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Snowmobii 2.0 (Snow mobility Unmanned Vehicle)

Harshil Patel
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2516
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
In this paper we propose the snow mobility vehicle in order increase the mobility and decrease the risk of accidents for carry food and medicines on snow bounded areas using unmanned tracked vehicle called as snowmobii 2.0. Our unmanned tracked vehicle can transport Food/medicines as well as Defence in snow bounded areas. This unmanned robot can run in loose as well as hard snow due to it have specific featured technology in base wheel(track wheel system) such as hub with outer seals that improve its durability. The proposed snow mobility vehicle is consist of many sophisticated-designed systems such as navigation system, obstacle detection system, communication system, temperature sensing system. Snowmobii 2.0 is easy to get command and enable significant reduction in losses of many solder’s precious lives due to unavailability of food and medicines at that place. An unmanned tracked vehicle (snowmobii 2.0) is actively being developed for military use to perform various task like mobility on snow surface, carry food/medicines, defence etc.Predominantly this vehicle is used to replace human movement at hazardous place. It…
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A Three-Layer Thermodynamic Model for Ice Crystal Accretion on Warm Surfaces: EMM-C

Rolls-Royce Plc-Geoffrey Jones, Benjamin Collier
University of Oxford-Alexander Bucknell, Matthew McGilvray, David Gillespie
Published 2019-06-10 by SAE International in United States
Ingestion of high altitude atmospheric ice particles can be hazardous to gas turbine engines in flight. Ice accretion may occur in the core compression system, leading to blockage of the core gas path, blade damage and/or flameout. Numerous engine powerloss events since 1990 have been attributed to this mechanism. An expansion in engine certification requirements to incorporate ice crystal conditions has spurred efforts to develop analytical models for phenomenon, as a method of demonstrating safe operation. A necessary component of a complete analytical icing model is a thermodynamic accretion model. Continuity and energy balances are performed using the local flow conditions and the mass fluxes of ice and water that are incident on a surface to predict the accretion growth rate. In this paper, a new thermodynamic model for ice crystal accretion is developed through adaptation of the Extended Messinger Model (EMM) from supercooled water conditions to mixed phase conditions (ice crystal and supercooled water). A novel three-layer accretion structure is proposed and the underlying equations described. The EMM improves upon the original model for…
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Numerical and Experimental Investigation of Ice Adhesion Using the Blister Test

Iowa State University-Christopher Giuffre, Bishoy Dawood, Denizhan Yavas, Ashraf Bastawros
Published 2019-06-10 by SAE International in United States
Structures in cold weather environments are susceptible to atmospheric ice formation. A fracture mechanics based approach is proposed for in situ characterization of the interfacial fracture energy of ice on different substrates. This paper summarizes the development of the experimental and analytical framework to measure the ice adhesion energy, calibrated on static ice. The testing configuration utilizes a shaft-loaded blister test to produce stable crack propagation, from a well-defined pre-crack at the interface of the ice layer and the substrate. Measurements of the fracture energy are taken over a range of ice thicknesses and surface roughnesses. The developed analytical framework to estimate adhesion energy are verified and calibrated via finite element numerical simulation of the proposed geometric configuration and employing cohesive surfaces along the interface to simulate the crack nucleation and propagation process. Several different phenomena were observed include the transition from adhesive to cohesive fracture. The measured interfacial adhesion energy was almost independent of the surface roughness in the range of examined roughness. The measured interfacial R-curve showed a steady state plateau for range…
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A Parametric Study on the Thermodynamic Characteristics of DBD Plasma Actuation and Its Potential for Wind Turbine Icing Mitigation

Iowa State University-Cem Kolbakir, Linyue Gao, Yang Liu, Hui Hu
Published 2019-06-10 by SAE International in United States
Wind turbine icing represents the most significant threat to the integrity of wind turbines in cold weather. Ice formation on wind turbine blades was found to cause significant aerodynamic performance degradation, resulting in a substantial drop in energy production. Recently developed Dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma-based anti-/de-icing systems showed very promising effects for aircraft icing mitigation. In this present study, DBD plasma-based anti-/de-icing systems were employed for wind turbine icing mitigation. First, a comprehensive parametric study is conducted to investigate the effects of various DBD plasma actuation parameters on its thermodynamic characteristics. An infrared (IR) thermal imaging system is used to quantitatively measure the temperature distributions over the test plate under various test conditions. DBD plasma actuators are embedded over the surface of a DU91-W2-250 wind turbine blade model, and a series of experiments were conducted by using the Icing Research Tunnel available at Iowa State University (i.e., ISU-IRT) to evaluate the anti-/de-icing performance of the system for wind turbine icing mitigation. Dynamic anti-icing process was recorded by a high-speed imaging system, and an IR…
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Runway Deicing Product Anti/Deicing Performance Assessment: Review and Future Directions

UQAC - AMIL-Jean-Denis Brassard, Caroline Laforte, Marc Mario Tremblay, Christophe Volat
Published 2019-06-10 by SAE International in United States
Every winter, northern airport operations are disrupted by heavy snowstorms and freezing precipitations. A simple snow accumulation or a thin layer of ice can affect aircraft operations (take-off, landing and taxi), and increase the risk for passengers and crew members, by rendering the runway slippery. Any deficits in deicing operations can also lead to flight delays and even cancellations that cost a lot to the industry. In order to maintain the runway and taxiway in a safe and useable condition, airport authorities use mechanical tools, but also chemical products. Chemical products available on the market for use in airports are principally in solid forms and liquid form, and are denominated as Runway Deicing Product (RDP). All of the products used in airport should meet the technical requirements of one of the two Aerospace Materials Specifications (AMS) documents: the AMS1431D Compound, Solid Runway and taxiway Deicing/Anti-icing and the AMS1435C Fluid, Generic, Deicing/Anti-icing Runways and Taxiways. Most of the products are used as freezing point depressants and are applied on snow, ice or packed snow covers to…
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Characterization of Mode-II Interfacial Fracture Toughness of Ice/Metal Interfaces

Iowa State University-Denizhan Yavas, Ashraf Bastawros, Bishoy Dawood, Christopher Giuffre
Published 2019-06-10 by SAE International in United States
Airborne, marine and ground structures are vulnerable to atmospheric icing in cold weather operation conditions. Most of the ice adhesion-related work have focused on the mechanical ice removal strategies because of practical considerations, while limited literature is available for fundamental understanding of the ice adhesion process. Here, we present a fracture mechanics-based approach to characterize interfacial fracture parameters for the shear behavior of a typical ice/aluminum interface. An experimental framework employing two complementary tests (1) lap shear and (2) shear push-out tests was introduced to assess the mode-II fracture parameters for the selected aluminum/ice interface. Both analytical (shear-lag analysis) and numerical (finite element analysis incorporating cohesive zone method) models were used to evaluate shear fracture parameters. The combined experimental and numerical results, as well as surveying published results for lap shear and 0° cone tests showed that mode-II interfacial strength and toughness can be significantly affected by the method of testing geometry due to geometrically induced interfacial residual stress. As a result, the apparent toughness (or strength) obtained by 0° cone test could reach an…
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Quantification of 3D Ice Structures Accreted on a Wind Turbine Airfoil Model

Iowa State University-Linyue Gao, Ramsankar Veerakumar, Yang Liu, Hui Hu
Published 2019-06-10 by SAE International in United States
Accurate quantification of 3D shapes of the complex ice structures accreted on wind turbine blades is highly desirable to develop ice prediction models for more accurate prediction of the aerodynamic performance degradation and power reduction due to the ice accretion on wind turbine blades. In the present study, an experimental investigation was conducted to quantitatively characterize the 3D shapes of the ice structures accreted over a DU91-W2-250 wind turbine airfoil model in the Icing Research Tunnel available at Iowa State University (ISU-IRT). A glaze icing condition and a rime icing condition that wind turbines usually experience in winter were duplicated by using ISU-IRT. A high-resolution non-intrusive 3D scanning system was used to make detailed 3D-shape measurements to quantify the complicated ice structures accreted on the wind turbine airfoil model as a function of the ice accretion time. The measurements results show that the complex 3D shapes of the ice structures accreted over the surfaces of the airfoil model under both glaze icing and rime icing conditions were well captured. It is found that the glaze…
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As automotive climates shift, GKN ramps up its winter testing

Automotive Engineering: June 2019

Paul Seredynski
  • Magazine Article
  • 19AUTP06_13
Published 2019-06-01 by SAE International in United States

As the influx of electrification continues to roil the industry, seamlessly integrating the hardware and wealth of software it brings with it creates a far broader engineering challenge. Tier-1 companies that traditionally supplied “parts” are rapidly transitioning from a component-level mindset to system-level projects that include exponential investments in programming and control algorithms. Meshing innovative electrified propulsion systems while still meeting diverse and performance-hungry OEM integration criteria is making winter testing more crucial than ever.

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Studies show cold temps cripple EV range

Automotive Engineering: May 2019

Paul A. Eisenstein
  • Magazine Article
  • 19AUTP05_12
Published 2019-05-01 by SAE International in United States

It was a tough winter in much of the U.S. Even normally temperate seasonal regions like San Diego, Los Angeles and Las Vegas were hit with harsh and, in some cases, record cold this year. That's particular bad news for the growing number of owners of battery electric vehicles (EVs) who have discovered the impact extreme temperatures can have on both range and charging times.

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Evaluation of Equivalent Temperature in a Vehicle Cabin with a Numerical Thermal Manikin (Part 2): Evaluation of Thermal Environment and Equivalent Temperature in a Vehicle Cabin

AGC Inc.-Yoshiichi Ozeki, Seiko Suzuki
Nissan Motor Co., Ltd.-Hajime Oi, Yasushi Ichikawa, Akira Matsumoto
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
In the previous paper (Part 1), measurements of equivalent temperature (teq) using a clothed thermal manikin and modeling of the clothed thermal manikin for teq simulation were discussed. In this paper (Part 2), the outline of the proposed mesh-free simulation method is described and comparisons between teq in the calculations and measurements under summer cooling with solar radiation and winter heating without solar radiation conditions in a vehicle cabin are discussed. The key factors for evaluating teq on each body segment of the clothed thermal manikin under cooling and heating conditions are also discussed. In the mesh-free simulation, even if there is a hole or an unnecessary shape on the CAD model, only a group of points whose density is controlled in the simulation area is generated without modifying the CAD model. Therefore, the fluid mesh required by conventional CFD code is not required, and the analysis load is significantly reduced. The most advantageous point is that this mesh-free simulation method satisfies the conservation laws of mass, momentum, and energy. The cabin thermal environment and…
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