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Investigate partial cabin air re-circulation strategy to improve HVAC system's heating performance using 1D simulation

FCA Engineering India Pvt Ltd-Saurabh Belsare, Prakashbabuji Danapalan, Saravanan Sambandan
FCA US LLC-Murali Govindarajalu
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0159
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
In cold weather conditions, cabin heating performance is critical for retaining the thermal comfort. Heat is absorbed from the engine by circulating coolant through the engine water jacket and same will be rejected by the heater core. A variable speed blower is used to transfer heat from the heater core to the passenger compartment through floor ducts. The time taken to achieve comfortable cabin temperature determines the performance and capacity of heating ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) system. In current automotive field, the engine options are provided to customers to meet their needs on the same vehicle platforms. Hence few engine variants cannot warm the cabin up to customer satisfaction. To improve the existing warm up performance of system, Positive thermal coefficient heater (PTC), electric coolant PTC heater, auxiliary pump etc. can be used which increases the overall cost of the vehicle. During warm-up, HVAC system operates in 100% fresh mode. In this study, Partial cabin re-circulation is investigated to understand the effect on the cabin warm-up. In order to demonstrate this phenomenon, a one…
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Numerical Evaluation of Gasoline Compression Ignition at Cold Conditions in a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

Aramco Research Center-Yuanjiang Pei, Yu Zhang, Praveen Kumar, Tom Tzanetakis, Michael Traver
Argonne National Laboratory-Le Zhao, Muhsin Ameen
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0778
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Achieving robust ignitability for compression ignition of diesel engines at cold conditions is traditionally challenging due to insufficient fuel vaporization, heavy wall impingement, and thick wall films. Gasoline compression ignition (GCI) has shown good potential to offer enhanced NOx-soot tradeoff with diesel-like fuel efficiency, but it is unknown how the volatility and reactivity of the fuel will affect ignition under very cold conditions. Therefore, it is important to investigate the impact of fuel physical and chemical properties on ignition under pressures and temperatures relevant to practical engine operating conditions during cold weather. In this paper, 0-D and 3-D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of GCI combustion at cold conditions were performed. First, 0-D simulations were performed to evaluate the ignitability of different gasoline-like fuels and the impact of initial pressure and temperature on the autoignition behavior over a range of equivalence ratios and anti-knock indices (AKI). Gasolines with research octane numbers (RON) varied from 60 to 92 were investigated. The simulation results were then used to generate thermodynamic maps for ignitability for the different gasolines.…
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SAE Truck & Off-Highway Engineering: December 2019

  • Magazine Issue
  • 19TOFHP12
Published 2019-12-05 by SAE International in United States
Heavy-duty engine design What are the most significant factors influencing the way engine developers approach near-term design and development cycles? Two experts provide their insights from recent programs.Reducing winter range loss for electric trucks Researchers at the Austrian Institute of Technology have developed an air exchange system that's capable of reducing heat load by 37% in real-world tests.Narrower focus, bigger payoff Design teams are targeting focused markets for their commercial electric-vehicle programs to combat challenges like range and infrastructure.Removing complexity for autonomous trucks Narrowing the operating domains for driverless commercial vehicles reduces the requirements of autonomous technology and speeds time to market.Plastics innovations 2019 The 49th annual SPE Automotive Awards highlight the ongoing benefits of lightweight polymers and composites.Editorial Hop on the hydrogen highwayLeak testing of commercial-vehicle AC systems critical as move to HFO refrigerants loomsAkasol packs industry-leading energy density into new battery designMahle and partners develop super-efficient natural-gas engine for stationary powerHow battery technology will drive truck electrificationPlatinum nanoparticles for fuel-cell catalysts may cut costCaterpillar launches next-gen mini hydraulic excavator, skid steer and compact…
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Reducing winter range loss for electric trucks

SAE Truck & Off-Highway Engineering: December 2019

Paul Weissler
  • Magazine Article
  • 19TOFHP12_02
Published 2019-12-01 by SAE International in United States

Researchers at the Austrian Institute of Technology have developed an air exchange system that's capable of reducing heat load by 37% in real-world tests.

Battery-electric vehicle (BEV) range loss from winter use of PTC (positive temperature coefficient) heating has become a source of major concern as the industry works to make EVs a mainstream choice. Addressing this particular problem area with an economically viable solution was deemed a worthwhile effort by the Austrian Institute of Technology (AIT), which is jointly owned by the Austrian government and the Federation of Austrian Industries. A fleet test of electric delivery trucks is underway on European roads.

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Simulation Study on Driving Range at High and Low Temperature

Catarc-Jiang Yu, YanXin Nie, Ning Xie, BaoTong Ma, Zhe Xu
Cooperator-Dong MingJun
Published 2019-11-04 by SAE International in United States
With the popularity of EVs, driving range has become one of the focuses of people's concern. The anxiety about driving range was particularly evident in winter and summer, because of the use of air conditioning at high temperatures and heating at low temperatures, as well as the power supply capacity of power batteries at different temperatures. At the same time, the energy consumption of thermal management components and the influence of thermal management on the efficiency of other components also need to be considered. The high and low temperature driving range is studied by means of simulation, which has the characteristics of low cost and fast speed. For the vehicles simulated in the article, driving range at 25 °C is 240 km, at -30 °C reduced to 34% (81.9 km), at 40 °C reduced to 73% (176 km).In this paper, the simulation modeling and analysis on the driving range of an EV are carried out. The simulation model includes air conditioning system and crew cabin, power battery system and its cooling system, motor system and…
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SnowMicroPenetrometer Applications for Winter Vehicle Mobility

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-35361
Published 2019-10-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

The U.S. Engineer Research and Development Center (ERDC) Military Engineering Program on Remote Assessment of Infrastructure for Ensured Maneuver (RAFTER) Boreal Aspects of Ensured Maneuver (BAEM) identifies the need for modeling over-snow vehicle performance, as many factors related to vehicle setup and land surface condition contribute to vehicle efficiency. Accurately estimating snow macromechanical characteristics—such as elastic modulus, stiffness, and strength—is critical for understanding how effectively a vehicle will travel over snow-covered terrain.

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SnowMicroPenetrometer Applications for Winter Vehicle Mobility

Aerospace & Defense Technology: October 2019

  • Magazine Article
  • 19AERP10_10
Published 2019-10-01 by SAE International in United States

Characterizing the mechanical properties of snow and their impact on vehicle performance could improve vehicle winter mobility modeling.

The U.S. Engineer Research and Development Center (ERDC) Military Engineering Program on Remote Assessment of Infrastructure for Ensured Maneuver (RAFTER) Boreal Aspects of Ensured Maneuver (BAEM) identifies the need for modeling over-snow vehicle performance, as many factors related to vehicle setup and land surface condition contribute to vehicle efficiency. Accurately estimating snow macromechanical characteristics-such as elastic modulus, stiffness, and strength-is critical for understanding how effectively a vehicle will travel over snow-covered terrain.

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Passenger Vehicle Windshield Demisting and Defrosting Systems

Interior Climate Control Vehicle OEM Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J902_201909
  • Current
Published 2019-09-25 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Recommend Practice establishes for passenger cars, light trucks, and multipurpose vehicles with GVW of 4500 kg (10000 pounds) or less, as defined by EPA, and M1 category vehicles as defined by the European Commission:
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A Three-Layer Thermodynamic Model for Ice Crystal Accretion on Warm Surfaces: EMM-C

Rolls-Royce Plc-Geoffrey Jones, Benjamin Collier
University of Oxford-Alexander Bucknell, Matthew McGilvray, David Gillespie
Published 2019-06-10 by SAE International in United States
Ingestion of high altitude atmospheric ice particles can be hazardous to gas turbine engines in flight. Ice accretion may occur in the core compression system, leading to blockage of the core gas path, blade damage and/or flameout. Numerous engine powerloss events since 1990 have been attributed to this mechanism. An expansion in engine certification requirements to incorporate ice crystal conditions has spurred efforts to develop analytical models for phenomenon, as a method of demonstrating safe operation. A necessary component of a complete analytical icing model is a thermodynamic accretion model. Continuity and energy balances are performed using the local flow conditions and the mass fluxes of ice and water that are incident on a surface to predict the accretion growth rate. In this paper, a new thermodynamic model for ice crystal accretion is developed through adaptation of the Extended Messinger Model (EMM) from supercooled water conditions to mixed phase conditions (ice crystal and supercooled water). A novel three-layer accretion structure is proposed and the underlying equations described. The EMM improves upon the original model for…
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Numerical and Experimental Investigation of Ice Adhesion Using the Blister Test

Iowa State University-Christopher Giuffre, Bishoy Dawood, Denizhan Yavas, Ashraf Bastawros
Published 2019-06-10 by SAE International in United States
Structures in cold weather environments are susceptible to atmospheric ice formation. A fracture mechanics based approach is proposed for in situ characterization of the interfacial fracture energy of ice on different substrates. This paper summarizes the development of the experimental and analytical framework to measure the ice adhesion energy, calibrated on static ice. The testing configuration utilizes a shaft-loaded blister test to produce stable crack propagation, from a well-defined pre-crack at the interface of the ice layer and the substrate. Measurements of the fracture energy are taken over a range of ice thicknesses and surface roughnesses. The developed analytical framework to estimate adhesion energy are verified and calibrated via finite element numerical simulation of the proposed geometric configuration and employing cohesive surfaces along the interface to simulate the crack nucleation and propagation process. Several different phenomena were observed include the transition from adhesive to cohesive fracture. The measured interfacial adhesion energy was almost independent of the surface roughness in the range of examined roughness. The measured interfacial R-curve showed a steady state plateau for range…
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