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Innovative Material Characterisation Methodology for Tyre Static and Dynamic Analyses

Applus + Idiada Group, Spain-Bharath Anantharamaiah
Applus IDIADA Group, Spain-Carlos Fidalgo
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1519
To be published on 2020-06-03 by SAE International in United States
Tyre structures are based on composite materials that constitute numerous layers, each providing specific properties to the tyre mechanic and dynamic behaviour. In principle, the understanding of the partial contributions of the individual layers requires knowledge of its mechanical properties. In case of non-availability of such critical information, it is difficult to perform tyre FE analyses. In the current work, a methodology is proposed to study the tyre static and dynamic behaviour to estimate its constituents properties based on the measured quasi-static responses of the tyre for certain specific loads. As a first step, a simplified tyre numerical model with standard rubber material properties is modeled that can substantively predict the necessary tyre static responses, i.e. radial, longitudinal and lateral stiffness. These responses are correlated with the physical tyre response that are measured using a kinematic and compliance (K&C) test rig in the laboratory. A Design of Experiments (DoE) study, followed by an optimization process, is performed by sampling the material properties of the rubbers to simulate the FE model and match the tyre responses…
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Coarse Mesh RIFF Method to Identify the Homogenized Flexural and Shear Complex Moduli of Composite Beams

LAUM-Frédéric Ablitzer, Charles PEZERAT
Sonorhc Technologies-Thibault Wassereau, Jean-Louis GUYADER
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1579
To be published on 2020-06-03 by SAE International in United States
Facing the increasing use of composite materials regarding their stiffness to mass ratio, industries need to design complex structures. Hence specific methods must developed to predict the vibratory behavior of such materials but also to check their performances in-situ, analyse the presence of flaws or quantify degradation of properties throughout time. This paper describes a method to estimate the flexural and shear complex moduli of composite beams, based on a simple measurement of the transverse displacement on a coarse mesh using a hammer and an accelerometer. The herein depicted approach consists in an adaptation of the corrected finite difference scheme (Leclere et al. 2012) applied to an inverse vibratory method developed by the authors in previous works (Wassereau et al. 2017). The Timoshenko’s equation of motion and the corrected finite difference scheme are the two major key points of the method. The first allows estimation of Young and shear complex moduli simultaneously (sometimes crucial to describe composite beams) but also simplifies the representation of the composite structure by considering it as an homogeneous material, which…
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Experimental Study on Static and Fatigue Behavior of a Short Glass Fiber Reinforced Polypropylene

FCA US LLC-Mingchao Guo, Congyue Wang, Jian Tao, Ramchandra Bhandarkar
InDepth Engineering Solutions-Johnson Joseph
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0190
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
One approach of reducing vehicle weight is using composite materials. Fiber reinforced polypropylene is one of the most popular composite materials. To improve accuracy in prediction of durability performance of structures made of this kind of composite material, static and fatigue properties of a 30% fiber reinforced polypropylene have been physically studied. This paper describes details of test coupon design, fabrication and test setup of both quasi static and fatigue tests. In this study, various fiber orientation (0, 20, 90 degrees & knit line), temperature (-40, 23 and 80 degree C), mean stress (R=-1.0, -0.5, -0.2, 0.1 and 0.4) have been considered and the result of the tests discussed.
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LOW COST ELECTROMAGNETIC SHIELDING MATERIAL BASED ON POLYPYRROLE-BIO WASTE COMPOSITES

Dongguk University-Ganapathi Nagarajan
Hindustan University-Sheeba Rathina Selvi, Srimathi Krishnaswamy, Puspamitra Panigrahi
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0226
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
There is a crucial need of Electromagnetic interference shielding in many of the applications in this digital world with low cost and high efficient shielding materials. Electrically conducting heterocyclic polymer polypyrrole has found its application as an EMI shielding materials due to its conducting property. Electrically conducting polypyrrole (PPy) coated on coconut fibres (coir) with different morphology, were prepared through in-situ chemical polymerization of PPy using strong oxidizing agent like ammonium per sulfate. The synthesized PPy on coconut fibre were characterised using UV-Visible spectrophotometer(UV-VIS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) which confirmed the product formation. The morphology was done using Scanning electron Microscopy(SEM).Thermal studies were performed by Thermo Gravimetric analysis (TGA). The effect of PPy morphology and content in composite with coir on the DC conductivity and shielding effectiveness (SE) were investigated. The shielding effectiveness was calculated theoretically and well matched with the experimental values.
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Comparison of Different Methods for Panel Dent Resistance Using Numerical Assessment and Influence of Materials Used in Automotive Industry

Tata Technologies Ltd.-Ashish Sathaye, Deepak Srivastava, Manivasagam Shanmugam
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0483
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Conventionally, the automotive outer panels, giving vehicle its shape, have been manufactured from steel sheets. The outer panels are subjected to loads due to wind loading, palm-prints, person leaning on the vehicle, cart hits, and hail stones for example. Consumer awareness about these two panel characteristics: Oilcanning and Dent resistance is increased, which has been observed in recent marketing studies. Apart from perceptive quality, another factor depending on the dent performance is insurance and respective cost implications. Dents can occur due to several reasons such as object hits, parking misjudgement, hail stones etc. Phenomenon can be divided into two types, static and dynamic denting. Static dent case covers scenario wherein interaction with outer panel is mostly quasi-static. Hail stones present dynamic case where object hits a panel with certain kinetic energy. Automotive companies usually perform static dent assessment to cover all the cases. The scope of this paper is to discuss the comparison between two methods and its results using Finite Element Analysis. Influence of panel stiffness on dent resistance is also studied. Panel dent…
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Anisotropic Material Behavior and Design Optimization of 3D Printed Structures

University of Kentucky-Jordan Garcia, Robert Harper, Coilin Bradley, John Schmidt, Y Charles Lu
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0228
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Traditional manufacturing processes such as injection or compression molding are often enclosed and pressurized systems that produce homogenous products. In contrast, 3D printing is exposed to the environment at ambient (or reduced) temperature and atmospheric pressure. Furthermore, the printing process itself is mostly “layered manufacturing”, i.e., it forms a three-dimensional part by laying down successive layers of materials. Those characteristics inevitably lead to an inconsistent microstructure of 3D printed products and thus cause anisotropic mechanical properties. In this paper, the anisotropic behaviors of 3D printed parts were investigated by using both laboratory coupon specimens (bending specimens) and complex engineering structures (A-pillar). Results show that the orientation of the infills of 3D printed parts can significantly influence their mechanical properties. Parts with 0-degree filament orientation are seen to have the most favorable responses, including Young’s modulus, maximum strength, failure strain, and toughness. The findings also suggest that the 3D printed products could be theoretically “designed” or “tailored” by adjusting the infill angles to achieve optimal performance. The 3D printed A-pillar structure has been designed by utilizing…
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Electrical Heated Epoxy Tool for Rotational Molding Application

John Deere India Pvt., Ltd.-Sorna Rajendran Gandhi, Amit S Patil
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0234
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The conventional method of making rotational molding part is by heating the cast aluminum mold or sheet metal mold by hot air medium which has its own limitation on energy loss, the other means is by direct heat and cold of mold by passing hot oil/water in the mold to have better energy efficiency but leakage and safety problems associated with pumping pressurized hot oil / Water. There is no solution available for prototyping rotational molding parts using design intended material. The current practice of prototyping with conventional method is expensive and time-consuming. In this work, a simple method is presented to produce a rotational molded part with breakthrough in mold construction, which is Composite Mold Technology (CMT) with glass fiber reinforced epoxy resin built-in with electrical heaters. Project focuses is on proving CMT in comparison with the current production method. CMT reduce the cost by 90% and time to build Protomold by 30%. This electrical heated CMT can be used for new product development (NPD) and very low volume production as the cycle time of the part development was observed very high and life mold is yet to be tested. Deeper study of the life…
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Functionality Analysis of Thermoplastic Composite Material to Design Engine Components

Politecnico di Torino-Abbas Razavykia, Cristiana Delprete, Carlo Rosso, Paolo Baldissera
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0774
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Developing of innovative technologies and materials to meet the requirements of environmental legislation on vehicle emissions has paramount importance for researchers and industries. Therefore, improvement of engine efficiency and fuel saving of modern internal combustion engines (ICEs) is one of the key factors, together with the weight reduction. Thermoplastic composite materials might be one of the alternative materials to be employed to produce engine components to achieve these goals as their properties can be engineered to meet application requirements. Unidirectional carbon fiber reinforced PolyEtherImide (CF/PEI) thermoplastic composite is used to design engine connecting rod and wrist pin, applying commercial engine data and geometries. The current study is focused on some elements of the crank mechanism as the weight reduction of these elements affects not only the curb weight of the engine but the overall structure. As a matter of fact, by reducing the reciprocating mass, alternate forces will be reduced and hence the size of the structural elements. Also, other elements of the engine can be designed for lightweighting, but the crank mechanism elements maximize…
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Performance Study of an Innovative Collaborative Robot Gripper Design on Different Fabric Pick and Place Scenarios

University of Windsor-Morteza Alebooyeh, Bowen Wang, Ruth Jill Urbanic
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1304
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Light-weighting fiber composite materials introduced to reduce vehicle mass and known as innovative materials research activities since they provide high specific stiffness and strength compared to contemporary engineering materials. Nonetheless, there are issues related automation strategies and handling methods. Material handling of flexible textile/fiber components is a process bottleneck and it is currently being performed by setting up multi-stage manual operations for hand layups. Consequently, the long-term research objective is to develop semi-automated pick and place processes for flexible materials utilizing collaborative robots within the process. The immediate research is to experimentally validate innovatively designed grippers for efficient material pick and place tasks. Pick and place experiments on a 0/90 plain woven carbon fiber fabric with an innovative gripper design is tested using a YuMi 14000 ABB collaborative robot to validate the new-designed gripper enhanced performance on the slippage and material wrinkling based on the previous research [20] for two gripping forces, and two travel speeds. Also, different double arm pick and place scenarios are sought to achieve an acceptable approach through which fabric wrinkling…
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CAE Modeling Static and Fatigue Performance of Short Glass Fiber Reinforced Polypropylene Coupons and Components

FCA US LLC-Congyue Wang, Mingchao Guo, Mohan Shanmugam, Ramchandra Bhandarkar
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1309
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Fiber reinforced polypropylene (FRPP) is a typical anisotropic composite and its material properties highly depend on the fiber orientations within the material. To improve accuracy in prediction of durability performance of structures made of this kind of composite material, simulation of manufacturing process is necessary to obtain distribution of fibers and their orientations at every location of the structure. This paper describes a CAE modeling techniques to simulate 1) injection molding process, 2) static and fatigue performance of coupons and 3) static and fatigue performance of components made of 30% FRPP. Details of CAE model setup, analysis procedures and correlation between analysis and test results are presented. In this study, various fiber orientation (0, 20, 90 degrees & knit line), temperature (-40, 23 and 80 degree C) and mean stress (R=-1.0, -0.5, -0.2, 0.1 and 0.4) have been considered. To demonstrate correlation, battery trays made of this FRPP have been tested subjected to block cycle loads, results of which have been discussed.