been grouped into one of three categories: 1 Separator material parameters: Minimum set of separator properties to be measured. 2 Chemistry/customer-specific parameters: Properties that are dependent on the application, customer needs and/or requirements, manufacturing process, etc. This RP will include the current best practice methodologies for these tests, with an understanding that the best practice methodologies are evolving as more information is learned. 3 R&D parameters: Properties that are dependent on the application, customer needs and/or requirements, manufacturing process, etc. The methodologies in this third section are under development and have not yet achieved broad application. It is not within the scope of this document to establish criteria for the test results, as this is usually established between the materials supplier and seperator manufacturer and the user. This is especially true where this document specifies a range of target values, or an open testing parameter. In these cases,…
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Design and Analysis of Natural Fibre Reinforced Epoxy Composites for Automobile Hood

SRM Institute Of Science And Technology-Akhil Kumar Guduru, V N B Prasad Sodisetty, Vidya Prudhvi Sai Katari
Published 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
The need for eco-friendly materials is recently increasing in the automobile and aerospace sectors. Material selection for automobile components is influenced by various factors such as cost, weight and strength. Natural fibers offers various advantages over conventional materials such as environmental friendly, easily available, recyclable and higher specific strength. Among the natural fibers Sisal and Kenaf fibers are selected for present study due to their good mechanical properties and availability. Kenaf fibers have great potential to be used as construction and automotive materials due to their long fibers which are derived from the bast. Sisal fibers do not absorb moisture and possess good impact, sound absorbing properties and high fire resistance properties. Epoxy LY556 is selected as matrix material to bind the combination of these two natural fibers due to its high temperature resistance and adherence to reinforcements. Alkaline treatment was carried out to remove the moisture from the natural fibers. Fabrication of epoxy/Kenaf fibre/Sisal Fibre composite materials of different stacking sequence was carried out by Vacuum Assisted Resin Transfer Molding (VARTM) method. These composites…
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Mechanical and Corrosion Behaviour of Al 7075 Composite Reinforced with TiC and Al2O3 Particles

Vellore Institute of Technology-Subham Jaiswal, Govindasamy Rajamurugan, Prabu Krishnasamy, Yashwardhan Shaswat, Mishra Kaushik
Published 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
Various research regarding new types of fabrication and modifications of Aluminium alloy to improve the existing properties are going on. The wide range application of aluminium alloy is in aerospace and Automobile Industries. The demand for this material improved by mechanical properties with little to zero increment in weight. The current work is based on the fabrication of hybrid aluminium metal matrix composites with the addition of TiC (Titanium Carbide) and Al2O3 (Aluminium Oxide) reinforcement particle using stir casting technique. Three types of hybrid composite samples were prepared based on the weight percentage 5% Al2O3+0% TiC (sample-1), 8% Al2O3 + 12% TiC (sample-2), 20% Al2O3+15% TiC (sample-3). The objective of the study is to analyze the mechanical and corrosion properties of the hybrid composite with the influence of the reinforcement and varying the weight fraction of the particles. Overall, It is observed that a gradual increase in the hardness value in sample-1(83 BHN), Sample-2 (88 BHN) and sample-3 (96 BHN). This trend can be explained by the particulate strengthening of TiC over the soft ductile…
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