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Investigate Partial Cabin Air Recirculation Strategy to Improve HVAC System’s Heating Performance Using 1D Simulation

FCA Engineering India Pvt., Ltd.-Saurabh Belsare, Prakashbabuji Danapalan, Saravanan Sambandan
FCA US LLC-Murali Govindarajalu
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0159
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
In cold weather conditions, cabin heating performance is critical for retaining the thermal comfort. Heat is absorbed from the engine by circulating coolant through the engine water jacket and same will be rejected by the heater core. A variable speed blower is used to transfer heat from the heater core to the passenger compartment through floor ducts. The time taken to achieve comfortable cabin temperature determines the performance and capacity of heating ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) system. In current automotive field, the engine options are provided to customers to meet their needs on the same vehicle platforms. Hence few engine variants cannot warm the cabin up to customer satisfaction. To improve the existing warm up performance of system, Positive thermal coefficient heater (PTC), electric coolant PTC heater, auxiliary pump etc. can be used which increases the overall cost of the vehicle.During warmup, HVAC system operates in 100% fresh mode. In this study, Partial cabin recirculation is investigated to understand the effect on the cabin warmup. In order to demonstrate this phenomenon, a one dimensional…
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Numerical Evaluation of Gasoline Compression Ignition at Cold Conditions in a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

Aramco Research Center-Yuanjiang Pei, Yu Zhang, Praveen Kumar, Tom Tzanetakis, Michael Traver
Argonne National Laboratory-Le Zhao, Muhsin Ameen
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0778
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Achieving robust ignitability for compression ignition of diesel engines at cold conditions is traditionally challenging due to insufficient fuel vaporization, heavy wall impingement, and thick wall films. Gasoline compression ignition (GCI) has shown good potential to offer enhanced NOx-soot tradeoff with diesel-like fuel efficiency, but it is unknown how the volatility and reactivity of the fuel will affect ignition under very cold conditions. Therefore, it is important to investigate the impact of fuel physical and chemical properties on ignition under pressures and temperatures relevant to practical engine operating conditions during cold weather. In this paper, 0-D and 3-D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of GCI combustion at cold conditions were performed. First, 0-D simulations were performed to evaluate the ignitability of different gasoline-like fuels and the impact of initial pressure and temperature on the autoignition behavior over a range of equivalence ratios and anti-knock indices (AKI). Gasolines with research octane numbers (RON) varied from 60 to 92 were investigated. The simulation results were then used to generate thermodynamic maps for ignitability for the different gasolines.…
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Improving Winter Fuel Economy by Using Weather Information

Toyota Motor Corporation-Rino Oshikiri, Hidekazu Hirabayashi
Toyota Motor North America, Inc.-David Cosgrove
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1241
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
When the air conditioning (A/C) is turned on, for a cabin climate control system in vehicles, the compressor operation starts and the intake air to the HVAC is to be cooled after the evaporator. This is not only used for cooling the air temperature but also to dehumidify the air. Therefore, even in winters, for a typical automatic climate control system , compressor will automatically operate in order to prevent window from fogging despite its effect on fuel economy. In this process, the air is first cooled to get dried and then heated at the heater core so as to provide dry and hot air to the cabin. As a previous implementation, a humidity sensor was installed on the upper top of the wind shield. Humidity sensor detects the humidity on the wind shield surface and when the probability of window fogging is low the compressor operation is disabled automatically so that we can prevent useless operations of the compressor and increase fuel economy. However, humidity sensor requires some space to be installed and the…
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Sensor Heat Relief

Autonomous Vehicle Engineering: March 2020

Bradley Berman
  • Magazine Article
  • 20AVEP03_07
Published 2020-03-01 by SAE International in United States

Canatu's carbon nanobots keep critical sensor surfaces -and LED headlamps - clean in sub-freezing weather.

Sensor surfaces that are exposed to weather need to be kept clean so that ADAS and autonomous driving systems can function safely. Ice build-up in cold conditions is of particular concern, but Canatu thinks it has a solution.

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New approaches in thermal management

Automotive Engineering: March 2020

Paul Weissler
  • Magazine Article
  • 20AUTP03_03
Published 2020-03-01 by SAE International in United States

Electric vehicles are driving new technologies in cabin heating, ultra-fast battery charging and secondary-loop heat pumps.

Vehicle thermal management, once almost exclusively about safely rejecting powertrain heat, continues to evolve. Engineers currently are focusing on two extremes in operation of battery electric vehicles (BEVs) - accumulating every possible BTU for cabin heating in winter and cooling battery packs in high-ambient, high-load operation while preparing for a future with ultra-fast recharging.

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Coiled Electrical Cable - Truck and Bus

Truck and Bus Electrical Systems Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J2222_202002
  • Current
Published 2020-02-25 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Standard establishes the minimum performance and endurance requirements for coiled electrical cables used for hookup between trucks, trailers, and dollies for 12 VDC nominal applications. The component standards SAE J2394 (replaced SAE J1067) for cable and SAE J560 for connectors must be consulted to determine the complete performance and endurance requirements of the system. Related TMC Recommended Practices may be consulted for information associated with selection, installation, and inspection of these coiled electrical cables. This document is intended to set out requirements for the majority of conditions rather than for specialized applications or environments.
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SAE Truck & Off-Highway Engineering: December 2019

  • Magazine Issue
  • 19TOFHP12
Published 2019-12-05 by SAE International in United States
Heavy-duty engine design What are the most significant factors influencing the way engine developers approach near-term design and development cycles? Two experts provide their insights from recent programs.Reducing winter range loss for electric trucks Researchers at the Austrian Institute of Technology have developed an air exchange system that's capable of reducing heat load by 37% in real-world tests.Narrower focus, bigger payoff Design teams are targeting focused markets for their commercial electric-vehicle programs to combat challenges like range and infrastructure.Removing complexity for autonomous trucks Narrowing the operating domains for driverless commercial vehicles reduces the requirements of autonomous technology and speeds time to market.Plastics innovations 2019 The 49th annual SPE Automotive Awards highlight the ongoing benefits of lightweight polymers and composites.Editorial Hop on the hydrogen highwayLeak testing of commercial-vehicle AC systems critical as move to HFO refrigerants loomsAkasol packs industry-leading energy density into new battery designMahle and partners develop super-efficient natural-gas engine for stationary powerHow battery technology will drive truck electrificationPlatinum nanoparticles for fuel-cell catalysts may cut costCaterpillar launches next-gen mini hydraulic excavator, skid steer and compact…

Chemical Mixture Widens the Temperature Range for Electric Car Batteries

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-35708
Published 2019-12-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

A combination of chemicals was created that could help electric cars power their way through the extreme temperatures that degrade the efficiency of current lithium-ion batteries. Combinations of compounds in electrolytes, in the laboratory, allow lithium-ion batteries to function very well both in sub-zero temperatures (Fahrenheit) — which are reached often during the winter in the northern United States and other parts of the world — and in very hot temperatures like those in the summer in the southwestern US. Those are temperatures where today's batteries — used to power electric cars, cellphones, laptops, and other devices — often retain little charge and expend it quickly.

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Reducing winter range loss for electric trucks

SAE Truck & Off-Highway Engineering: December 2019

Paul Weissler
  • Magazine Article
  • 19TOFHP12_02
Published 2019-12-01 by SAE International in United States

Researchers at the Austrian Institute of Technology have developed an air exchange system that's capable of reducing heat load by 37% in real-world tests.

Battery-electric vehicle (BEV) range loss from winter use of PTC (positive temperature coefficient) heating has become a source of major concern as the industry works to make EVs a mainstream choice. Addressing this particular problem area with an economically viable solution was deemed a worthwhile effort by the Austrian Institute of Technology (AIT), which is jointly owned by the Austrian government and the Federation of Austrian Industries. A fleet test of electric delivery trucks is underway on European roads.

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Simulation Study on Driving Range at High and Low Temperature

Catarc-Jiang Yu, YanXin Nie, Ning Xie, BaoTong Ma, Zhe Xu
Cooperator-Dong MingJun
Published 2019-11-04 by SAE International in United States
With the popularity of EVs, driving range has become one of the focuses of people's concern. The anxiety about driving range was particularly evident in winter and summer, because of the use of air conditioning at high temperatures and heating at low temperatures, as well as the power supply capacity of power batteries at different temperatures. At the same time, the energy consumption of thermal management components and the influence of thermal management on the efficiency of other components also need to be considered. The high and low temperature driving range is studied by means of simulation, which has the characteristics of low cost and fast speed. For the vehicles simulated in the article, driving range at 25 °C is 240 km, at -30 °C reduced to 34% (81.9 km), at 40 °C reduced to 73% (176 km).In this paper, the simulation modeling and analysis on the driving range of an EV are carried out. The simulation model includes air conditioning system and crew cabin, power battery system and its cooling system, motor system and…
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