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Correlation of Cylinder Head Gasket Sealing Analysis Results Between Gasket Element and 3D Continuum Element

Cummins Engine Co., Ltd.-Amit Ozarde
Cummins Inc.-Gene McNay
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0049
To be published on 2020-03-10 by SAE International in United States
A head gasket is a component that sits between the engine block/liner and cylinder head(s) in an internal combustion engine. Its purpose is to seal high pressure combustion gasses in the cylinders, seal coolant and engine oil transfer ports between the block and head and to ensure no leakage of gasses or fluids out of the block to head joint; as such, it is the most critical sealing application in an engine. In general practice, the load deflection(L/D) characteristic is generated by the gasket manufacturer for edge molded or composite gasket types. In the case of a solid-sheet metallic gasket, where the gasket is expected to undergo local yielding to provide adequate conformance and sealing, supplier is usually not able to provide the required L/D curve due to difficulties experimentally separating the large loads and small displacements from the elastic loads and deflections of the experimental apparatus. In absence of L/D curve the current analysis approach is to model gasket as 3D continuum elements with considering nonlinear material and contacts. The focus of the procedure…
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A Study on the Decay Process in the Time-Frequency-Dependent Combustion-Noise-Generation Model for Diesel Engines

Graduate School of Sciences and Technology for Innovation, Y-Hitoshi Oguchi, Masato Mikami
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-32-0512
To be published on 2020-01-24 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
We experimentally investigated the process of decay of engine noise from a single-cylinder diesel engine considering the time-frequency-dependent combustion-noise-generation model. In this model, the vibration energy of each frequency component is assumed to accumulate in the engine structure excited by the combustion impact during the combustion period in a cycle and decay over time, and the combustion noise is assumed to radiate from the engine surface. We used wavelet transform analysis as a time-frequency analysis of the sound pressure to obtain the decay rate, c, of the engine noise power. In order to investigate the dependence of the decay rate, c, on the sound-source location, we placed eight microphones in different positions near the engine. In order to investigate the dependence of the decay rate on the maximum in-cylinder pressure rise, we conducted experiments under three different operating conditions. The shape of the temporal variation of the engine-noise power depended on the sound-source location while the value of the engine noise power depended on the maximum in-cylinder pressure rise. Based on the time-frequency-dependent combustion-noise-generation model,…
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Investigation of The Effect of Enhanced In-Cylinder Flow on HCCI Combustion in a Rapid Compression and Expansion Machine

Chiba University-Yiwen Zhong, Kazuya Ogawa, Tatsuya Kuboyama, Yasuo Moriyoshi
SUZUKI MOTOR CORPORATION-Kei Yoshimura
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-32-0528
To be published on 2020-01-24 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
The purpose of this paper is to find a way to extend the high load limit of homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion. A newly developed rapid compression and expansion machine (RCEM) was employed to reproduce the typical HCCI high load condition. The in-cylinder turbulence was created by the special piston which equipped with a flow guide plate. Meanwhile, the ambient temperature distribution in the cylinder was determined by the wall temperature controlling system which was controlled by the independent coolant passages. In addition, the numerical simulation by using large eddy method coupled with a detailed chemical reaction was conducted as well. The results show that HCCI mode is potential to be improved at high load condition in full consideration of in-cylinder temperature, flow, and turbulence.
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Improvement of On-board In-cylinder Gas Flow Model and Wall Heat Transfer Prediction Model for CI Engines Using CFD Analysis and PIV Measurements under Motoring and Firing Conditions

Sophia University-Mitsuhisa Ichiyanagi, Gerard Ndizeye, Yuji Sawamura, Reina Saito, Kotaro Takahashi, Koki Otsubo, Haoyu Chen, Suzuki Takashi
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-32-0542
To be published on 2020-01-24 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
For the improvement of the transient driving performance and the thermal efficiency for diesel engines, it is effective to control the fuel injection by model-based control (MBC) on ECU with cycle-by-cycle calculation, and MBC requires six models; gas flow, spray development, mixture formation, combustion, ignition delay, and heat loss. The authors previously developed on-board in-cylinder gas flow and wall heat transfer prediction models to estimate the heat loss. However, the developed gas flow model has an undetermined coefficient called the turbulence intensity coefficient (TIC), which significantly influences the prediction accuracy of the wall heat transfer prediction model. The present study improved the gas flow model and the wall heat transfer prediction model by applying TICs obtained using the PIV and CFD analysis. In-cylinder gas flow in an optical single-cylinder diesel engine was measured by PIV under both motoring and firing conditions, and TICs were calculated and applied to the wall heat transfer prediction model. The heat flux values obtained from the model were compared with those from the experiments using heat flux sensors. It was…

Study of OBD stageII Misfire Detection System for Small Motorcycles

Aisan Industry Co., Ltd.-Satoshi MIWA, Yuki IIBOSHI, Hirotaka FUKUTA
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-32-0511
To be published on 2020-01-24 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
In recent years, the shift to Fuel Injection (FI) system for motorcycles has been accelerated in response to the enhancement of exhaust emission regulations and the improvement of fuel efficiency for global environmental protection. In addition, On Board Diagnostics (OBD) was introduced to inform users of vehicle abnormalities and failures and prevent from emission failure in the market. OBD stageII requires enlargement of requirements and threshold detection. Seven items are presented in the EU5, Bharat Stage 6 (BS6). The misfire detection in small motorcycles has several problems.First, for the small motorcycle, a single-cylinder engine is the main and its combustion behavior cannot be compared with other cylinders. Consequently, it is difficult to detect misfire. For misfire detection, we focused on the difference in crank angular velocity during combustion stroke between normal combustion and misfire. The greatest gap was in crank angular velocity occurs at 0-180° crank angle [°CA]. With that, misfire detection control is established.We confirmed from the above control that misfire could be detected in the whole engine speed or load within the regulation.…
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Effect of Two-point Ignition on Knocking in Spark-assisted HCCI Combustion using an Optically Accessible Engine

Nihon University-Kojiro Yoshida, Takuma Furusho, Yosuke Abe, Masaya Iimura, Takafumi Imai, Kazutoshi Hoshi, Akira Iijima
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-32-0562
To be published on 2020-01-24 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
This study investigated the effect of the ignition positions in a two-point ignition system on homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion. Focus was put on controlling the ignition timing, and changes in combustion behavior due to the ignition positions were observed on the basis of in-cylinder combustion visualization and pressure analysis. Experimental results showed that misfire occurred under a condition where the temperature rise time was short and combustion became unstable. In contrast, combustion was stable under a condition where the rise time was sufficiently long and autoignition developed along the cylinder wall. As a result, knocking intensity was reduced by stable combustion.
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Effects of Stepped-Lip Combustion System Design and Operating Parameters on Turbulent Flow Evolution in a Diesel Engine

SAE International Journal of Engines

Ford Motor Company, USA-Eric Kurtz
USA-Stephen Busch
  • Journal Article
  • 03-13-02-0016
Published 2020-01-16 by SAE International in United States
Interactions between fuel sprays and stepped-lip diesel piston bowls can produce turbulent flow structures that improve efficiency and emissions, but the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. Recent experimental and simulation efforts provide evidence that increased efficiency and reduced smoke emissions coincide with the formation of long-lived, energetic vortices during the mixing-controlled portion of the combustion event. These vortices are believed to promote fuel-air mixing, increase heat-release rates, and improve air utilization, but they become weaker as main injection timing is advanced nearer to the top dead center (TDC). Further efficiency and emissions benefits may be realized if vortex formation can be strengthened for near-TDC injections. This work presents a simulation-based analysis of turbulent flow evolution within a stepped-lip combustion chamber. A conceptual model summarizes key processes in the evolution of turbulent flow for main injections starting after TDC. Differences in turbulent flow evolution are described for a near-TDC main injection, and potential variations in combustion system design and operating parameters to enhance vortex formation under these conditions are hypothesized. The parametric studies executed to…
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Energy Release Characteristics inside a Spark-Ignition Engine with a Bowl-in-Piston Geometry

West Virginia University-Jinlong Liu, Cosmin Emil Dumitrescu
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-5003
Published 2020-01-16 by SAE International in United States
The conversion of compression ignition (CI) internal combustion engines to spark-ignition (SI) operation by adding a spark plug to ignite the mixture and fumigating the fuel inside the intake manifold can increase the use of alternative gaseous fuels (e.g., natural gas) in heavy-duty applications. This study proposed a novel, less-complex methodology based on the inflection points in the apparent rate of heat release (ROHR) that can identify and separate the fast-burning stage inside the piston bowl from the slower combustion stage inside the squish region (a characteristic of premixed combustion inside a diesel geometry). A single-cylinder 2L CI research engine converted to natural gas SI operation provided the experimental data needed to evaluate the methodology, at several spark timings, equivalence ratios, and engine speeds. The results indicated that the end of the bulk combustion traditionally defined as the location of 90% energy release was not greatly affected by the change in operating conditions. Moreover, the actual duration of the rapid-burning stage was 60-80% shorter than the crank angle interval between 10% and 90% energy release.…
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Comparison Between MCC and MZCM Combustion Models

Pontifícia Universidade Católica de Minas Gerais-Paulo Ricardo da Penha, Rogério Jorge Amorim
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0133
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
This paper evaluates the ability of two combustion models to predict a small HSDI diesel engine operation after changing its operational parameters. Both Multi-Zone Combustion Model (MZCM) and Mixing Controlled Combustion (MCC) are inherently coupled to the fuel injection process allowing great freedom of simulation for multistage injection engines but also requiring consistent calibration of the model parameters. In the present work, two operating conditions of a reference research engine are modelled and tuned in the AVL Boost® software using both MCC and MZCM to model the combustion process. The operational conditions evaluated are defined by changes in EGR rate, fuel injection start and distribution, boost pressure, and injection pressure. The predictive ability of each model is assessed by comparing the output results accuracy and the number of parameters changes needed to tune the model for a given change of operation. The novelty of this work resides in the comparison of the two models, as built in the software, in a practical simulation process. Both models have a similar amount of base parameters to be…
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Feasibility Study of the Fuel Magnetizer in Flex-Fuel Cars

Centro Universitário FAESA and SENAI-ES-Pablo A. Amorim, Luiz F. De N. Mattos, Everton L. P. Almeida, Gustavo C. Pellacani, Luiz A. M. M. Marques
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0238
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
The topic of energy efficiency is currently a subject widely debated in industrial sectors because of its high relevance due to the finite life time of fossil fuels and the need for reduction in consumption and consequently the emissions of gases and the environmental impact. The objective of this work was to evaluate the performance of fuel magnetizers, a product marketed that, according to suppliers, guarantees an improvement in combustion efficiency, representing a saving of 10% to 22% of fuel. For the analysis of the efficiency of the magnetizer, consumption tests were carried out on engine test bench with and without the use of the product in idling speed, 2000 rpm and 2700 rpm. The conclusions obtained showed that the use of magnetizers did not achieve a satisfactory result in the efficiency of internal combustion engines, a possible factor responsible is the high content of ethanol in Brazilian gasoline.
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