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Spatially Optimized Diffusion Alloys: A Novel Multi-Layered Steel Material for Exhaust Applications

Arcanum Alloys Inc.-Zachary Detweiler, David Keifer, Daniel Bullard
Tenneco Inc.-Adam Kotrba, Tony Quan, Winston Wei
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1051
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
A novel Spatially Optimized Diffusion Alloy (SODA) material has been developed and applied to exhaust systems, a very aggressive environment with high temperatures and loads, as well as excessive corrosion. Traditional stainless steels disperse chromium homogeneously throughout the material, with varying amounts ranging from 11% to 18% dependent upon its grade (e.g. 409, 436, 439, and 441). SODA steels, however, offer layered concentrations of chromium, enabling an increased amount along the outer surface for much needed corrosion resistance and aesthetics. This outer layer, approximately 70µm thick, exceeds 20% of chromium concentration locally, but is only 3% in bulk, offering selective placement of the chromium to minimize its overall usage. And, since this layer is metallurgically bonded, it cannot delaminate or separate from its core, enabling durable protection throughout manufacturing processes and full useful life. The core material may be of various grades, however, so this study employs interstitial free steel (low carbon), which offers not only commercial advantages, but also eases manufacturing operations, as it is more formable than stainless steel grades. The material and…
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Steel, Sheet, Strip, and Plate 0.95Cr - 0.20Mo - (0.30 - 0.35C) (4132)

AMS E Carbon and Low Alloy Steels Committee
  • Aerospace Material Specification
  • AMS6356J
  • Current
Published 2020-03-18 by SAE International in United States
This specification covers an aircraft-quality, low-alloy steel in the form of sheet, strip, and plate.
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Steel Sheet, Strip, and Plate 0.80Cr - 1.8Ni - 0.25Mo (0.49 - 0.55C) Annealed

AMS E Carbon and Low Alloy Steels Committee
  • Aerospace Material Specification
  • AMS6396G
  • Current
Published 2020-02-18 by SAE International in United States
This specification covers an aircraft-quality, low-alloy steel in the form of sheet, strip, and plate.
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Titanium Alloy, Round Bar and Wire 3Al - 8V - 6Cr - 4Mo - 4Zr Consumable Electrode Melted Solution Heat Treated and Cold Drawn

AMS G Titanium and Refractory Metals Committee
  • Aerospace Material Specification
  • AMS4957G
  • Current
Published 2020-01-14 by SAE International in United States
This specification covers a titanium alloy in the form of round bar and wire, 0.625 inch (15.88 mm) and under in nominal diameter or thickness.
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Chromium Removal from PVC Filters

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-35787
Published 2020-01-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

Chromium metals and hexavalent chromium are known health hazards monitored in workplace environments. Occupational health professionals use polyvinyl chloride (PVC) in disc filters to monitor total chromium present in a workplace. If chromium background is present in the filters, the interpretation of the results can be problematic. Current analytical analysis methods can't discern environmentally harvested chromium materials from chromium that is present as a result of manufacturing byproducts in the filters. A need exists for a non-destructive method of removing the background concentration of chromium metals and hexavalent chromium that is present in the PVC filters.

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Steel, Corrosion Resistant, Bars and Wire 18Cr - 9Ni (303F) Free Machining, High Yield Strength Solution Heat Treated and Cold Worked

AMS F Corrosion Heat Resistant Alloys Committee
  • Aerospace Material Specification
  • AMS5738E
  • Current
Published 2019-11-05 by SAE International in United States
This specification covers a free-machining, corrosion-resistant steel in the form of cold-worked bars and wire up to 1.750 inches (44.45 mm) inclusive, in nominal diameter or least distance between parallel sides (see 8.5).
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Steel, Corrosion Resistant, Bars and Wire 19Cr - 10Ni (304) High Yield Strength Solution Heat Treated and Cold Worked

AMS F Corrosion Heat Resistant Alloys Committee
  • Aerospace Material Specification
  • AMS5857D
  • Current
Published 2019-11-05 by SAE International in United States
This specification covers a corrosion-resistant steel in the form of cold-worked bars and wire up to 1.750 inch (44.45 mm) inclusive, in nominal diameter or least distance between parallel sides (see 8.4).
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Study on Effect of Laser Peening on Inconel 718 Produced by DMLS Technique

Vellore Institute of Technology-Nattudurai Navin Kumar, Aditya Chandrakant Yadav, Kumar Raja, Subramanian Prabhakaran, Chooriyaparambil Damodaran Naiju, Sivaperuman Kalainathan
Published 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
In Additive manufacturing, Direct Metal Laser Sintering (DMLS) is a rapid manufacturing technique used for manufacturing of functional component. Finely powered metal is melted by using high-energy fiber laser, by Island principle strategy that produces mechanically and thermally stable metallic component with reduced stresses, thermal gradients and at high precision. Inconel is an austenitic chromium nickel-based superalloy often used in the applications which require high strength and temperature resistant. It can retain its properties at high temperature. An attempt is made to examine the effect of laser shot peening (LSP) on DMLS Inconel 718 sample. Microstructure shows elliptical shaped structure and formation of new grain boundaries. The surface roughness of the material has been increased due to the effect of laser shock pulse and ablative nature. Macro hardness increased to 13% on the surface. Depth wise microhardness was investigated, found to be 17% increase on the sub-layer of the material due to the effect of a hardened matrix formed by precipitation hardening and grain size refinement attributed by laser shock peening. SEM analysis shows larger…
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Effect of Cryogenic Treatment on Inconel 718 Produced by DMLS Technique

Vellore Institute of Technology-Chooriyaparambil Damodaran Naiju, Kumar Raja, Nattudurai Navin Kumar, Chandrakant Yadav Aditya, Muniappan Senthil Kumar
Published 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
The main purpose of this study is to investigate additive manufactured Inconel super alloy subjected to cryogenic treatment (CT). Cryogenic treatment is mainly used in aerospace, defense and automobile application. Direct metal laser sintering is an additive manufacturing technique used for manufacturing of complex and complicated functional components. Inconel is an austenitic chromium nickel based super alloy often used in the applications which require high strength & temperature resistant. In this work, a study is carried out on microstructure and mechanical properties of additive manufactured Inconel 718 when subjected to cryogenic treatment at three different time intervals. The micro-structural evolution of IN718 super-alloy before and after CT was investigated by both optic microscope and scanning electron microscope. Surface roughness and hardness at different CT time intervals has also analyzed. Additionally, XRD technique was used to analyze the surface residual stress. The result shows after three cycles of cryogenic treatment, the hardness of Inconel 718 has been substantially improved at room temperature. Microstructure shows grains in one of the test condition, a larger number of refined…
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Surface Modification of Aluminium Alloy 5083 Reinforced with Cr2O3/TiO2 by Friction Stir Process

Bannari Amman Institute of Technology-Dinesh Dhanabalan
Vellore Institute of Technology-Adarsh Singh, Govindasamy Rajamurugan, Prabu Krishnasamy
Published 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
The surface properties have a vital role in the overall performance of the parts like brake shoe pad and other frame system. The mechanical and residual stress measurements of aluminium alloy 5083 were investigated on friction stir processed plates using the reinforcements of chromium oxide (Cr2O3) and titanium dioxide (TiO2) separately as well as combination of these powders. A comparative study was made to analyze the effects of reinforcements, tool type (cylindrical and threaded), parameters and the volume fraction of the reinforcements. The mechanical properties such as surface hardness and residual stress of the friction stir processed specimens were investigated. The experimental results shows that there was a significant increase in surface hardness (118 HRC) as well as a decrease in residual stress compare to the base metal. This study also reveals that the threaded tool with a reinforcement of Cr2O3 and TiO2 reflected better mechanical properties than the cylindrical tool. The SEM images show that the uniform distribution of reinforcement in the processed zone. The surface-hardened plates can be used in brake shoe pad…
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